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The Third Edition. 
Vol I 

L O BT 1> O X: 

Printed i'or B.&* J.AVHITE, Fleet Street, 



AUG 13 


THE following work was originally intended for private 
amufement, and as an Index, for the more ready turn- 
ing to any particular animal in the voluminous hiftory 
of quadrupeds by the late Comte De Bcffon : But as it fwelled by 
. degrees to a fize beyond my firft expectation, in the end I was de- 
termined to fling it into its prefent form, and to uflier it into the 

The prefent edition has prefumed to alter its title of Synopsis 
to that of History ; not only on account of the van: additions it 
has received, by favour of my friends, but likewife to prevent con- 
fufion among fuch who may think them worthy of the honor 
of quotation. 

The Synopfis of our illuftrious countryman, Mr. Ray, has 
been long out of print; and though, from his enlarged know- 
ledge and great induftry one might well fuppofe his Work would 
for fome time difcourage all further attempts of the fame fort, 
yet a republication of that Synopfis would not have anfwered 
our prefent defign : For, living at a period when the ftudy of 
Natural Hiftory was but beginning to dawn in thefe King- 
doms, and when our contradled Commerce deprived him of 
many lights we now enjoy, he was obliged to content himfelf 
with giving defcriptions of the few Animals brought over here, 

Vol. I. a and 



and collecting the reft of his materials from other Writers. Yet 
fo correct was his genius, that we view a fyftematic arrangement 
arife even from the Chaos of Aldrovandus and Gefner. Under 
his hand the indigefted matter of thefe able and copious Writers 
affumes a new form, and the whole is made clear and perfpi- 

From this period every Writer on thefe fubjects propofed his 
own method as an example ; fome openly, but others more co- 
vertly, aiming at the honor of originality, and attempting to 
feek for fame in the path chalked out by Mr. Ray; but too 
often without acknowleging the merit of the Guide. 

Mr. Klein, in 1751, made his appearance as a Syftematic 
Writer on Quadrupeds, and in his firft order follows the general 
arrangement of Mr. Ray ; but the change he has made of fepa- 
rating certain animals, which the laft had confolidated, are exe- 
cuted with great judgment. He feems lefs fortunate in his 
fecond order ; for, by a fervile regard to a method taken from 
the number of toes, he has jumbled together moft oppofite ani- 
mals; the CW/ and the Sloth, the Mole and the Bat, the Glutton 
and Apes ; happy only in throwing back the Walrus, the Seal, and 
the Manati, to the extremity of his fyftem : I fuppofe, as animals 
nearly bordering on another clafs. 

M. Brisson, in 1756, favored the world with another fyftem, 
arranging his animals by the number or defect of their teeth; 
beginning with thofe that were toothlefs, fuch as the Ant-eater, 
and ending with thofe that had the greateft number, fuch as the 
Opoffiw. By this method, laudable as it is in many refpecls, it 
mu ft happen unavoidably that fome qnadrupeds, very diftant 
from each other in their manners, are too clofely connected in 



hisSyftem; a defect which, however common, mould be care, 
fully avoided by every Naturalift. 

In point of time, Linnaeus ought to have the precedence; for 
he published his firft Syftem in 1735. This was followed by fe- 
veral others, varying conftantly in the arrangement of tlie ani- 
mal kingdom, even to the edition of 1766. It is, therefore, 
difficult to defend, and ftill more ungrateful to drop any reflec- 
tions on a Naturalift, to whom we are lb greatly indebted. The 
variations in his different Syftems may have arifen from the new 
and continual difcoveries that are made in the animal kingdom; 
from his fincere intention of giving his Syftems additional im- 
provements ; and perhaps from a failing, (unknown indeed to 
many of his accufers) a diffidence in the abilities he had exerted 
in his prior performances. But it muft be allowed, that the 
Naturalift ran too great a hazard in imitating his prefect guife ; 
for in another year he might put on a new form, and have left 
the complying Philofopher amazed at the metamorphofis. 

But this is not my only reafon for rejecting the fyftem of this 
otherwife able Naturalift : There are faults in his arrangement of 
Mammalia *, that oblige me to feparate myfelf, in this one in- 
ftance, from his crowd of votaries; but that my feceffion may 
not appear the effeft of whim or envy, it is to be hoped that the 
following objections will have their weight. 

I reject his firft divifion, which he calls Primates, or Chiefs of 
the Creation; becaufe my vanity will not fuffer me to rank man- 

* Or animals which have paps and fuckle their young; in which clafs are 
comprehended not only all the genuine quadrupeds, but even the Cetaceous 

a 2 kind 



kind with Apes, Monkies, Maucaucos, and Bats, the companions 
Linnaeus has allotted us even in his laft Syftem. 

The fecond order of Bruta I avoid for much the fame reafon: 
The moft intelligent of Quadrupeds, the half reafoning Elephant, 
is made to affociate with the moft difcordant and ftupid of the 
creation, with Sloths, Ant-eaters, and Armadillos, or with Mana- 
ges and Walrufes, inhabitants of another element. 

The third order of Fera is not more admiffible in all its ar- 
ticles; for it will be impoffible to allow the Mole, the Shrew, 
and the harmlefs Hedge-hog, to be the companions of Lions, 
Wolves, and Bears: We may err in our arrangement. 

Sed non ut placidis coeant immitia, non ut 
Serpentes avibus gemmentur, tigribus agni. 

In his arrangement of his fourth and fifth orders we quite 
agree, except in the fingle article Notlilio, a fpecies of Bat, which 
happening to have only two cutting teeth in each jaw, is fepa- 
rated from its companions, and placed with Squirrels, and others 
of that clafs. 

The fixth order is made up of animals of the hoofed tribe; 
but of genera fo different in their nature, that notwithftanding 
we admit them into the fame divifion, we place them at fuch 
diftances from each other, with fo many intervening links and 
foftening gradations, as will, it may be hoped, leffen the fhock of 
feeing the Horfe and the Hippopotame in the fame piece. To avoid 
this as much as poffible, we have flung the laft into the back 
ground, where it will appear more tolerable to the Critic, than 
if they were left in a manner conjoined, 

n Thj& 


The laft order is that of Whales : which, it muft be confefled, 
have, in many refpects, the ftru&ure of land animals; but their 
want of hair and feet, their filh-like form, and their conftant refi- 
dence in the water, are arguments for feparating them from this 
clafs, and forming them into another, independent of the reft. 

But while I thus freely offer my objections againft embracing 
this Syftem of Quadrupeds, let me not be fuppofed infenfible of 
the other merits of this great and extraordinary perfon : His ar- 
rangement of fifties, of infects, and of ftiells, are original and ex- 
cellent ; he hath, in all his claffes, given philolbphy a new lan- 
guage ; hath invented apt names, and taught the world a brevity, 
yet a fulnefs of delcription, unknown to pad ages: he hath with 
great induftry brought numbers of fynonyms of every animal into 
one point of view ; and hath given a concife account of the ufes 
and manners of each, as far as his obfervation extended, or the 
information of a numerous train of travelling difciples could con- 
tribute: His Country may triumph in producing fo vaft a 
Genius, whofe fpirit invigorates fcience in all that chilly region, 
and diffufes it from thence to climates more favorable, which 
gratefully acknowledge the advantage of its influences. 

Let us now turn our eyes to a Genius of another kind, to 
whom the Hiftory of Quadrupeds owes very confiderable lights : 
I mean the Comte de Buffon, who, in the moft beautiful language, 
and in the moft agreeable manner, hath given the ampleft defcrip- 
tions of the ceconomy of the whole four-footed creation * : Such 
is his eloquence, that we forget the exuberant manner in which 
he treats each fubjetft, and the reflections he often cafts on- other 

* For the anatomical part is the province of M. D'Aubenton. 

Writers y 



Writers; the creation of his own gay fancy. Having in his own 
mind a comprehenfive view of every animal, he unfortunately feems 
to think it beneath him to fhackle his lively fpirit with fyftematic 
arrangement; fo that the Reader is forced to wander through 
numbers of volumes in fearch of any wifhed-for fubject. The 
mifunderftanding between thefe two able Naturalifts is moil in- 
jurious to fcience. The French Philofojdier fcarcely mentions 
the Swede, but to treat him with contempt; Liu/iaus, in return, 
•never deigns even to quote M. de Buffon, notwithftanding he 
•muft know what ample lights he might have drawn from him. 

I shall in a few words mention the plan that is followed in the 
prefent dtftribution of quadrupeds, and at the fame time fhall 
■clame but a fmall lhare of originality. 

I copy Mr. Ray, in his greater divifions of animals into hoofed, 
and digitated; but, after the manner of Mr. Klein, form fepa- 
rate genera of the Rhinoceros, Hippopotame, Tapiir, and Mujk. The 
Camel being a ruminating animal, wanting the upper fore-teeth, 
and having the rudiments of hoofs, is placed in the firft order, 
after \X\eMuJk, a hornlefs cloven-hoofed quadruped. 

The Apes are continued in the fame rark Mr. Ray has placed 
them, and are followed by the Maucaucos. 

The carnivorous animals deviate but little from his fyftem, 
and are arranged according to that of Linnaeus, after omittino- 
the Seal, Mole, Shrew, and Hedge-hog. 

The herbivorous or frugivorous quadrupeds keep here the 
fame ftation that our countryman afligned them; but this clafs 
comprehends befides, the Shrew, the Mole, and the Hedge-ho*. 
The Mole is an exception to the character of this order, in refpect 
to the number of its cutting teeth ; but its way of life, and its 



food, place it here more naturally than with the Fera t as Lin- 
naeus has done. Thefe exceptions are to be met with even in 
the method * of that able Naturaliil ; nor can it be otherwife in 
all human fy (terns; we are fo ignorant of many of the links of 
the chains of beings, that to expect perfection in the arrange- 
ment of them, would be the moft weak prefumption. We ought,, 
therefore, to drop all thoughts of forming a fyftem of quadru- 
peds from the chara&er of a fingle part : but if we take com- 
bined characters, of parts, manners, and food, we bid much fairer 
for producing an intelligible fyftem, which ought to be the fum. 
of our aim. 

The fourth fecYion of digitated quadrupeds, confifts of thofe 
which are abfolutely deftitute of cutting teeth, fuch as the Sloth 
and Armadillo. 

The fifth fection is formed of thofe which are deftitute of 
teeth of every kind, fuch as the Manis and Ant-eater. 

The third and fourth orders, or divifions, are the Pinnated 
and the IVinged Quadrupeds; the firft takes in the Walrus and 
the Seals, and (in conformity to preceding Writers) the Manatu 
But thofe that compofe this order are very imperfect : Their 
limbs ferve rather the ufe of fins than legs; and their element 
being for the greateft part the water, they feem as the links be- 
tween the quadrupeds and the cetaceous animals. 

The Bats again are winged quadrupeds, and form the next 

* Such as the Tricbecus Rofmartis, which has four diftincl grinders in every 
jaw, the Phoca Vrfina and Leonina, the Mujlela Lutris, and the Sus Hydrocbccris ; 
and particularly in the genus of Veffertilio, which confdts of numbers of fpecies,. 
many of which vary greatly in the number of their fore teeth. 

8 gradation 


viii PREFACE. 

gradation from this to the clafs of Birds ; and thefe two orders 
are the only additions I can boafl: of adding in this Work. 

So far of Syftem ; the reft of my plan comprehends numerous 
Synonyms of each Animal, a brief description, and as full an ac- 
count of their place, manners 5 or ufes, as could be collected from 
my own obfervations, or the information of others; from pre- 
ceding Writers on the fubject ; from printed Voyages of the beft 
authorities, or from living Voyagers, foreign and Engli/h; from 
different Mufeums, efpecially the public Museum in our capital, 
from the Directors of which I have received every communica- 
tion that their politenefs and love of fcience could fuggeft. 

I am unwilling to weary my friends with a repetition of ac- 
knowlegements; but mull renew my thanks to Sir Joseph Banks, 
Bar r . for variety of information collected from his papers, and 
from his magnificent Collection of Drawings -, many of which 
are confiderable ornaments to this Work, and to the Genera of 

From the matchlefs collection of Animals, collected by the 
indefatigable induftry of that public-fpirited Gentleman, the late Sir 
Ashton Lever, I had every opportunity, not only of correcting 
the defcriptions of the laft edition, but of adding feveral Ani- 
mals hitherto imperfectly known. His Mufeum was a liberal fund 
of inexhauftible knowlege in moit branches of Natural Hiftory; 
•which ftill remains an honor to his fpirit, as well as a permanent 
credit and advantage to our country. It is now the property of 
Mr. Parkinson, into whom no fmall portion of the zeal of the 
late enthufiaftic and worthy owner for its improvement, feems to 
have tranfmigrated. 

I am highly indebted to Doctor Shaw, of the BritiJJ} Mufeum, 
a rifing Naturalift, for feveral valuable communications. 



To John Gideon Loten, Efq; late Governor in the Dutch 
fettlements in India, this book is under the greateft obligation 
for variety of remarks, relative to the Animals of the Iflands. To 
alleviate the cares of government, he amufed himfelf with cul- 
tivating our beloved ftudies, and brought home a moft nume- 
rous collection of Drawings, as elegant as fartl ful. Thefe have 
proved the balls of two works : Mr. Peter Brown etched chiefly 
the contents of his Illufl.ation of Zoology from them ; and the In- 
dian Zoology, lately republished with confiderable improvements. 

Mr. Zimmerman, Profeflbr of Mathematics at Brunfwick, has 
by his correfpondence, and his admirable book of Zoologic Geo- 
graphy, enabled me to fpeak with great precifion on the Animals 
of different climates, and to afcertain their different abodes and 
final limits. 

I reserve for the lad acknowlegement, that learned Traveller 
and Naturalift Doctor Pallas, who, under the patronage of a 
munificent Emprefs, hath pervaded almoft all parts of her exten- 
five dominion, and rendered familiar to us countries unvifited 
for centuries, and fcarcely known till elucidated by his labors. 
His liberal mind, far from thinking they mould be damnati 
tenebris, has not only given the moft ample account of the 
regions he has vifited, but by a rare facility of communication, 
continues to inform and inftruct by correfpondence, in every 
matter in which his friends are defirous of information. In this 
light is owing, more than I can exprefs, increafe and accuracy 
to my prefent labors, and a van; fund for future, 

This work had once a chance of having been executed by his 

moft maflerly hand. I had the good fortune to meet with him at 

the Hague in 1766, when our friendship commenced. I there pro- 

Vol. I. b pofed 



pofed to him the undertaking, and he accepted it with zeal. This 
preface will fhew his plan ; but he was called away to greater and 
more glorious labors: the world need not be told how fully they 
have been accompliihed. 

1 will now only add, that if this book has the fortune to be 
any ways ufeful to my countrymen, in promoting the knowledge 
of Natural Hiftory, my principal object will be anfwered : let it 
be treated with candor till fomething better appears; and when 
that time comes, the Writer will chearfully refign it to oblivion, 
the common fate of antiquated Syftems. 

Thomas Pennant, 

December, 1792. 



Div. I. Hoofed Quadrupeds. 
II. Digitated. 

III. Pinnated. 

IV. Winged. 

Div. I. Sett. I. 
i. Horfe. 

Sett. II. Cloven-hoofed. 
ii. Ox 
in. Sheep 
iv. Goat 
v. Giraffe 
vi. Antelope 
vii. Deer 
viii. Mufk 
ix. Camel 
x. Hog 
xi. Rhinoceros 
xii. Hippopotame 
xiii. T^piir 
xiv. Elephant. 

Div. II. Digitated. 

Sect. I. Anthropomorphous, 
xv. Ape 
xvi. Maucauco. 

Sect. II. With large canine teeth 
feparated from the cut- 
ting teeth. Six or more 
cutting teeth in each 
jaw. Rapacious, carni- 

xvn. Dog 

xvi 1 1. Hysena 

xix. Cat 

xx. Bear 

xxi. Badger 

xxn. Opoffum 

b 2 xxiii, Weefel 



xxiii. Weefel 
xxiv. Otter. 

Sett. III. Without canine teeth, 
and with two cutting 
teeth in each jaw. 
Generally herbivorous, 
or frugivorous. 

xxv. Cavy 

xxvi. Hare 

xxv ii. Beaver 

xxvin. Porcupine 

xxix. Marmot 

xxx. Squirrel 

xxxi. Dormoufe. 

xxxn. Jerboa 

xxxiii. Rat 

xxx iv. Shrew 

xxxv. Mole 

xxxvi. Hedge-hog. 

Sett. IV. Without cutting teeth. 
Frugivorous, herbivo- 

xxxvu. Sloth 
xxxvill. Armadillo. 

Sett. V. Without teeth. 
xxxix. Manis 
xl. Ant-eater. 

Div. III. Pinnated. 

Pifcivorous, or herbi- 
vorous *. 

xli. Walrus 
xl 1 1. Seal 
xliii. Manati. 

Div. IV. Winged. 


xli v. Bats. 

* Their Element chiefly the ^'ater. 




VOL. I. 



N° Specks. P 



N* Species. 


I. Horse. 

1 /"^ Enerous 

2 Vjf Dihikketei 


H. Broad-tailed 

4 1 



4 2 

3 Ah 


II. Wild 


4 Zebra 


1 Siberian 


5 QH a gg a 


2 Sardinian 


6 Huemel * 


14 Bearded 




15 Ibex 


II. Ox. 

7 Bull 


16 Caucafan 


A. Great Indian 


a.. Domeftic 


E. Small Indian 


£. Angora 


C. Abyilinian 


y. Syrian 


D. Boury 


J\ African 


E. Tinian 


t. Whidavv 


F. Lant 


£. Capricorn 


G. Holftein 


17 Fudu* 

6 4 

7 American 

2 3 



18 Camelopard 


8 Grunting 


9 Buffalo 



. 19 Gnou 


io Mufk 

3 1 

20 Chamois 


1 1 Cape 


21 Blue 


12 Dwarf 


22 .(Egyptian 

23 Leucoryx 



III. Sheep 

13 A. Common 


24 Algazel 


B. Cretan 


25 Indian 


C. Hornlefs 


26 Ourebi* 


D. Many-homed 


27 Klip-fpringer* 


E. Long-haired 


28 HarnefTed 


F. Guinea 


29 Guinea 


G. African 


30 Royal 


3 1 Indoftan 

* All thofe marked with an afteri/k are added to this edition. 




N° Species. P 

*g e - 

Genus. 4 

N° Species. 


31 Indcftan 


61 Taillefs 


32 White- footed 


63 Mexican 


33 Swift 


64 Grey 

I2 3 

34 B- ed 


35 Cinereous* 


VIII. Musk. 

65 Tibet 


36 Foreft* 


66 Brafilian 


37 Ritbok* 


67 Indian 


38 Striped 


68 Guinea 


39 Common 


a- Brown 

9 1 

IX. Camel. 

69 Arabian 


(5. Smooth-hornec 


(J. Baclrian 

'3 2 

40 Barbary 


70 Llama 


41 Flat-horned 


71 Vicunna* 


42 White-faced 


72 Pacos 


43 Springer 


73 Guanaco* 


44 Chinefe 


74 Chilihucque * 


45 Guildenftedt's * 


46 Scythian 


X. Hog. 

75 Common 


47 Corine 


a, Guinea 


48 Cervine 


p>. Siam 


49 Senegal 


y. Chinefe 


50 Gambian 


76 $. Ethiopian 

77 Cape-Verd 

78 Mexican 




VII. Pber; 

5! Elk 


79 Baby-rouffa 

52 Rein 


53 Fallow 

» J 3 

XI. Rhino- 

7 80 Two-horned 
i 81 One-horned 


54 s ^g 




55 Virginian 


56 Spotted Axis 


XII. Hippo- 

(82 Hippopotaine 


57 IVJiddle-fized Axis 



58 Great Axis 

59 Porcine 



XIII. Tapiir. 83 Long-nofed 


60 Rjb-faced 


XIV. Ele- J 


84 Great 


61 Roe 


85 American 







Genus. N° 
XV. Ape. 86 






* # * 


SECT. I. Anthropomorphos *. 





j 04 



«. Leffer 
(J. Malacca* 
Golok * 
Hog-faced * 






Broad -toothed 





Dog- faced 

/£. Urfine 


£. Little 




,8 S 





£. Bearded Men 199 








N° Species. Page. 

1 1 2 Yellowifh 203 

113 Green 203 

1 14 White-eyelid 204 

115 Muftache 205 

116 White-nofe 205 

117 Talapoin 206 

1 18 Negro 206 

1 19 Egret 207 

120 Monea 207 

121 Red 208 
1 22 Chinefe 209 

123 Eonnetted 210 

124 Varied 210 

125 Cochin China 211 

1 26 Tawny 211 

127 Goat 212 
L28 Full-bottom 212 

129 Bay 213 

130 Annulated 2 13 

131 Philippine 213 


132 Preacher 214 
a. Royal 215 

133 Four-fingered 216 

134 Fearful 217 

135 Capucin 218 

136 Weeper 219 

137 Orange 220 

138 Horned 221 

139 Antigua 




N° Species. 


Genus. N° Species. 


139 Antigua 


14S Loris 


140 Fox-tailtd 


149 Woolly 


141 Great-eared 


1 50 Ringtail 


142 Striated 


1 5 1 RuJed 


143 Silky 


152 Tarfier 


144 Red-tailed 


1 53 Bicolor * 


145 Fair 


154 Murine * 

155 Little 

2 33 

XVI. Mau- I 


146 Tail-lefs 


156 Flying 


j 47 Indri* 


D I V. II. SECT. II. Simply Digitated. 

XVII. Doc. 

N° Species. Page. 
157 TT^AithfuI 235 

158 J: 

New Holland 

159 Wolf 

160 Mexican 

161 a, Fox 
£. Crofs Fox 
y. Black Fox 
$. Brant Fox 
t. Karagan Fox 252 
£. Corfak Fox 253 

162 Arflic 

163 Sooty* 

164 Greenland* 

165 Antarctic 

166 Culpeu* 

167 Schreberian 

168 Grey 

169 Silvery 

170 Bengal* 

171 Barbary 

172 Schakal 




2 52 


2 S7 

2 59 


Genus. N 3 Species. Page. 

173 Capefch 265 

174 Ceylonefe* 266 
17 J Surinam 267 
176 Zerda 267 

XVIII. Hi- ;ena. 177 Striped 
I7«8 Spotted 

XIX. Cat; 


179 Lion 

180 Tiger 

181 Panther 

182 Leopard 

183 Leffer Leopard 284 





184 Hunting 
183 Once 
186 Brafilian 
1S7 Mexican 

188 Cinereous * 

189 Puma 

190 Jaguar 

191 Cape 



192 Cayenne 


oi. I. 

Genus. N° Species. Page 

192 Cayenne 29; 

193 Bengal 29; 

194 Manul 294 

195 Common 295 
a- Angora 296 
p>. Tortoife-lhell 296 
y. Blue 29 6 
I. Long-headed 296 

196 Japan* 297 

197 Blotched* 2 $8 

198 Guigna* 299 



N° Species. 

199 Colorolo * 

200 New Spain 

201 Mountain 

202 Serval 

203 Lynx 

204 Bay 

205 Cafpian 
*o6 Perfian 

£. Lybian 





Vol. J. 




Vol. II. 

vol. n. 

D I V. II. Sect. II. Simply Digitated. 


Genus. N e Species. 


XX. Beak. 208 THROWN 

» 1 

209 _I3 Black 


210 Polar 


2 1 1 Wolverene 


212 Glutton 


213 Raccoon 


214 New Holland 

* '3 

KXL Badger. 215 Common 


($. American 


216 Indian 


XXII.O possum. 217 Virginian 


218 Molucca 


a. Greater* 


219 Javan 


220 Murine 


221 Mexican 


222 Cayenne 

2 4 

223 New Holland 


224 Vulpine* 


225 Short-tailed 


226 Phalanger 


227 Merian 


228 Flying* 


229 Kangaru 


230 Leffer* 


231 Spotted* 


XXIII.Weeseu 232 Common 


233 Touan* 



N° Species. 


234 Stoat, or Ermin 

: 35 

235 Quiqui* 


236 Cuja* 


237 S. Am. Fitchet 


238 Fitchet 


239 Sarmatian 


240 Siberian 


241 Ferret 


242 Martin 


243 Grey-headed* 


244 Pine 

4 2 

245 Sable 


246 Fifher 


247 Madagafcar 


248 Pekan 

5 1 

249 Vifon 

5 1 

250 White-cheeked 


251 Grifon 


252 Guinea 


253 Guiana 


254 Woolly 


255 Ichneumon 


256 Cafre * 


257 Four-toed 


258 Yellow 


259 Mexican 


260 Bra filial' 


261 Stifling 


262 Striated 

6 4 

2,63 Skunk 


264 Cinghe* 


265 Zorrina 



Genus. N° Species. 






265 Zorrina 



Malacca Civ 

st* 73 

266 Ratel 





267 Mariputo* 



Pilofello * 


268 Ceylon* 





269 Hermaphrodite * 69 

270 Quoll 


XXIV. Otter. 




27 1 Tapoa Tafa * 





272 Spotted 





273 Mufky * 



Chinchimen* 82 

274 Civet 





275 £. Zibet 





276 Mufk* 

7 Z 





III. Without < 

Canine Teeth. 

XXV. Cavy. 288 V^Apibara 
289 V^ R-ftlefs 





s 9 

308 Alpine 


290 Rock 





291 Patagonian 





292 Spotted 

9 1 

293 Briftly * 


XXVII. Beaver 

. 3'i 



294 Long-nofe 





295 Olive 



Guillino * 


296 Javan 


297 Cape 







298 iMufk 









XXVI. Hare. 299 Common 





300 Varying 





301 American 





302 Rabbet 


(a. Angora 


XXIX. Mar 





y. Hooded 






303 Baikal 




1 ;o 

504 Cape 


3 2 3 



305 Vifcaccia* 





306 Cuy* 


C 2 

3 2 S 

Mauline * 




Genus. N" 



3 ,6 









XXX.S<it;iR0 3 J 9 

it EL. 1 



<*. White leggec 









Malabar * 



Gingi * 



Aye Aye * 





33 6 






338 Grey 






Madagafcar * 


34 1 

Hudfon's Bay 














34 6 




White Striped 







J 5! 







35 " 



35 2 

Norfolk Ifle * 




l is 


European Fl.Sq* 


XXXI. Dor- 1^ 

mouse. 5 3 -6 


1 57 







Degus * 





Genus. N° Species. 


360 Earlefs 


361 Gilt-tail * 


362 GuerJinguets, 



. 103 

XXXII. Jer-7 3 6 4 Egyptian 


boa. j 3 6 5 Siberian, a. Great 166 

/S. Middle 


y. Pygmy 


366 Arrow * 


367 Cape 


368 Torrid 


XXXIII. Rat. 369 Canada* 


370 Labrador 


371 Circaffian 


372 Tamariik 


* * 

373 Black 




37; Brown 


376 Perchal* 


377 Bandicote* 


378 American 


jh. Curaco 


379 Scherman* 


380 Water 


381 Sky-colored * 


382 Moufe 


383 Field 


3S4 Harveft 


385 Oriental 


386 Barbary 


387 Mexican 


388 Virginian 


389 Wandering 


390 Birch 





Y S T E M A T I 

C I N 

D E X. Vol. 


N° Species. 



N° Species. 


391 Ruftic 


420 African 


392 Soricine 


421 Cape 


393 Lineated * 


422 Talpine 


394 Little * 


* * * 

XXXIV. Shrew. 423 Mufky 


39; Rock 


424 Perfuming 


396 Indian* 


425 Mexican 


397 Zenik * 

l 9i 

426 Brafilian 


3 ,8 (Economic 


427 Murine 


399 Woolley * 


428 Foetid 


4C0 Red 


429 Water 


401 Garlic 


430 Elephant * 


4:2 Soricine 


43 1 Marine * 


* * * ■* 

432 Surinam* 


403 Lemmus 


433 Perfian* 

2 -7 

404 Ringed 

20 1 

434 Minute 


405 Hudfon's 


43 s p ygmy 


406 Hare-tailed 


436 White-toothed 228 

407 Social 


437 Square-tailed 


408 Baikal* 


438 Carinated 


409 Meadow 


439 Unicolor 


410 Gregarious 


* * * * * 



440 European 


411 Hamfter 


(3. Yellow 


412 Vormela 


441 Sibirian * 


413 Yaik 


442 Radiated 


414 Zarizyn 

21 1 

443 Long tailed 

2 3 2 

415 Sand 

21 1 

444 Brown 


416 Songa 


445 Red 

2 33 

417 Baraba 


* * * 



446 Common 


* * * 



447 Sibirian 


418 Blind 


448 Afiatic 


419 Dauurian 


449 Guiana 

2 37 





DIV. II. SECT. IV. Without Fore Teeth. 


N° Species. Page. 

145° T'Hree-toed 240 
451 ■*• Two-toed 242 
452 Urfiform* 243 


J 45 

453 Three-banded 246 
4 Six-banded 247 

N° Species. Page. 

4,5 Eight-banded 248 

456 Nine-banded 248 

457 Twelve banded 249 

458 Eighteen-banded 250 

DIV. II. SECT. V. Without Teeth. 


1 459 T Ong-tailed* 252 
J 460 i- 'Short-tailed 253 

464 Striped 


Man is. 

465 Left 


461 Broad-tailed* 254 

466 Cape * 


L, Ant- 

l 46s Great 2 ;6 
J 463 Middle 258 

467 Aculeated 




XLI. Walrus 

. 468 A Relic 

469 » ^Indian 


482 Hooded 



483 Harp 


484 Little 


XLII. Seal. 

470 Common 


485 Urfine 


471 Pied * 


486 Eottle-nofe 


472 Mediterranean 

2 73 

487 Leonine 


473 Long-necked 

2 74 

488 Urigne* 


474 Falkland 

2 75 

475 Tortoife-headed 



«ati.489 Whale tailed 


476 Rubbon 


490 Round- tailed 


477 Leporine 


491 Guiana' 


478 Great 

2 77 

492 Manati Clufii * 


479 Rough 


493 Oronoko * 


480 Porcine* 


494 Sea-ape 


481 Eared* 




Vol. II. 



Genus. N° Species. 


Genus. N° Species. Page. 

V. Bat. 49J ffErnate 

•^ Rouflette 


507 Striped 314 


508 Molucca 315 



509 Slender- tailed * 315 

496 Spectre 


510 R ough- tailed * 31 j 

497 Javelin 


511 Lafcopteras 316 

498 Leaf 


512 Horfe-thoe 316 

499 Cordated 


513 Noftule 317 

500 Peruvian 


514 Serotine 317 

501 Bull-dog 


515 Greater Serotine* 3 18 

502 Senegal 

3 12 

516 Pipiftrelle 318 

503 Pouch 

3' 2 

517 Barbeftelle 319 

504 Slouch-eared * 


518 Common 319 

505 Bearded 


519 Long-eared 320 

506 New York 

3 J 3 


Probofcis Monkey — 
Profile of the fame 
Heart-marked Maucauco 



A LIST of Mr. Pennant's WORKS, 


£. S. d. 

TOUR in Scotland and Voyage to the He- 
brides, 3 vol. 4 to , with 132 beautiful copper- 
plates, boards — — — 3 13 6 

Journey from Chester to London, 4 to , with 23 

elegant copper-plates, boards — — 150 

Tour in Wales, 2 vol. 4 to , with 57 copper-plates, 
(?W Moses Griffith's Ten Supplemental Plates 
to the Tour in Wales, 4% boards — 296- 

British Zoology, 4 vol. 8 V0 , an elegant edition, zvith 
284 plates of Quadrupeds, Birds, Fifties, and Shells, 
boards — — — — 280 

Genera of Birds, 4 t0 , with 16 plates, -and Indexes 
to the Ornithologie of the Comte de Buffon, and 
Planches Enluminees, fyftematically difpofed, boards o ij o 

Index to the Ornithologie of the Comte de Buffon, 
and the Planches Enluminees, fyftematically dif- 
pofed, fezved — — — 076 



In the Title Page of Vol. I. the head of the Barbary Antelope, 
No. 40. The Motto is Welch, and fignifies, Without God 
is nothing: with God enough. 

Number. to face page 

I. "pvSHIKKETAEI, or Wild Mule. No. 2. * — 4 
II. U Indian Ox. A. — — 20 

I fufpeft this to be a native of Madagafcar, remarkable 
for its vafl Oxen. 

III. Leffer Indian Ox. B. — — 21 

IV. American Bifon. No. 7. — — * 23 
V. Grunting Ox. No. 8. — — 24 

VI. Naked Buffalo. A. — — 30 

VII. Four-horned Ram. E. Horns of the Iceland 

Sheep. D. Horns of the Cretan Sheep. B. 40 

VIII. Cape Sheep — — — 42 

IX. Bearded Sheep. No. 14. — — 52 

X. Syrian Goats — — — 63 

XF. Giraffa or Camelopard. No. iS. — 65 

XII. Leucoryx Antelope. No. 23. — 76 

This and the Cervine Antelope are copied from beautiful 

old drawings, probably done in Congo or Jngola by fome of the 

early miffionaries. One of the drawings is of the head, of full 

fize! The fpace between the horns at the bafe is one inch: 

at the tips' feven. The length near two feet. 

XIII. White-footed Antelope. No. 32. — $3 

* Thefe numbers refer to the Syflematic Index. 

Vol. 1. d XIV. Striped 



to face p.ige 

Striped Antelope. No. 38. — — 88 

Thefe animals feerq to vary in the difpofttion of the ftripe;. 

Common Antelope and the Lyre Ckelys. No. 39. 89 

Cervine Antelope. No. 48. — 102 

, Head of Cervine and Gamb'uni antelopes — 104 

Elk, or Ivloofe Deer. No. 51. — 105 

Rein Deer. No. 52. — — ■ 1 1 1 

Porcine Deer. No, 59. — — 119 


t 3 6 





l6 5 











XX. Foffil Horns. P. 109. Horns of the Virginian 

Deer. P. 116. Horns of the Mexican 
Deer. — — 

XXI. Tibet Mufk. No. 65. — — 
XXII. Indian Mtrfk. No. 67. — 

XXI II. Arabian Camel No. 69. — — 

XXIV. Ba&rian Camel. — — 
XXV. Llama. No. 70. — — 

XXVI. The Vicunna. No. yu — — 

XXVII. Variety of common Hog. No. 75. 

XXVIII. Baby-romTa. No. 79/ — — 

XXIX. Two-horned Rhinoceros. No. 80. — 

XXXI. Male Hippopotame. No. 82. — 

XXXII. Female Hippopotame. — — 

XXXIII. Tapiir. No. 83. — — 

XXXIV. Male Elephant." No. 84. — 
XXXV. Female Elephant — — 

XXXVI. Orang Outang, or Great Ape. No. 86. 

XXXVIII. Long-armed Ape. No. 88. — 

XXXIX. 1. Hog-faced Baboon. No. 92. 2. Brown 
Baboon. No. 99. — 


XL. Great 



















LVI I. A* Mexican Tiger. 


— 194 



Great Baboon. No. 93. — 

Great Baboon. No. 93. — 

Wood Baboon. No. 95. — 

1. Dog-faced Baboon. No. 103. 2. Purple 

faced Monkey. No. 107. 
I. Lion-tailed Baboon. No. 106. 2. Tawny 

Monkey. No. 126. — 

1. Long-nofed Monkey. No. ill. 2. Prude 

Monkey. No. in. — 

Full- bottom Monkey. No. 128 — 

Silky Monkey. No. 143. — 

Tail-lefs Maucauco. No. 146. — . 

Tail-lefs Maucauco. No. 146. — 

From Mr. Vofmaer, done in a groveling attitude. 

Flying Maucauco. No. 156. 
Arctic Fox. No. 162. 
Ceylonefe Dog. No. 174. 
Zerda. No. 176. — 

Spotted Hysena. No. 178. 
Black Leopard. — 

Hunting Leopard. No. 184. 
Brafilian Tiger. No. i£6. 

No. 187. 
LVIII. Jaguar, or Black Tiger. No. 190. 
LIX. Japan Cat. No. J96. — 

LX. Bay Lynx. No. 204. 
LX. A* Perfian Lynx. No. 207. 

to face page 


2 55 











d 2 





Frontispiece, Sea Otter. No. 286. 

to face page 



LXI. Polar Bear. No. 210. — 

LXII. Wolverene. No. 211. — 8 

LXII1. Virginian Opoflum. No. 217. — 18 

LXIV. Kanguru. No. 229. — 29 

LXV. Yellow Weefel. No. 258. — 59 

LXVI. Brafilian Weefel. No. 260. — 61 

LXV I. A* Foffane. No. aSo. -^. 75 

LXV II. Leffer Otter. No. 283. — 80 

LXVIII. Patagonian Cavy. No. 291. — 91 

LXVIII. A* Briltly Cavy. No. 293. — 92 

LX1X. 1. Varying Hare. No. 300. 2. Hooded 

Rabbet. P. 104. — 100 

LXX. 1. Calling Hare. No. 310. 1. Alpine Hare. 

No. 308. 3. Ogotona Hare. No. 309. 1 12 

LXXI. Caftor Beaver. No. 311. — 114 

LXXII. Long-tailed Porcupine. No. 316. 123 

LXXIII. Brafilian Porcupine. No. 317. — 124 

LXXIV. 1. Quebec Marmot. No. 321. 2.and3.Ear- 

lefs Marmot. No. 326. — 335 

LXXV. Aye Aye. No. 334. — 142 

This figure was cut in wood by the very ingenious Mr. Thomas 
Jieivick, of Newcajile upon Tyne. His hiftory of quadrupeds, 
illuftrated with fimilar prints, has fuch merit as to clame the 
attention of every naturalifr. 

LXXVI. I. Hudfon's Bay Squirrel. No. 341. 2. Black. 

No. 339. 3. Grey. No. 338. — 144 

LXXVII1. Sailing 










Sailing Squirrel, climbing. No. 349. 
Gilc-tail Dormoufe. No. 361. 
Sibirian Jerboa. No. 365. — 

to lace page 



.Middle Jerboa. P. 166. (3. 2. Tamarifk 
Rat. No. 372. — — 

Lineated Rat. No. 393. 2. CEconomic 

Rat. No 
1. Lemmus. 

1. Ham lie r. 

the fame. 
1. Zarizyn. No. 414. 

398. 3. Talpine. No. 422. 
No. 403. 2. A variety of the 



No. 411. 2. Black variety of 

— — 206 

2. Songar. No. 416. 212 

1. Blind Mole Rat. No. 418. 2. Dauurian 
Mole Rat. No. 419. 3. African Mole 

Rat. No. 421. — — 218 

LXXXVII. Perfuming Shrew. No. 424. — 222 

LXXXVI1I. Elephant Shrew. No. 430. — 226 

LXXXIX. Cape Mole. No. 441. — 231 
XC. 1. Radiated Mole. No. 442. 1. Long-tailed 

Mole. No. 443. — 232 
XC. A*. Common Hedge Hog. No. 446. 

Afiatic Hedge Hog. No. 45.8. — 236 

XCI. Three-toed Sloth. No. 450. — 240 

XCII. Uifiform Sloth. No. 452. — 243 

XCIII. Twelve-banded Armadillo. No. 457. 249 

XCIV. Long-tailed Manis. No. 459. 252 

XCV. Left Ant-eater. No. 465. — 260 

XCVI. Aculeated Ant-eater. No. 467. 262 




Title Page to Div. III. Pinnated Quadrupeds. 

Number. to face page 

The fkin of the Rubbon Seal. 

XCVII. Ardlic Walrus. No. 468. 

XCVIII. Pied Seal. No. 471. 

XCIX. Harp Seal. No. 483. 

C. UrfineSeal. No. 485 

CI. Leonine Seal. No. 487. 

C1I. Round-tailed Manati. Nc 

CIII. Ternate Bat. No. 495 

CIV. Lefler Ternate Bat. P. 308. 2. New York 

Bat. No. 506 — — 314 

No. 476. — 












490 — 





CV. Probofcis Monkey. 

CVI. Profile of the fame. — 

CVII. Heart-marked Maucauco. 

CVIII. Slender-toed Weefel. 

CIX. Ermined Weefel. — 




3 2 4 



O F 


Div. I. HOOFED. 

Sect. I. Whole Hoofed. 
II. Cloven Hoofed. 

Hoof confiding of one piece. Sect. r. 

Six cutting teeth in each jaw. I. KOK.SE. 

Equus Gcfncr quad. 404. Raii fyn. quad. Le Cheval. de Buffon. iv. 174. tab. I. I. Generous, 

62. Pfcrdt. Klein quad. 4. Br.Zcol.l. I. 

Equus cauda undique fetcfa. E. ca- Wildhorfe. Leo Afr. 339, Hailityt't coll. 
ballus. Lin. fyjl. 100. Haft. Faun. vty. I. 329. Bell's tra-j. 1. 225. 

fuec. No. 47. Zimmerman. 138. 140. 

Equus auriculis brevibus eredtis, juba Smellie's de Bujfan. III. 306. tab. xi *. 
longa, Brijfan, quad. 6g. 

Hwith a long flowing mane; tail covered on all parts with 
• long hairs. 
Cultivated in moft parts of the world. The mod generous 
and ufeful of quadrupeds; docile, fpirited, yet obedient: adapted 
to all purpofes, the draught, the road, the chace, the race. Its 
voice neighing; its arms, hoofs and teeth; its tail of the ut- 

* An excellent tranflation of that celebrated author, publifhed in 1785 in nine 
volumes oftavo, London. 

Vol. I. B moll 


tnoft ufe in driving off infedls in hot weather. Subject to many 
difeafes; many from our abufe; more from our too great care of 
it. Its exuvia ufeful: the fkin for collars and harnefs: the hair 
of the mane for wigs; of the tail for the bottoms of chairs, 
floor- cloths, ropes, and fifliing-lines. Tartars feed on its flefh, 
and drink the milk of mares ; and both Kalmucks and Mongah 
diftil from it a potent fpirit. 
^ild in Asia. The horfe is found wild about the lake Aral; near Kuzneck, in 
lat. 54; on the river Tom, in the fouth part of Sibiria*, and in 
the great Mongolian deferts, and among the Kalkas, N. W. of 
China. The Mongolians call them Takija. They are lefs than the 
domeftic kind, and of a moufe-colour, with very thick hair, efpe- 
cially in winter. They have greater heads than the tame; their 
foreheads are remarkably arched. They go in great herds, and 
will often furround the horfes of the Mongols and Kalkas while 
they are grazing, and carry them away-f-. They are exceffively 
vigilant', a centinel placed on an eminence, gives notice to the 
herd of any approaching danger, by neighing aloud, when they 
all run off with amazing fwiftnefs. They are often furprized by 
the Kalmucks, who ride in amongft them mounted on very fwift 
horfes, and kill them with broad lances. They eat the flefh, 
and ufe the fkins to lie on J. The wild horfes are alfo taken by 
means of hawks, which fix on the head, and diftrefs them fo as 
to give the purfuers time to overtake them. In the interior parts 
of Ceylon is a fmall variety of the horfe, not exceeding thirty 
inches in height; which is fometimes brought to Europe as a 

* Belli. 225. f Du Haldi, ii. 254. J Belli. 225. 



The horfe is faid to be found in a ftate of nature in the deferts In Africa. 
of Africa, to be caught there by the Arabs, and eaten*. 

The travellers under the condud of Mynheer Henry Hop, faw 
abundance far north of the cape; they alfo met with wild afles f : 
but have not favored us with any remarks, or defcriptions of 

Diftinftion mod be made between the wild horfes of AJla Also wild, the 
above mentioned, and thofe in the deferts on each fide of the offs p r i* g ° f 


Don, particularly towards the Pains Maotis and the town of Back- 
mut. Thefe were the offspring of the Ruffian horfes employed in 
the fiege of Afoph in 1697, when, for want of forage, they were 
turned loofe, and which have relapfed into a ftate of nature, and 
grew as wild, fhy, and timid as the original favage breed. The 
Coffacks chafe them, but always in the winter, by driving them 
into the vallies filled with fnow, into which they plunge and are 
caught; their exceflive fwiftnefs excludes any other method of 
capture. They hunt them chiefly for the fake of thefkins: if 
they catch a young one, they couple it for fome months with a 
tame horfe, and fo gradually domefticate it. Thefe are much 
efteemed, for they will draw twice as much as the former. 

The horfes of the wandering Tartars, carried away by the 
herds of the wild kind, mix and breed together. Their offspring 
are very diftinguifhable by their colors, which are compofed of 
variety of fhades of chefnut. 

No horfes are to be met with in any place within the Arftic 
circle, except there fhould be a few in the extreme part of Nor- 

leo Jfr. Engl. ed. 340. + Journal Hiftorique, 40. 

B 2 way. 


way. They are found in Iceland; originally tranfported from 
Norway, and perhaps from Scotland, there having been an early 
intercourfe between it and Iceland. In that ifland the horfes for 
labor endure all the feverity of the year abroad. I imagine they 
live, like the rein-deer, on mofs, as they are laid to fcrape away the 
fnow with their feet to* get at the ground, and obtain fubfift- 
ence. During winter, their hair grows long and thick, which 
preferves them againft the cold. Towards fummer they Ihed 
their coat, and the new one is fmooth and fleek. 

Kamtfchatka is entirely deftitute of horfes, and of every do- 
meltic animal except dogs : which, with the rein-deer, are the 
fubftitutes of horfes ufed by the natives. America, before the ttr* 
rival of the Europeans, was in like circumflances, or rather worfe; 
for inftead of the dog it had only a wolfifh cur; nor do either 
the Greenlanders or EJldmaux make any other ufe of the rein-deir, 
than to fupply themfelves with its flefh for food, and its fkin 
for raiment. But I referve a more particular account of the 
adventitious animals of the new world for its intended Zoology. 

2. Dshikketaei, Equus hemionus, Mongolis Dshikke- las. Nov. com. Petrop. xix. 394. tab. 
taei diiftus, defcribente P. S. Pal- vii. Zimmerman 666. 


of the fize and appearance of the common mule, with 
a large head, flat forehead, growing narrow toward 
or wild mule, the nofe, eyes of a middle fize, the irides of an obfcure alh-color. 
Thirty-eight teeth in all ; being two in number fewer than in a 

* Horrebow, 44. They alfo refort to the fiiores, and feed on the marine 
plants. Van Trail, hift. Icel. Eng. ed. 134. 



^/'./////vW or H M. /U. _ . m. 

M U L E. 5 

eommon horfe. Ears much longer than thofe of a horfe, quite 
erecl, lined with a thick, whitifli curling coat. Neck flender, 
compreiTed : mane upright, fhort, foft, of a greyifh color: in 
place of the foretop, a fhort tuft of downy hair, about an inch 
and three quarters long. 

Body rather long, and the back very little elevated. Breaft 
protuberant and (harp. /^^ 

Limbs long and elegant: the thighs thin, as in a mule's. 
Within the fore legs, an oval callus, in the hind legs none. 
Hoofs oblong, fmooth, black. Tail like that of a cow, flender,. 
and for half of its length naked. The reft covered with long 
afh-color'd hairs. 

Its winter coat grey at the tips, of a brownifh afh-color be- Winter color. 
neath; about two inches long, in foftnefs like the hair of a camel; 
and undulated on the back. Its fummer coat is much fhorter, of Summer color* 
a moft elegant fmoothnefs, and in all parts marked mod beauti- 
fully with fmall vortexes. The end of the nofe white; from 
thence to the foretop inclining to -tawny. Buttocks white, as 
are the infide of the limbs and belly. From the mane a blackifh 
teftaceous line extends along the top of the back to the tail, 
broadeft on the loins, and growing narrower towards the tail. 
The color of the upper part of the body a light yellowilh grey, 
growing paler towards the lides. 

Length from the tip of the nofe to the bafe of the tail, fix s, ZE 

feet feven inches. Length of the trunk of the tail one foot four; 
of the hairs beyond the end eight inches. The height three feet 

Inhabits the deferts between the rivers Onon and Argun in the Place. 

moft fouthern parts of Sibiria, and extends over the vaft plains 


5 MULE. 

and defects of weftern Tartary, and the celebrated fandy defert aC 
Gobi, which reaches even to India. In Sibiria thefe animals are 
fcen but in fmall numbers, as if detached from the numerous 
herds to the fouth of the Ruffian dominions. In Tartary they are 
particularly converfant about Taricnoor, a fait lake, at times dried 
up. They fliun wooded tracts and lofty fnowy mountains. 
Manners. They live in feparate herds, each confuting of achief, a number 

of mares, and colts, in all to the number of about twenty-, but 
feldom fo many, for commonly each male has but five, and fome- 
times fewer females. They copulate towards the middle or end 
of Augujl, and bring for the mod part but one at a time, which 
by the third year attains its full growth, form, and color. 
The young horfes are then driven away from their paternal 
herds, and keep at a diftance, till they can find mates of their 
own age, which have quitted their dams. Thefe animals always 
carry their heads horizontally; but when they take to flight, hold 
them upright, and erect their tail. Their neighing is deeper and 
louder than that of a horfe. 

They fight by biting and kicking, as ufual with the horfe: 
Untameable. they are fierce and untameable; and even thofe which have been 
taken young, are fo intractable as not to be broken by any art 
which the wandering Tartars could ufe. Yet was it poffible to 
bring them into fit places, and to provide all the conveniencies 
known in Europe, the tafk might be effected : but I fufpect 
vvhether the fubdued animal would retain the fvviftnefs it is fo 
celebrated for in its ftate of nature. It exceeds that of the An- 
telope; it is even proverbial: and the inhabitants of Thibet, 
Great swift- from the fame of its rapid fpeed, mount on it Chammo, their 
God of Fire. The Mongolians defpair of ever taking it by the 




chace, but lurk behind fome tomb, or in fome ditch, and fhoot 
them when they come to drink, or eat the fait of the defert. 

They are exceffively fearful, and provident againft danger. A Shyness. 
male takes on him the care of the herd, and always is on the 
watch. If they fee a hunter, who, by creeping along the ground, 
has got near them; the centinel takes a great circuit, and goes 
round and round him, as difcovering fomewhat to be appre- 
hended. As foon as the animal is fatisfied, it rejoins the herd, 
which fets off with great precipitation. Sometimes its curiofity 
cofts it its life; for it approaches fo near as to give the hunter an 
opportunity of mooting it. But it is obferved, that in rainy or 
in ftormy weather, thefe animals feem very dull, and lefs fenfible 
of the approach of mankind. 

The Mongolians and Tunguji kill them for the fake of the Uses. 

flefh, which they prefer to that of horfes, and even to that of 
the wild boar, efteeming it equally nourishing and wholefome *. 
The fkin is alfo ufed for the making of boots. 

Their fenfes of hearing and fmelling are moft exquifite : fo 
that they are approached with the utmoft difficulty. 

The Mongolians call them D[l:ikketaei, which Signifies the eared; Names, 
the Chinefe, To to tfe, or mulef. 

In antient times the fpecies extended far to the fouth. It was 
the Hemionos, or halfafs, of Aristotle +, found in his days in 
Syria, and which he celebrates for its amazing fwiftnefs and its 
fcecundity, a breeding mule being thought a prodigy ||; and 
Pliny, from the report of Theophrafius, fpeaks of this fpecies be- 
ing found in Cappadocia, but adds they were a particular kind §. 

* Du Halde, ii. 253. t The fame. J Uijl, An. lib. vi. c. 36 

j| Plinii Hift. lib. viii, c. 44. § The fame. 


8 M U L E. A S S. 

Common Mulbs. The domeftic mules of prefent tunes are the offspring of the 
horfe and afs, or afs and horfe : are very hardy ; have more the 
form and difpofuion of the afs than horfe. The fineft are bred 
in Spain; very large -ones in Savoy. The fynonyms of this bead 
are the following: 

Muih. Mulus. Gefner quad. 702. fyn. BriJJon quad. 71. 

quad. 64. Equus mulus. Lin.JyJl. Faun.fnee.lfo, 
Maul efel. Ke'mquad.b. 35. Br. Zool. I. 13. 

Le Mulet. De £i/Jfbii,iv. 401. xiv. 336. 

Ass. Afinus. Gefner quad. 5. Paiifyn. quad. 63. Equus afinus. Eq. Cauda cxtremitate fe- 

Efel. Klein quad. 6. tofa, cruce nigra fupra. Lin.fyft. 100. 

L'ane. De Buffon. iv. 377. Afna. Faun.juec. No. 35. ed. 1746. 

Equus auriculis longis flaccidis, juba Afs. Br. Zool. I. ii. 

brevi. Bnjfon quad. 70. Smeliie's de Buffon. HI. 398. tab. xii. 

Tame. w ; t h i on g touching ears, Ihort mane, tail covered with 

Xii* long hairs at the end. Body ufually of an afh color, 
with a black bar crofs the fhoulders. 

Patient, laborious, ftupid, obftinate, flow. Loves mild or hot 
climates: fcarcely known in the cold ones. Ears flouch moft 
towards their northernly habitations. Remarkable for their fizc 
and beauty in Africa and the Eaft. 

V/ild Ass, or. Onager. Varro de re ruft. lib. ii. c. 6. Pallas in aft. acad. Pstrop. ii. 258. 
Koulan. p. 81. Plinii Hift. Nat. lib. viii. c. 44. Zimmerman. 666. 

Oppian Cyneg. ii. Lin. 184. 

The Koulan, or afs in a wild ftate, mull: be defcribed compara- 
tively with the foregoing fpecies in fome refpe&s. 


ASS. 9 

The forehead is very much arched : the ears erecl:, even when 
the animal is out of order ; (harp-pointed, and lined with vvhitifh 
curling hairs: the irides of a livid brown: the lips thick; and 
the end of the nofe doping deeply down to the upper lip: the 
noftrils large and oval. 

The Koulan is much higher on its limbs than the tame afs, and 
its legs are much finer; but it again rcfembles it in the narrow- 
nefs of its cheft and body; it carries its head much higher: its 
fcull is of a furprizing thinnefs. 

The mane is dnfky, about three or four inches long, compofed 
of foft woolly hair, and extends quite to the moulders; the hairs 
at the end of the tail are coarfe, and about a fpan long. 

The color of the hair in general is a filvery white; the upper Color. 
part of the face, the fides of the neck, and body, are of a flaxen- 
color : the hind part of the thighs are the fame ;. the fore part 
divided from the flank by a white line, which extends round the 
rump to the tail : the belly and legs are alfo white : along the very 
top of the back, from the mane quite to the tail, runs a ftripe 
of bufhy waved hairs of a coffee-color, broadeft above the hind 
part, growing narrower again towards the tail ; another of the 
fame color crofles it at the flioulders (of the males only) forming 
a mark, fuch as diftinguifhes the tame afles : the dorfal band, and 
the mane, are bounded on each fide by a beautiful line of white, 
•well defcribed by Oppian, whp gives an admirable account of 
the whole. 

Its winter coat is very fine, foft, and filky, much undulated, Winter coat* 
and likeft to the hair of the camel ; greafy to the touch : and the 
flaxen color, during that feafon, more exquifitely bright. Its 
fummer coat is very fmooth, filky, and even, with exception of Summer, 

Vol. I. C certain 



certain (haded rays, that mark the fides of the neck, pointing 
Size. The dimenfions of a male Koulan were as follow: The head 

was two feet long : from its fetting on to the bafe of the tail 
was four feet ten inches and a half: the tail, to the end of the 
hairs, two feet one and a half : the ears eleven inches and a half. Its 
height before, four feet two •, behind, four feet fix. It had alfo 
the afinine crofs on the moulders ; which, with its fuperior fize, 
and ftronger formation in all its parts, diftinguifhes it at firft 
fight from the female. 
Place. This fpecies inhabits the dry and mountainous parts of the 

deferts of Great Tartary, but not higher than lat. 48. They arc 
migratory, and arrive in vaft troops, to feed, during the fummer, 
in the tracts eaft and north of lake Aral. About autumn they 
colled, in herds of hundreds, and even thoufands, and direct 
their courfe towards the north of India, to enjoy a warm retreat 
during winter. But Perfia is their moft ufual place of retire- 
ment: where they are found in the mountains of Cajbin, fome 
even at all times of the year. If we can depend on Barboga*, 
they penetrate even into the fouthern parts of India, to the 
mountains of Malabar and Golconda. 

According to Leo-Jfricanvsf, wild afTes of an afh-color are 
found in the deferts of northern Africa. The Arabs take them 
food." in fnares for the fake of dieir flefh. If frefh killed, it is hot and 

unfavory : if kept two days after it is boiled, it becomes excel- 
lent meat. Thefe people, the 'Tartars, and Romans, agreed in 
their preference of this to any other food: the latter indeed 

* As quoted by Dr. Pallas, t 34 0s 


Esteemed as 

ASS. ii 

cliufe them young, at a period of life in which it was called 

Cum tener eft Onager, folaque Lalijio matre 
Pafcitur : hoc infant, fed breve. nomen habet. 

Martial, xiii. 97. 

The epicures of Rome preferred thofe of Africa to all others *. 
The grown onagri were introduced among the fpctlacles of the 
theatre. Their combats were preferred even to thofe of the ele- 
phants. The fame poet celebrates their performances. 

Pukher Onager adeft : initti venatio debet 
Dentis Erythrai ; Jam removete firms f. 

I can witnefs to the fpirit and prowefs of the tame afs, which 
diverted me much at les combats des animaux — the theatre, or 
bear-garden of Paris — where I faw a fight between an afs and a 
dog. The la ft could never feize on the long-eared beaft; which 
fometimes caught the dog in its mouth, fometimes flung it un- 
der its knees, and kneeled on it, till the dog fairly gave up 
the victor)'. 

The manners of the Koidan, or wild afs, are very much the Manmmsj 
■fame with thofe of the wild horfe and the Dfiikketaei. They af- 
femble in troops under the conduct of a leader : are very fhy, 
but will ftop in the midft of their courfe, even fuffer the ap- 
proach of man at that inftant; but will then dart away with the 
rapidity of an arrow difmiffed from the bow. This Herodotus 
fpeaks to, in his account of thofe of Mefopotamia; and Leo Africa- 
tins, in that of the African. The Atgyptians derive their fine breed 
of tame affes from them %. 

« Plinii Hift. Nat. lib. viii. c. 44. 

■$ See alfo Pomforixs Latus, lib. i. ; who fays the emperor Philip introduced 
twenty Onagri. 

i Prtfer Alpinus, lib. iv. c. is. 

C z They 



Swiftness. They are extremely wild. Holy Writ is full of allufions 

to their favage nature. He fcorneth the multitude of the city, 
neither rcgarddh he the crying of the driver'*. Yet they are 
not untameable. The Perfians catch and break them for the 
draught: they make pits, half filled with plants to leffen 
the fall, and take them alive. They break, and hold them in 
great efteem, and fell them at a high price. The famous breed 
of affes in the Eaft is produced from the Koulan reclaimed from 
the favage ftate, which highly improves the breed. The Ro- 
mans reckoned the breed of afles produced from the Onager and 
tame afs to excel all others. The Tartars, who kill them only 
for the fake of the flefh and fluns, lie in ambufh and fhoot 

They have been at all times celebrated for their amazing fwift- 
nefs •, for which reafon the Hebreans called them Pere ; as they 
ftyled them Arod from their braying -f-. 

Their food is the falteft plants of the deferts, fuch as the Ka- 
lis, Atriplex, Chenopodium, &c. ; and alfo the bitter milky tribe of 
herbs : they alfo prefer falt-water to frefh. This is exactly 
conformable to the hiftory given of this animal in the book of 
Job; for the words barren land, exprefllve of its dwelling, 
ought, according to the learned Bochart, to be rendered fait 
places %. The hunters lay in wait for them near the ponds of 
brackiih water, to which they refort to drink : but they are not 
of a thirfty nature, and feldom have recourfe to water. 

Thefe animals were antiently found in the Holy Land, Syria, 
the land of Uz or Arabia Deferta, Mefopotamia, Pkrygia, and 

Where anti- 
ently found 

* Job xxxix. 7. f Hierozoicon, Pars i. p. 858. S69. % The- 

fame, 872. 




Xycaoma*. But at prefent they are entirely confined to the 
countries abovementioned. 

Chagrin, a word derived from the Tarter forhri. is made of the r „ .• .„ 

-' <-* vn AGRIN»- 

fkin of thefe animals, which grows about the rump, and alfo thofe 
of horfes, which is equally good-}-. There are great manufac- 
tures of it at AJlracan, and in all Perfia. It is a miftake to fup- 
pofe it to be naturally granulated, for its roughnefs is entirely 
the effect of art. 

The Perfians ufe the bile of the wild afs as a remedy againft 
the dirrmefs of fight: and the fame people, and the Nogayan Tar- 
tars, have been known to endeavour the moft infamous beftiali- 
ties with it, in order to free themfelves from the diforders of the 

Zebra. Nieremherg. 16S. 70. De Buffon, xii. 1. tab. I. II. 4, Zeera, 

Zecora. Ludolpb. jEtbiop. I. lib. i. c. Equus Zebra, Eq. fafciis fufcis verfi- 

io. II. 150. color. Lin.fyft. 101. Ed-w. 222. 

"Zebra.. Raii Jyn. quad. 64. Klein quad. 5. Wild Afs. Kolben Cape Gco.i Hope. ii. 
Le Zebre, ou L'ane raye. BriJJon quad, 112. Mus. Lev. 

Hwith a fhort erect mane. That, the head, and body are ftriped 
• downwards with lines of brown, on a pale buff ground : 
the legs and thighs ftriped crofs-ways. Tail like that of an afs, 
furnifhed with long hairs at the end. Size of a common mule. 

This moft elegant of quadrupeds : inhabits from Congo and An- 
vola, acrofs Africa, to AbyJJliua, and fouthward as low as the Cape. 
Inhabit the plains, but on fight of men, run into the woods and 
difappear. Are gregarious, vicious, untameable, ufelefs: vaftly 
fwift : is called by the Portuguefe, Burro di Matto, or wild afs. 

* Plinii Hiil. Nat. viii, c. 44. t Pallas; alfo Tavernier, i. 21. 


i 4 ZEBRA. Q_ U A G G A. 

Will couple with the afs. A he-afs was brought to a femald" 
zebra kept a few years ago in London. The zebra at firft re- 
fufed any commerce with it : the afs was then painted, to re- 
femble the exotic animal. The ftratagem took effe<ft, and Ihe 
admitted its embraces; and produced a mule* 

5. Qua<3ga. L e Voy. de M. Hop. 4.0. Opcngha, LXVI. 297. or Quag^a, of the Hctten- 

Mi'JJhn'% Travels, in the Phil. Tranf. tots. Female Zebra? EJiu. 223*. 

Hilriped like the former, on the head and neck and mane. 
• From the withers to the middle of the flanks the flripes 
grow gradually fhorter, leaving part of the back, loins, and 
fides quite plain. The ground color of the whole upper part 
and fides is bay : the belly, legs, and thighs white and free 
from fpots or (tripes. The ears fhorter than thofe of the Zebra. 
The feet of each areimall, the hoofs hard. 

This animal and the Zebra have been confounded together, 
and confidered as male and female; but in each fpecies the fexes 
agree in colors and marks, unlefs that thofe in the male are 
more vivid. Sir Joseph Banks enabled me firft to feparate 
them by the remarks he communicated to me on a §>uagga he 
faw at the Cape in 1 77 1. They keep in vaft herds like the Ze- 
bra, but ufually in different tracts of country, and never mix 
together. They are of a thicker and ftronger make, and from 
the few tryals which have been made, prove of a more docil 
nature. A ^j/ag^a caught young has been known to lofe its 
lavage difpofition, and run to receive the carefies of mankind"; 
and there have been inftances of its being broke fo far as to draw 

* The kins and lower part of the back in this are fpotted., 


Q. U A G G A. H U E M E L. 

In a team with the common horfes, It is faid to be fearlefs of the 
Hysna, and even to attack and purfue that fierce animal: fo 
that it proved an excellent guard to the horfes with which it 
was turned out to grafs at night*. Nature feemed to have design- 
ed them for the bead of draft or of burden for this country: and 
they certainly might be broke for the carriage or the faddle. 
They are ufed to the food which harfh dry paftures of Africa pro- 
duce ; are in no terror of wild beafts, nor are fubjecl: to the epi- 
demic diftemper which deflroys fo many horfes of the European 
offspring ; and it may generally be obferved that both the oxen 
and horfes introduced into this country lofe the ftrength and powers 
of thofe in Europe. 

JleGnemelouHuemel.W/aaC/W/. 303. Equus bifulcus Gmelin Lin. 209; £. Huemel. 

with bifulcated hoofs. Of the fize, coat, and color of 



. • an afs. The ears erect, fhort, ftrait, pointed like that 
of a horfe. The head equally elegant : neck and rump finely 

This animal inhabits the higheft and moft inacceffible part of 
the Andes, and is therefore very difficult to be taken. Yet it muff, 
at times defcend as Com. Byron faw one at Fort Defire. It neigh- 
ed like a horfe; frequently flopped and looked at our people; 
then ran off at full fpeed, and flopped and neighed again -f. 
Its voice- had nothing of the braying of an afs; neither does 
it refemble that animal in its internal parts: is full of mettle, 
and of great fwiftnefs. By its cloven hoofs forms the link, as 
Mi Molina obfervesj between this genus and the ruminant animals. 

* Spar/nan's TraveL I. 224. f Havukfwortb, Vol. I. 18. 




O X. 

Div. I. Sedl. II. Cloven Hoofed. 

* with Horns. 
** without Horns. 

II. ox. 

Horns bending out laterally. 

Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the upper. 

Skin along the lower fide of the neck pendulous. 

7 Bull ^ os Hefner quad. 2$. Rati Jjn. quad. 70. 

Ochs. Klein quad. 9. 

Bos cornibus levibus teretibus, furfum 
reflexis. Brijfon quad. 52. 

Bos Taurus. B. cornibus teretibus flex- 
is. Lin.fyft, 98. Faun.fuec. No. 48. 

Le Taureau. De Bujfon, vr. 437. tab. 

Zimmerman, 99. 
Br. Zeol. I. 15. 
Auer ochs. Ridingcr wilden Thiers; 

tab. 37. 

Owith rounded horns, with a large fpace between their 
• bafes. 
Still found wild in fmall numbers, in the marfliy forefts of Po- 
land, the Carpathian mountains, and Lithuania, and in AJia about 
mount Caucajus. The Urus, Bonafus, and Bifon, of the antients. 
The fineft and largeft tame cattle in Holftein and Poland; the 
fmalleft in Scotland: moft ufeful animals, every part ferviceable, 
the horns, hide, milk, blood, fat. More fubjecl: than other ani- 
mals to the peftilence. Go nine months with young. 

In a wild flate, the Bonafus of Arijiotle, hifi. an. ix. c. 45. and 

Pliny, lib, viii. c. 15. The Urus of Cafar, lib. vi. c, 28. Gefner 

6 quad. 

O X. 


qxiaL 143. Et Bonafus, p. 131. and Bifon, 14.0. Bifon and t/>v/j 
Rzaczinfki Polon. 214.228. The Aurochs of the Germans. The .4/wo 
r'uan Bifon, the next to bedefcribed, differs in no refpect from this. 

The Bifontes jubati of Scotland are now extinct in a wild (late; 
but their offspring, fttli fufficiently favage, are ftill preferved in Scottish 

the parks of Brumlanrig and Chillingham. They retain their white Bisons. 

color, but have loft their manes*. That worthy and amiable man, 
•my refpected friend, the late Marmaduke Tnnftal, Efq; of IVycliff, 
Forkjliire, collected feveral curious particulars refpecting this rare 
breed, which are published in 1790 in a general Hiftory of Qua- 
•drupeds, illuftrated with wooden plates, cut with uncommon neat- 
nefs by Thomas Bezvick, of Newcaflk upon Tyne. His ingenuity de- 
serves every encouragement, as his effay is the firft attempt to re- 
vive with any fuccefs that long difufed art, which was firft 
begun about the year 144S. I take the liberty of inferting here 
a more ample account of the Bifontes Scotici, extracted from p. 25 
•of that little elegant work. 

The principal external appearances which diftinguifh this 
breed of cattle from all ethers, are the following: — Their color 
•is invariably white; muzzles black; the whole of the in fide of 
xhe ear, and about one third of the outfide, from the tip down- 
wards, red : the color of the ears, in the undegenerated beafts, 
black -f; horns white, with black tips, very fine and bent upwards: 
fome of the bulls have a thin upright mane, about an inch and an 
half or two inches long. 

At the firft appearance of any perfon, they fet off in full gallop ; 

* Tour Scot!. 1772. part. I, 124. part II. 284. 
-f About twenty years fince, there were a few with Had ears; but the prefent 
park-keeper deftroyed them; — fince which period there has not been one with 
■fckck ears. 

Vol. I. D and 

t s o x. 

and at the diftance of two or three hundred yards, make a wheel 
round, and come boldly up again, tolling their heads in a menacing 
manner : on a fudden they make a full flop at the diftance of forty 
or fifty yards, looking wildly at the object of their furprize; but 
upon the leaft motion being made, they all again turn round and 
fly off with equal fpeed, but not to the fame diftance; forming a 
fhorter circle, and again returning with a bolder and more threat- 
ening afpect than before, they approach much nearer, probably 
within thirty yards; when they make another ftand, and again 
fly off: this they do feveral times, ftiortening their diftance, 
and advancing nearer, till they come within ten yards, when moft 
people think it prudent to leave them, not chufing to provoke them 
farther; for there is little doubt but in two or three turns they 
Chaci. would make an attack. 

The mode of killing them was perhaps the only modern re- 
mains of the grandeur of ancient hunting: — Op notice being 
given, that a wild Bull would be killed on a certain day, f 
the inhabitants of the neighborhood came mounted, and arm- 
ed with guns, &c. fometimes to the amount of an hundred 
horfe, and four or five hundred foot, who flood upon walls, or 
got into trees, while the horfemen rode off the Bull from the reft 
of the herd, until he flood at bay; when the markfman difmounted 
and Ihot. At fome of thefe huntings twenty or thirty fliots have 
been fired before he was fubdued. On fuch occafions the 
bleeding victim grew defperately furious, from the fmarting of his 
wounds, and the Ihouts of favage joy that were echoing from 
every fide : but from the number of accidents that happened, 
this dangerous mode has been little pradtifed of late years, the 
park-keeper alone generally fliooting them with a rifled gun, at one 


O X. 

When the cows calve, they hide their calves for a week or ten 
days in fome fequeftered fituation, and go and fuckle them two or 
three times a-day. If any perfon come near the calves, they clap 
their heads clofe to the ground, and lie like a hare in form, to hide 
themfelves. This is a proof of their native wildnefs ; and fs 
corroborated by the following circumftance that happened to the 
writer of this narrative, who found a hidden calf, two days old, 
very lean, and very weak: — On ftroking its head, it got up, 
pawed two or three times like an old bull, bellowed very loud, 
ftepped back a few fteps, and bolted at his legs with all its force ; 
it then began to paw again, bellowed, ftepped back, and bolted 
as before; but knowing its intention, and ftepping afide, it miffed 
him, fell, and was fo very weak that it could not rife, though it 
made feveral efforts : But it had done enough : The whole herd 
were alarmed, and coming to its refcue, obliged him to retire ; for 
the dams will allow no perfon to touch their calves, without 
attacking them with impetuous ferocity. 

When any one happens to be wounded, or is grown weak and 
feeble through age or ficknefs, the reft of the herd fet, and 
gore it to death. 

The weight of the oxen is generally from forty to fifty ftone the 
four quarters ; the cows about thirty. The beef is finely marbled, 
and of excellent flavor. 

Thofe at Bur ton-ConJl able, in the county of York, were all deftroy- 
ed by a diftemper a few years fince. They varied flightly from 
thofe at Chillingham, having black ears and muzzles, and the tips 
of their tails of the fame color ; they were alio much larger, 
many of them weighing fixty ftone, probably owing to the richnefs 

D 2 of 


O X. 

of the pafturage in HoUerwfs, but generally attributed to the differ- 
ence of kind between thofe with black and with red ears, the 
former of which they ftudiouily endeavoured to preferve.— The 
breed which was at Drumlanrig, in Scotland, had alfo black 

I doubt whether any wild oxen of this fpecies are found on the 
continent otJfrica. We muft beware of the mifnomers of common 
travellers, efpecially the antient. Thus we fhall find the wild ox* 
of Leo to be the antelope, which we fhall defcribe under the name 
of Gnou; and the buffaloes of Pigafetta*, faid to be found in 
Congo and Angola, may probably prove the fpecies we defcribe in 
our number 9. A. With more confidence we may fay, from the 
authority of Flacourt, that wild oxen are found in Madagajcar, 
like the European, but higher on their legs. Borneo, according to- 
Beckmanf, and the mountains of Java, from the report of a wor- 
thy friend, yield oxen in a ftate of nature; but the torrid zone 
forbids the ferutiny into fpecies, which would give fatisfaction to- 
an inquifitive naturalift. The varieties of domeflic cattle fprung 
from the wild flock are very numerous; fuch as 

A. The great Indian ox, of a reddifh color, with fhort horns 
bending clofe to the neck; with a vaftlump on the (boulders, very 
fat, and efteemed the moft delicious part. This lump is accidental,, 
and difappears in a few defcents, in the breed produced between 
them and the common kind. This variety is alfo common in 
Madagafcar y and of an enormous fize. 

* la JPttrebu. L lOOJ. f Leo. 304. Flacourt. 151. Beck/nan, 36. 

% B. A 



. //////// // ( './ : A . 




//.)//■ - '/tffU/t/ 



O X. 21 

B. A very fmall kind, with a lump on the flioulders, and horns 
almoft upright, bending a little forward. This is the Bos indicus 
of Linnaus, and the zebu of M. de Buffbn, xi. 423. tab. xlii. In 
Surat is a minute kind, not bigger than a great dog; which- 
has a fierce look, and is ufed to draw children in fmall 
carts. The larger fpecies are the common beads of draught in 
many parts of India, and draw the hackeries or chariots; and are 
kept in very high condition. Others are ufed as pads, are faddled, 
and go at the rate of twenty miles a day *. 

C. Cattle in AbyJJinia-\-, and the ifle of Madagafcar \, with 
lumps on their backs, and horns attached only to the flun, quite 

D. Cattle in Adel\\ or Adea, and Madagafcar ', of a fnowy white- 
nefs, as large as camels, and with pendulous ears, and hunch- 
backs. They are called in the laft, Boury §. 

E. white cattle, with black ears, in the ifle of Tiniam 

F. the lant or dan:, defcribed by Leo Africanus, is another 
beaft, perhaps, to be referred to this genus. He fays it refembles 
an ox; but hath fmaller legs and comelier horns: that the hair 
is white; and fo fwift, as to be one of the rivals in fpeed with 
the Barbary horfe : The oftrich is the other. If the horle can 
overtake either, it is efteemed at a thoufand ducats, or a hundred 
camels. The hoofs are of a jetty blacknefs : of the hide targets 
are made, impenetrable by a bullet; and valued at a great price. 

G. Of the European cattle, the moft famous are thofe of Hob- European. 
Jiein and Jutland, which feeding on the rich low warm lowlands, 

* Terry's Voy. 155. f Lebv, 70. % Flacourt, 151*. || Turchas, II, 
1 106. $ FlacQuft, 151. 



O X. 

between the two feas, grow to a great fize. A good cow yields 
from twelve to twenty-four quarts of milk in a day. Befides home 
confumption, about 32,000 are annually fent towards Copenhagen, 
Hamburg, and Germany. About the Viftula is bred the fame kind. 

Podolia and the Ruffian Ukrain, particularly about the rivers 
Bogy Dnieper, and Dniejler, produce a fine breed ; tall,'* large- 
horned, of a greyilh white-colour, with duiky heads and feet, 
and a dufky line along the back. The calves of thofe defigned 
for fale fuck a year, and are never worked, which brings them to 
a larger fize than their parents. They are called in Germany, 
blue oxen, 80 or 90,000 are driven to Konigjberg, Berlin, and Bref- 
law: the beft are fold at 100 rix-dollars apiece, or £. 20 fterling; 
which bring annually a return to their native country of 6,300,000 

Hungary breeds the fame kind, and fends annually to Vienna 
and other parts of Germany about 120,000, which brings back 
S, 000,000 rix-dollars *. 

The Engliflo breed is derived from the foreign. Our native 
kind, fuch as the IVelft and Scottifo runts, are fmall, and often 
hornlefs. But by cultivation, many parts of England rival in 
their cattle many parts of the continent. 

The antient Gauls ufed horns to drink out of; in amplijjimis epulis 
pro proculis utuntur, fays Cafar : if according to Pliny, each horn 
held an urna, or four gallons, it was a goodly draught. Gefner, in 
his Icon. Anim. 34, fays, he faw a horn, he fuppofes of an Urus, 
hung againft a pillar in the cathedral of Strajbourg, which was fix 
feet long. Thefe were probably the horns of oxen, or caftrated 
beads, which often grow to enormous fizes. The horns of wild 

cattle being very fhort. 

• Doftor Fcrfitr. 




////iz/rm/ , '/>'.j,w/_ _, / 


O X. 


Taurus mexicanus. HerrtanJeZ, mix. r87. juba longiffima, dorfo gibbofo. Lin. 7, American 

de l.att, 220. Pitrchas's Pilgrims, fjl. 99. Bison, 

iv. 1561. Zimmerman, 548. No. 3. 

Bifon ex Florida allatus. Raiijyn. quad. Le Bifon d'Amiriqte. Brijfan quad. 56. 

71. Klein quad. 13. A Buffou, xi. 30 J. 

Euffalo. Law/on Carol. ilt^.CatcJby App. Le Bceuf de Canada. Charlevoix, v. 

xxx vii. </« ZVa/z. II. 49. 193. ^#. z«/. Vol. I. No. I. 

Eos bifon. B. comibus divaricatis, 2d Edition. 

Owith fliort black rounded horns, with a great interval be- 
• tween their bafes. On the fhoulders a vaft hunch, con- 
lifting of a flefhy fubftance, much elevated. The fore-parts of 
the body thick and ftrong. The hind part flender and weak. 

The hunch and head covered with a very long undulated 
fleece, divided into locks, of a dull ruft-color; this is at times 
fo long, as to make the fore-part of the animal of a fhapelefs ap- 
pearance, and to obfeure its fenfe of feeing. During winter the 
whole body is cloathed in the fame manner. In fummer the 
hind-part of the body is naked, wrinkled, and dufky. The tail is 
about a foot long ; at the end is a tuft of black hairs, the reft 

Inhabits Mexico and the interior parts of North America. Is Place. 

found in great herds in the Savannas ; fond of marfhy places; 
lodges amidft the high reeds : is very fierce and dangerous ; but 
if taken young, is capable of being tamed. Will breed with the 
common kind. The only animal, analogous to the domeftic 
kinds, found by the Europeans on their arrival in the new world. 
Weighs from 1600 to 2900 weight. 

Thefe animals are the fame with the bifon and other cattle, in a Size. 

5 wild 



Same with the wild ftate, and to be common to Europe and America. For afutlcr 
mv° X account, fee American Zoology, No. I. I (hall only fay here, that 

before the arrival of the Europeans, the domeftic cattle were 
entirely unknown in the new world. They were equally ftrangers 
to Kamtfchatka, its wild neighbor on the eaftern tide oi Ajia, till 
very lately, when they were introduced by the RuJJuins; the firft 
difcoverers of that country. 
Domestic Domeftic cattle bear nearly each extreme of climate-, endur- 

ing the heats of Africa and India; and live and breed within a 
fmall diftance of the arclic circle, at Quickjock, in Secha Lapmark. 
So that Providence hath kindly ordered that cows, the moft 
ufeful of quadrupeds, and corn, the great fupport of life, 
mould bear die feafons of every country in which mankind can 

3. Grunt it»C. Vacca grunniens villqft cauda equina, Le vache de Tartarie. De Biiffon, xt. 
Sarluk. Nov. torn. Petrcp. v. 339. Ru- 136. 

truquis <vay. Harris coll. I. 571. Le boeuf velu. Le Bruwvoy. Mofcov, 
Bos grunniens. B. cornibus teretibus I. 120. 

extrorfum curvatis, vellere propen- Bubel. Belts Trawls, I. 224. 

dente, cauda undique jubata. Lin. Le Buffle a queue de cheval. 

fyft. 99» Pallas in aft. acad. Petrop. I. pars. II. 
Zimmerman, 548, No. 2. 332. 

Owith a fliort head, broad nofe, thick and hanging lips. 
.• Ears large, befet with coarfe briftly hairs, pointed down- 
wards, but not pendulous. Horns fhort*, flender, rounded, up- 

* On the authority of Mr. Bogle, a moft ingenious and obfervant traveller, 
who of late years penetrated from India into Thibet. See Phil. Tranf. LXVIII. 
46 J.. 

nght 3 


(//// ///? ///y ( \r. . I. a. 


right* and bending, and very fharp-pointed. They are placed 
remote at their bafes, between which the hair forms a long curl- 
ing tuft. The hair in the middle of the forehead radiated. 

The fpace between the fhoulders much elevated. Along the 
neck is a fort of mane, which in fome extends along the top of 
the back to the tail. The whole body, efpecially the lower parts, 
the throat, and neck, are covered with hairs, fo long as to conceal 
at left half the legs, and make them appear very (liort. All the 
other parts of the body are covered with long hairs like thofe of 
a he-goat. The hoofs are large: the falfe hoofs project much; 
are convex without, concave within. 

Its moft obvious fpecific mark is the tail, which, in the words T*ru 

of Mr. Bogle, fpreads out broad and long, with flowing hairs like 
that of a beautiful mare, of a moft elegant filky texture, and of 
a gloffy filvery- color. There is one preferved in the BritiJJ) 
Mufeum, not lefs than fix feet long. 

The color of the head and body is ufually black ; but that of Color. 

the mane of the fame color with the tail. 

Doctor Pallas compares the fize of thofe which he faw to that Size. 

of a fmall domeftic cow. But the growth of thefe was probably 
checked By being brought very young from their native country 
into Sibiria. Mr. Bogle fpeaks of them as larger than the com- 
mon Thibet breed. Marco Polo * fays, that the wild kind, 
which he faw on his travels, were nearly as large as elephants. 

* Guillaume de "Rubruquis, a friar fent hy Louis IX. or 5/. Liuis, ambrifTa- 
dor to the Khan of Tartaij, in 1253, wrote his extenfive travels, and ad- 
drefled them to his mailer. See Purcbas, III. i. 22. Marco /Vo was a JW- 
t'tan gentleman, who, in the fame century, alfo vifited Tartarj and many other 
dlftant countries. Purcbas, III. 65. 79. 

Vol. I. E He 


He may exaggerate; but the tail in the BritiJJj Mnfeitm is a proof 
of their great fize, for it is fix feet long, yet probably did not 
touch the ground-, for all the figures of the animal which I have 
feen, do not make that part defcend quite to the heels. 
Place. Thefe animals, in the time of Riibraquis and Marco Polo, were 

very frequent in the country of Tangut, the prefent feat of the 
Mongol Tartars. They were found both wild and domefticated. 
They are in thefe days more rare, but are met with in abundance 
(1 believe) in both ftates, in the kingdom of Thibet. Even when 
Fierceness. fubjugated, they retain their fierce nature, and are particularly 
irritated at the fight of red or any gay colors. Their rifing anger 
is perceived by the fhaking their bodies, raifing and moving 
their tails, and the menacing looks of their eyes. Their attacks 
are fo fudden and fo rapid, that it is very difficult to avoid them. 
The wild breed, which is called Bucha, is very tremendous : if, 
in the chace, they are not flain on the fpot, they grow fo furious 
from the wound, they will purfue the affailant ; and if they over- 
take him, they never defift toffing him on their horns into ths 
air, as long as life remains *. They will copulate with domeftic 
cows. In the time of Marco Polo, this half-breed was ufed for 
the plough, and for bearing of burdens -f, being more tractable 
than the others : but even the genuine breed were fo far tamed as 
to draw the waggons of the Nomades or wandering Tartars. To 
prevent mifchief, the owners always cut off the ftiarp points of 
the horns. The tamed kinds vary in color to red and black, 
and fome have horns white as ivory \, 

* Gmelin in n. com. Petrop. V. 331. f Purchat, HI. 79. J Witfen, 

as quoted by Dt, Pallas. 




There are two varieties of the domefticated kinds, one called Varieties. 

in the Mongol language Ghainouk, the other Sariyk. The firft of 
the original Thibet race, the other a degenerated kind. Many 
are alfo deftitute of horns, but have on the front, in their place, Hornless. 

fuch a thicknefs of bone, that it is with the utmoft difficulty that 
the perfons employed to kill them, can knock them down with 
repeated blows of the ax *. 

Their voice is very Angular, being like the grunting of the Voice. 


A Bezoarf is faid to be fometimes found in their ftomacbs, Bezoar. 

in high efteem among the oriental nations: but the mod valu- Value of their. 
able part of them is the tail, which forms one of the four great tails. 

articles of commerce in Thibet. They are fold at a high price, 
and are mounted on filver handles, and ufed as chowras or brufhes 
to chafe awaythe .flies. In India no man of falhion ever goes 
out, or -fits in form at home, without two choivrazobadars or 
brufhers attending him, each furnifhed with an inftrument of 
this kind %. The tails are alfo fattened by way of ornament to 
the ears of elephants ||, and the Cbinefe dye the hair red, and form 
it into tufts, to adorn their fummer bonnets. Frequent mention 
is made of thefe animals in the facred books of the Mongols : the 
cow being with them an objecl of worihip, as it is with mod of 
the oriental ills. 

Of the antients, JElian is the only one who takes notice of JElian's ac- 
this Angular fpecies. Amidft his immenfe farrago of fables, he count of them. 
gives a very good account of it, under the name of " the Poe- 
'* phagus, an Indian animal larger than a horfe, with a moft thick 

» Pallas. f Whit/en, as quoted by Dr. Pallas. J Mr. Bogle. 

]) Bernier, Voy. Kachmire. 124. 

E 2 « tail, 


e< tail, and black, compoled of hairs finer than the human. . 
" Highly valued by the Indian ladies for ornamenting their 
*' heads; each hair he fays was two cubits long. It was the 
" moft fearful of animals and very fwift. When it was chaced 
" by men or dogs, and found itfelf nearly overtaken, it would 
" face its purfuers, and hide its hind parts in fome bufh, and 
u wait for them : imagining that if it could conceal its tail, 
" which was the object they were in fearch of, that it would 
** efcape unhurt. The hunters fhot at it with poifoned arrows, 
" and when they had flain the animal, took only the tail and 
" hide, making no ufe of the fleih *." 

Buffalo. £«? ay^ioj n A$*x UT0, 4' -drift, hift. lil.\\. Bos cornibus compreffls, furfum reflexis,, 

c. i. refupinatis, fronte crifpa. Brijfon 

Bos Indicus. Plin. lib. viii. c. 4 J. quad. 54. 

Bubalus. Gejher quad. 122. Raii Jyn. Bos cornibus refupinatis intortis, antice 

quad. 72. Klein quad. 10. planis. Lin./yfi. 99. 

Taur. elephantes Ludolpb. JEtbiop. I. lib. Zimmerman. 369. 

i. c. 10. II. 145. Le Buffle. De Buffon xi. 284. tab. xxv, 

Buffalo. Dcllsn voj. 82. Faunul. Sintns. Br. Muf. AJhm. Muf. Lev. Mus. 

Owith large horns, ftraight for a great length from their bafe, 
• then bending upwards ; not round, but compreffed, and 
one fide fharp. Skin almoft naked, and black. Thofe about the 
cape of Good Hope of a dufky red. The head is proportionably 
lefler than the common ox ; the ears larger : nofe broad and 
fquare : eyes white: no dewlaps. The limbs long; body fquare; 
tail fhorter, and more llender than that of our common cattle. 

.* dilian de an. lib. xvi. c. xi. p. 329. 



Ii grows to a very great fize, if we may form a judgment from Size. 

the horns. In the Britijh Mufeum is a pair fix feet fix inches 
and a half long, it weighs twenty-one pounds, and the hollow will 
contain five quarts. Lobo mentions fome in Abyjfinla, which would 
hold ten. Dellon faw fome in India ten feet long. They are 
fometimes wrinkled, but often fmooth. 

Thefe animals are found wild in Malabar, Borneo, and Ceylon*. Place* 
They are exceflively fierce and dangerous if attacked : they fear 
fire; and are greatly provoked at the fight of red. They are 
very fond of wallowing in the mud; love the fides of rivers; and • 
fwim very well. 

They are domefticated in Africa, India, and Italy, and are Usts. 
ufed for their milk and their flefh, which is far inferior to the 
common beef: much cheefe is alfo produced from the milk. 
The horns are much efteemed in manufactories; and of their 
Ikin is made an impenetrable buff". 

They form a diftinct race from the common cattle. They will 
not copulate together, neither will the female buffaloes fufFer a 
common calf to fuck them; nor will the domeftic cow permit 
the fame from the young buffalo. A buffalo goes twelve months 
with young; our cows only nine-f. 

The buffaloes of Abyjjinia grow to twice the fize of our largefl 
oxen, and are called taur-elephantes, not only on that account, 
but becaufe their fkins are naked and black like that of the ele- 

They are very common in Italy, originally introduced into 
Lombardy from India by king Agilulf, who reigned from 591 to 

* Dillon. 82. Bedman, 36. Ktox.zi. + Journal hiftorique, 13c. 39. 

6 1 6„ . 




■6.1 6*. They are faid to have grown wild in Apuglla, and to be 
very common, in hot weather, on the fea-fhore between Manfre- 
donia and Barletta. 

The tamed kind are ufed in Italy for the dairy and the draught. 
In India and Africa for bothj and in fome parts of India alfo for 
the faddle. 

Arijlotle defcribes thefe animals very well under the title of 
wild oxen, among the Arachota, in the northern part of India, 
bordering on Perfia. He gives them great ftrength, a black 
.color, and their horns bending upwards more than thofe of the 
common kind. Pliny probably means a large breed of this kind, 
as high as a camel, with horns extending four feet between tip . 
and tip. 

A. Naked: a f mall fort, exhibited in London fome years ago, 
under the name of Bouafus; of the fize of a runt: hair on the 
body briftly, and very thin, fo that the fkin appeared : the rump 
.and thighs quite bare : the firft marked on each fide with two 
duiky ftripes pointing downward, the laft with two tranfverfe 
ftripes: horns compreffed fideways, taper, fharp at the point. 
Eqft Indies. 

B. The Anoa is a very fmall fpecies of buffalo, of the fize of a 
middling fheep. They are wild, in fmall herds, in the mountains 
of Celebes, which are full of caverns. Are taken with great dif- 
ficulty; and even in confinement are fo fierce, that Mr. Soten 
loft in one night fourteen ftags, which were kept in the fame 
paddock, whofe bellies they ripped up. 

* Tunc primum caballi fylvatici et Bub ah in Italiam delati, Italia pop&lis 
Hiiraculo fuerunt. Wamtfridi de gejlis longohardtr. Lib. iv. c. ii. Mijin's vqy. 
vi. 392.. 

C. The 



lJ^/rt,,//X A. 


C. The Gauvera is a fpecies of ox found in Ceylon, and de- 
fcribed by Knox, p. 21; who fays, its back ftands up in a fharp 
ridge, and whofe legs are whice half way from the hoofs. I have 
received an account of hunch-backed oxen being found in that 
iiland, which are probably the animals intended by Air. Knox. 

te Boeuf Mufque. de M. Jeremie, Voy- v. 194. ArB. Zool. vol. I. No. 2. I0 Mujk. 

ages au Nord. iii. 314. Charlevoix. Lev. M us. 

Owith horns very clofely united at the bafe, bending in- Bull. 
• wards and downwards, and turning outwards at their 
points; two feet round at the bafe, and vaftly prominent, rifing 
juft on the top of the forehead; length only two feet; very 
fharp at the points : head and body univerfally covered with very 
long filky hairs, of a dark color: fome of the hairs are feven- 
teen inches long. Beneath them, in all parts, in great plenty, and 
often in flocks, is a cinereous wool ofexquifite finenefs. M. Jeremie 
brought fome to France, of which ftockings were made more beau- 
tiful than thofe of filk. The tail is only three inches long, a mere Tail. 
flump, covered with very long hairs. 

The horns of the cow are nine inches diftant from each other The Cow. 
at the bafe, and are placed exadtly on the fides of the head; 
are thirteen inches long, and eight inches and a half round at the 
bafe. The fiefh fcents ftrong of mufk: the length of the fkin 
of the cow was fix feet four inches ; including the head, which was 
fourteen inches long: the legs very fliort: the hair trails on the 
ground, fo that the whole animal feems a fhapelefs mafs, with- 
out diftinction of head or tail : the fhoulders rife into a lump. 
In fize lower than a deer. 



j 2 buffalo: musk. 

This animal is very local : it appears firft between Churchill 
river and thofe of Seals on the weftern fide of Hudfon's Bay : are 
very numerous between Lat. 66. and 73 North ; and go in herds 
of twenty and thirty: delight in barren and rocky mountains: 
and run nimbly, and are very active in climbing the rocks: feldom 
frequent the woody parts: are fhot by the Indians for the fake 
of the fkinS; which make the beft and warmeft blankets. 

They are found again among the Cris, or Crijlhiaux, and the 
Ajjimbouels, and among the Attimofpiqitay : are continued from thefe 
countries fouthward as low as the provinces of Nievera and Libola : 
for Father Marco di Nica and Gomara plainly defcribe both kinds*. 

A part of this fpecies has been found in the north of Afia, 
the head of one having been difcovered in Sibiria, on the ar&ic 
mofly flats, near the mouth of the Oby. It is to Doftor Pallas f I 
owe the account; who does not fpeak of this kind as being foffil, 
but fufpefts that the whole carcafe was brought on floating ice 
from America, and depofited where the fcull was found. If this 
is certain, it proves that thefe animals fpread quite acrofs the 
continent of America from Hudfon's Bay to the AJiatic fea$* 

ii.Cape. ^"X with the face covered with long harfh black hair. Chin, 
V^/» underfide of the neck, and dewlap, covered with long, 
pendulous, and coarfe hairs of the fame color. From the horns, 
along the top of the neck, to the middle of the back, is a long 
Joofe black mane. Body covered with fhorc, dark, cinereous 

* Purchas, iv. 1561, v. 854, ^ Nov. com.xvii. 601. tab. 17. 

3 hair: 


hat;: bafe of the tail almoft naked and cinereous, the reft full of 
long black hair. Skin thick and tough. 

Horns* thick at the bafe, bend outwards, then fuddenly in- Horns. 

vert. Length along the curve one foot nine: from tip to tip 
eight inches and a half. Between each at the bafe three inches. 
The horns, tab. fig. iii. p. 9. of my former edition, which I at- 
tributed to the next fpecies, moft probably are thofe of a young 
animal of this kind. They are defcribed by Grezv, p. 26. of his 
account of the Mufeum of the Royal Society; but he improperly 
thinks them the horns of the common buffalo. 

Length from nofe to tail, of one not of the largeft fize, is 
eight feet: the height five and a half. Depth of the body three 
feet: length of the head one foot nine: of the trunk of the tail 
one foot nine: to the end of the hairs, two feet nine. Body 
and limbs thick and ftrong. Fore legs two feet and a half long. 

The face is covered with black coarfe hairs. From the chin Hair. 
along the throat and dewlap was a quantity of very long pendulous 
hairs, and from the hind part of the horns, ran on the middle of 
the back a long loofe black mane. The body was covered with 
fhort dark cinereous hair. The bafe of the tail almoft naked : the 
reft full of long black hair. In aged bulls the hair is of a deep 
brown color, about an inch long, and very thinf. The former 
I defcribed from a very entire fkin, brought from the Cape 
by Sir Joseph Banks. It agreed in all the meafurements 
with a bull of this fpecies killed by Doctor Sparman in his 
African expedition, excepting in the horns : it poffibly might have 

• M. de Bi'ffbn has engraven the horns, vol. xi. 416. tab. xli. 
f Sparman s travels. II. 64. tab. II. 

Vol. I. F been 

34 CAPE. 

Other Horns, been the fkin of a younger animal, or of a female. Thofe defcribed 
by Mr. Spar man occupied at their bafes a circumference of about 
eighteen or twenty inches, and were placed about an inch diftant 
from each other. Their upper furface was much elevated and 
very rugged, with hollows an inch deep. They fpread far over the 
head towards the eyes, then grew taper and bent down on each 
fide of the neck ; and the ends inclined backwards and upwards. 
The fpace between the point fomctimes is not lefs than five feet. 
The weight of a pair in the Leverian Mufeum was twenty five 
pounds. The ears are a foot long, and fwag in a pendulous manner 
beneath the bottom of the horns. 
Place. They inhabit the interior parts of Africa., north of the Cape 

of Good Hope', but, I believe, do not extend to the north of the 
Tropic. They are greatly fuperior in fize to the largeft Englifl) 
ox : hang their heads down, and have a moft fierce and malevolent 
appearance, which is increafed by a method they have of holding 
their heads afide, and looking afkance with their eyes funk beneath 

Fiercenkss and the prominent orbits: are exceffively fierce and dangerous to 
crvblty. travellers: will lie quietly in wait in the woods, and rufh fudden- 

ly on pafTengers, and trample them, their horfes, and oxen of 
draught, under their feet* : fo that they are to be fhunned as the 
moft cruel beafts of this country. They are not content with the 
death of man or animal which have fallen in their way; but they 
will return to the Slaughtered bodies as if to fatiate their revenge, 
ftand over them for a time, trample on them, crufh them with 
their knees, and with horns and teeth deliberately mangle the 
whole body; repeating this fpecies of infult at certain intervals, and 
with their rough tongues entirely ftrip ofFby licking, the fkin from 

* Ferfier's Voy. i. 83, Majfon's, Travels. Phil. Tranf. Ixvi. 296, 

5 corps, 


corps, exactly in the manner in which Oppian informs us that the 
Thracian bifons did the flain in times of old. They are prodigioufly 
fvvifr, and fo ftrong, that a young one of three years of age, being 
placed with fix tame oxen in a waggon, could not by their united 
force be moved from the fpot. 

They are alio found in the interior parts of Guinea * ; but are fo 
fierce and dangerous, that the negroes who are in chace of other 
animals are fearful of mooting at them. The lion, which can 
break the back of the ftrongeft domeftic oxen at one blow, can- 
not kill this fpecies, except by leaping on its back, and fuffocat- 
itig it, by fixing its talons about its nofe and mouth f . The lion 
often perifhes in the attempt ; but leaves the marks of its fury 
about the mouth and nofe of the beaft. It loves much to roll in 
the mud, and is fond of the water. 

The flelb is coarfe, but juicy, and has the flavor of venifon; 
and the marrow moft delicate. The bones are of moft uncommon 
flrength and hardnefs. The animals are fliot with balls of the weight 
of two ounces and a quarter, and hardened by an alloy of tin, yet 
are ufually flattened or fhivered to pieces when they happen to ftrike 
againft a bone. 

The hides are thick and tough, and of the firft ufe among the 
African colonifts for the making of thongs, halters, and harnefles. 
On them alone they depend on fecurity of their horfes or oxen, 
which, on the approach of a lion or other wild beaft, would fnap 
any other in their efforts to get loofe. 

They live in great herds, even of thoufands, efpecially in Krake- 

* Mr. Smeatbman, a gentleman long refident in Guinea on philofophical 
■f- Sparman, StecL Welt. HanM. J 779, p. 79. tab. iii. and Travels, II. 63. 

F ?, Kamma, 


36 DWARF. 

Kamma, and other deferts of the Cape; and retire during day into 
the thick forefts. They are called by the Hottentots t'Kau, by the 
Dutch of the Cape Aurochs, but differ totally from the European. 

Another fpecies of Aurochs is briefly defcribed by the Dutch 
travellers* ; who fay it is like the common ox, but larger, and of 
a grey color ; that its head is fmall, and horns fhort ; that the 
hairs on the breaft are curled; that it has a beard like a goat; 
and that it is fo fwift, that the Namacques call it Baas, or the 
. Maftcr-courier. They diftinguifh this from the Gnou, No. 16 of 
this work, or I fhould think it the fame animal. 

. ©wars'. ^ n m0u ' t b eau petit bceuf d'Afrique, ribus, dorfo gibbo juba, nulla. Lin, 

Belon <voy. 1 19, 120. fyft. 99. 

Bos Indicus. B. cornibus aure brevio- Zimmerman, 459. No. 6. 

Owith horns receding in the middle, almoft meeting at the 
• points, and ftanding erect : in body larger than a roe- 
buck, lefs than a flag : compact and well made in all its limbs : 
hair fhining, of a tawny brown: legs fhort, neck thick, flioulders 
a little elevated : tail terminated with long hairs, twice as coarfs 
as thofe of a horfe. 

This fpecies is defcribed by Belon, who met with it at Cairo-; 
but he fays, that it was brought from Afamle, the prefent Azafi, a 
province of Morocco, feated on the ocean. I fufpect it to be the 
lant, mentioned, p. 17, which may vary in color. 

* Journal hiftoiiquc, 43. 46. 

'■-*"■-* Horns 



Horns twifled fpirally, and pointing outwards. HI. SHEEP. 

Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the upper. 

Ovis. Plinii.lih. viii.c. 47. Gefnerquad. fin quad. 48. , 3# Common. 

771. Raii fyn. quad. 73. Ovis aries. O. cornibus compreffis Iu- 

Widder Schaaf. Klein quad. 13. natis. Lin. Jyjl. 97. 

La brebis. de Buffbn, v. 1. tab. I. II. Far. Faun. fuec. No. 4c. 

Aries Laniger cauda rotunda brevi. Brif- Zimmerman. 112. 

TH E fheep, the mod ufeful of the lelTer animals ; the fource 
of wealth in civilized nations. England, once the envy of 
Europe for its vaft commerce in the products of this creature, 
now begins to be rivalled by others, thro' the neglect, the luxury, 
the too great avidity of our manufacturers. The EngliJJj wool 
excellent for almoft every purpofe. The SpaniJJj extremely fine ; 
the ceconomy of the fhepherds admirable ; as is their vaft atten- 
tion to the bufinefs, and their annual migrations with their 
flocks. The fineft fleeces in the world are thofe of Caramania *, 
referved entirely for the Moulhaes and priefts ; thofe of Cache- 
mire^ excellent; and the Lamb-fkins of Bucharia exquifite %. 
The flieep in its nature harmlefs and timid : refills by butting 

• Chat-din's Travels in Harris's Coll. ii. 878. and Tavernier, 1. 40. 
f Bernicr's Voy. ii. 94. 

J Bell's Travels, i. 46. Thefe lkins bear a great price, have a fine glofs, and 
rich look. 

5 with 

3 S S H E E P. 

with its horns: threatens by {lamping with its foot: drinks 
little : generally brings one at a rime, fometimes two, rarely 
three : goes about five months with young : is fubje<St to the rot j 
worms in its liver ; the vertigo. 

A. Common Sh. 

With large horns, twitting fpirally and outwardly. 

Ovis ruftica. Lin.Jyfl. 97. Zimmerman. II z. Lev. Mus. 

Sheep have their teeth, when they feed in certain paftures, in- 
crufted and gilt with pyritical matter ; which has been obferved 
in the fheep of sEgypt, Anti-Lebanon, and Scotland *. I never faw 
an inftance of it in thofe animals : but have met with the teeth 
of oxen, in the Blair of Athol, N. Britain, covered with a gold- 
colored fubftance. 

B- Cretan Sh. Ovis Strepficeros. La Chevre de Crete. Brijbn quad. 48. 
Rati fyn. quad. 75. Cornibus re£tis Zimmerman. 131. 

carinatis flexuofo-fpiralibus. Lin./yjl. Strepficheros ou Mcuton de Crete. Bekn 
98. ioy. 16. Ge/ner quad, 308. Icon. 15. 

Has large horns, quite erecl, and twifted like a fcrew ; com- 
mon in Hungary. Is called by the Aujlrians, Zackl; and is almoft 

Hejfelquijl't Trav. 192. Sib. Scot. lib. iii. 8. 



the only kind which the v a' in *. Great flocks are 

found on Mount Ida n Q Buffon has given figures of 

a ram and ewe, under the name of Valldebian Sheep f. 

C. Hornless. Ovis Anglica. Lin. Jy/i. 97. 

Common in many parts of England; the large ft in IAncolnJhiri, 
the left horned fheep in PYales. 

D. Many-horned. Ovis polycerata. f u ppl »'• /• 73- Zimmtrman, 1 27. 128 ', 
£/». _^/?. 97. de Buffon xi. tab. xxxi. Lev. Mus. 

Common in Iceland, and other parts of the North ; they have 
ufually three horns, fometimes four, and even five. Many- 
horned fheep are alfo very common in Sibiria, among the Tar- 
tarian flocks, about the river Jenefei %. The horns of thefe grow 
very irregularly, and form a variety totally different from the 

E. I have engraven a very Angular ram, with two upright 
and two lateral horns : body covered with wool : fore part of the 
neck with yellowifh hairs, 14 inches in length: was alive in 
London a few years ago : very mifchievous and pugnacious : the 
horns the fame with thofe in Grew, tab. ii. M. De Buffon has 
engraven one of the fame kind, but with only two horns, under 
the name of Le Morvant de la Chine ||. The animal which I faw 

* Kramer anim. Jufri<e, 322. + Suppl. iii. 66. tab. vii. viii. J Pallas 

Spicil. Zool. fafc. xi. 71. tab. iv. & v. || Suppl. iii. 68. tab. x. 




was brought from Spain-, but I ana uncertain whether it was a 
native of that country. 

F. A moft elegant fpecies, brought from Guinea, and prefented 
to me by Richard Wilding, Efq; of Llanrhaidr, in Denbighshire, 
It was fmall of ftature, and moft'beautifully limbed. The hair of 
a filvery whitenefs, and quite filky-, on the fore and hind part of 
the neck of a great length, efpecially in front ; half of the nofe 
was of a jetty blacknefs ; on each knee and on each ham was t 
black fpot; the footlock and feet black. It had only two horns. 

In the month of November it began to affume a foft woolly coat, 
like that of the Englifh fheep : fo fenfibly was it influenced by 
climate. When I firft received this animal it was extremely gentle; 
attended, me like a dog, in all my walks ; and leaped over every 
ftile in its way. It afterwards (on being introduced to fome 
females) grew fo vicious as to become dangerous, fo I was obliged 
to fend it to a mountain-inclofure, where it died. 

G. African. Aries guineenfis. Mar. palearibus laxis pilofis. Lin.fyji. o$. 

grave Brajil. 134. Rail fyn. quad. Zimmerman. 131. 

7 J. La Brebis de Gulnee. BriJJan quad, ji. 

Le Belier des Indes. de Bufon. xi. 362. Sheep of Sahara. Shatv's travels, 241. 

tab. xxxiv. &c. Carnero or Bell weiher. Delia Valle 
Ovis guineenfis. O. auribus pendulis, tra<v. 91. 

Meagre ; very long legged and tall : fhort horns : pendent 
ears, covered with hair inftead of wool : fhort hair : wattles on 
the neck. Perhaps the Adimaln of Leo Africanus, 341 ; which he 
fays furniflies the Lybians with milk and cheefe ; is of the fize of 
an afs, fhape of a ram, with pendent ears. Delia Valle tells us, 
that at Goa he has feen a wether bridled and faddled, which car- 

VII . 



ried a boy twelve years old. The Portuguefe call them Cabritto, 
They are very bad eating. 

H. Broad-tailed. Ludolpb. j£tb : .op. quad. <;o. Nov. Com. Petrop.v. 347. 

53. Ovis arabica. Caii opufc. 72. t.ib. viii. 

Gefner quad. Icsn. 15. Taunul. Sinens. Lc Mouton de Barbarie. de BufiM^xi. 

Ovis laticauda. Raii fy. quad. 74. Zim- 355. /a£. xxxiii. Sbaiv's travels, 541. 

merman. 129. Lin. Jyjl. 97. J?^? Rujfel's Aleppo, 51. 

Common in <Sjyrw, Barbary, and Mthiopia. Some of their 
tails end in a point, but oftener fquare or round. They are fo 
long as to trail on the ground, and the fhepherds are obliged to 
put boards with fmall wheels under the tails to keep them from 
galling. Thefe tails are efteemed a great delicacy, are of a fub- 
ftance between fat and marrow, and are eaten with the lean of 
the mutton. Some of thefe tails weigh 50 lb. each. 

The fhort thick-tailed fheep are common among the "Tartars *. 

The broad-tailed fheep are found in the kingdom of Thibet; 
and their fleeces, in finenefs, beauty, and length, are equal even 
to thofe of Caramania. The Cachemirians engrofs this article, and 
have factors in all parts of Thibet for buying up the wool, which 
is fent into Cachemir, and worked into JJiauls, fuperior in ele- 
gance to thofe woven even from the fleeces of their own coun- 
try. This manufacture is a confiderable fource of wealth-f-. 
Bernier relates, that in his days, JJjauls made exprefsly for the 
great omrahs, of the Thibetian wool, cofl a hundred and fifty rou- 

• Pa/las Spicil. Zool. fafc. xi. tab. iv. fig. 2. a. 
f Phil. Tranf. lxvii. 485. From Mr. Bogle's account^ 

Vol. I. G pees : 


42 SHEEP. 

pees : whereas thofe made of the wool of the country never cofl 
more than fifty *. 

Thefe articles of luxury have, till of late, been fuppofedto have 
been made with the hair of a goat, till we were undeceived by Mr. 
Bogle, a gentleman fent by Mr. Hajlings on a commidion to the 
TayJJxo Lama of Thibet. His account of that diftant country is 
inftru&ive and entertaining. We have fufficient in the Philofophical 
Transactions to make us regret that we have not the whole of that 
memorable million. 

Both the broad-tailed and long-tailed varieties were known to 
the antients. The Syrian are the kind mentioned. Arijlotk 
takes notice of the firft, Pliny of the fecond. One fays the tails 
were a cubit broad; the other, a cubit in length -f. 

I. The fat-rumped fheep; without tails: arched nofes; wat- 
tles; pendulous ears; and with curled horns, like the common 
fheep. The wool coarie, long, and in flocks: legs flender : head 
black. Ears of the fame color, with a bed of white in the mid- 
dle. The wool is generally white ; fometimes black, reddifh, and 
often lpotted. 

The buttocks appear like two hemifpheres, quite naked and 
fmooth, with the os coccygh between fcarcely fenfible to the 
touch. Thefe are compofed only of fuet; whence Dr. Pallas 
properly ftyles this variety ovis fteatopyges. Thefe fheep grow 
very large, even to two hundred pounds weight, of which the 
pofleriors weigh forty. 

* Birnier's voy. Cac.bemir. 95. By miftake he calls it the hair of a goat from 
Great Thibet. 

\ Anft. hid. an, viii. c. aS. Plin. viii. c. 48. 


\ 111 


('rr//< < I //,,,■ 

'"/' . 


Their bleating is fhort and deep, more like that of a calf thau 

They abound in all the dcferts of Tartary, from the Volga to 
the litis, and the Altaic chain : but are more or lefs fat accord- 
ing to the nature of the pafture : but moll Co where the vernal 
plants are found; and in the fummer, where there are herbs re- 
plete with juice and fairs, and where fait fprings and lakes im- 
pregnate the vegetation of the country. Thefe monftrous va- 
rieties are fnppofed to originate from difeafe, arifing from an ex- 
cefs of fat in the hind parts, which involved*, and at length de- 
firoyed the tail. 

By breeding between animals fimilarly affected, the breed was 
continued in thofe parts where food and climate have concurred 
to fupport the fame appearances. Thofe with fat tails, men- 
tioned in the variety G, are rather in the way to exhibit fuch An- 
gularity as this variety, or are a mixed breed between the com- 
mon and the tail-lefs kind. 

All abound fo greatly in Tartaiy, that 150,000 have been fold 
annually at the Orenburg fairs, and a much greater number at 
Troinkaja, in the Irkutjk government, bought from the Kirgifian 
Tartars, and difperfed through RuJJia. They are very prolific: 
vifually bring two at a time, often three. 

The next to be taken notice of is the ftock from which the 
whole domeftic race is derived. 

• This is exemplified in fig. 1. tab. iv. Zimmerman. 132. 

G x Mufimoa, 


44. SHEEP. 

H. Wild *, Mufimon, Plinii lib. viii. c. 49. & la chexrre du Levant, 46. 

Ophion, lib. xxviii. c. 9. xxx. c. 15. Le Mouflon, de Buffon, xi. 35 z- tab. 
Mufmon feu Muiimon, Gej'mr quad. 823. xxix. 

Zimmerman. 114. 546. Rupicapra cornubus arietinis. Argali, 
Capra Amnion, lin.jjfl. 97. AW. «»:. Petrop. iv. 49. 388. tai- 

Le Chamois de Siberie, BriJJon quad. 42. viii. 

Sibirian. 1. Sh. with horns placed on the fummit of the head, clofe 

at their bafes, rifing at firft upright, then bending down and 
twilling outward, like thofe of the common ram ; angular, 
wrinkled tranfverfely. In the females leffer and more upright, 
and bending backwards. 

Head like a ram ; ears leffer than in that animal; neck {len- 
der; body large; limbs flender but ftrong; tail very little more 
than three inches long: hoofs fmall, and like thofe of a fheep. 
Summer Coat. Hair in the fummer very fhort and fmooth, like that of a 

flag: the head grey: the neck and body brownifh, mixed with 
afh-colour: at the back of the neck, and behind each fhoulder, a 
dufky fpot : fpace about the tail yellowifh. 
Winter. In the winter, the end of the nofe is white; face cinereous; back 

ferruginous, mixed with grey, growing yellowifh towards the 
rump: the rump, tail, and belly white: the coat in this feafon 
rough, waved, and a little curling; an inch and a half long; about 
the neck two inches; and beneath the throat ftill longer. 

* It is called by the Kirgijtan Tartars, Argali, perhaps from Arga, an Alpine 
fummit : the ram, Guldjha. By the Kamtfcbatkans, Goddinacht/cb ; and by the 
Kuritiar.s, Rikun-donotob, or the Upper Rein Deer, from its inhabiting the loftier 
parts of the mountains. The Ruffians ftyle it Stepnoi Barann, or the Ram of the 
Deferf, Kamennoi, or the Reck Ram, and Dikoi, or the wild. Pallas. 


SHEEP. 45 

The ufual fize of the male is that of a fmaller hind; the fe- Size. 

males lefs: the form ftrona; and nervous. 

2. The fecond animal which I defcribe related to this fpecies, 
is the Mow pott of Strabo, and Mufmon of Pliny ; perhaps alfo the 
Ophion'ci the latter, and the wild ram of Oppian'*, which with 
its horns often laid proftrate even the wild boar. Thefe were 
natives of Spain, Sardinia, and Corfica, and are ftill exifting in 
thofe iflands. I have feen a pair from the firft at Taymouth, the 
feat of the Earl of Breadalbane, and another pair from the laft 
at, the feat of the late Thomas Anfon, Efq. 

n .« laft I defcribe thus. The height of the male, to the top Corsica^.. 
of the (houlders was two feet and a half: hides a light yellowifh 
hazel : horns, ten inches and a half long, five and a half round 
at the bafe, twelve inches diftant between tip and tip : Jinus la- 
crymalis very long. Ears Ihort and pointed; brown and hoary 
without, white within. Head fhort and brown ; lower part of 
the cheeks black ; fides of the neck tawny : lower part covered 
with pendent hairs fix inches long, and black. Body and moul- 
ders covered with brown hairs, tipped with tawny : on the middle 
of the fides a white mark pointing from the back to the belly. 
Belly, rump, and legs white; the laft have a dufky line on their 
infides. Tail Ihort : fcrotum (as common to all) pendulous, like 
that of a ram. 

The remains of Martino, a male animal of this kind, imported 
from Corfica by the illuftrious defender of the liberties of his 
country, General Paoli, is now preferved in the Leverian Mufeum. 
It was of the age of four years at the time of its deceafe. Its 

* Cyneg. ii. 330. Ophion EHnii lib. xxviii. c. 9. xxx. c. 15. 



horns are twenty-two inches long; the fpace between tip and tip 
near eleven ; the girtli near the bafe the fame. This poor ani- 
mal had die ill fortune to fall, in our land of freedom, into heavy 
flavery, and hard ufage, in the latter part of his life, which 
ftinted its growth, and prevented the luxuriancy of its horns ; 
which ought, at its age, to have had the volutes of a large- 
horned ram, to have been fifteen inches round at the bafe, and 
to have refembled thofe of the painting by Ondry. 

The colors of this fpecimen differed a little from the others, 
On the front of the neck is a large fpot of white. The fhoul- 
ders were covered with black hairs; bright and glofi'y in a ftate 
of vigor. On each fide of the back, near the loins, is a large 
bed of white. The eyes, when in health, large, bright, and ex- 

The male, in its native country, is called Mufro, the female 
Mufra. They inhabit the higheft parts of the Corfican alps, 
unlefs forced down by the fnows into rather lower regions. They 
are fo wild, and fo fearful of mankind, that the old ones are never 
taken alive: but are fhot by the ckijfeurs, who lie in wait for 

The females bring forth in the beginning of May, and the 
young are often caught after their dam is fhot. They inftantly 
grow tame, familiar, and attach themfelves to their mafter. 
They will copulate with the fheep: there is now an inftance in 
England of a breed between the ram of this fpecies, and a com- 
mon ewe. They are likewife very fond of the company of 

In a wild ftate, they feed on the moft acrid plants : and when 

lame will eat tobacco, and drink wine. 

4 Their 



Their flefh is favory, but always lean. The horns are ufed for 
powder-flafks, flung in a belt, by the Corjican peafants ; and Tome arc 
large enough to hold four or five pounds, of twelve ounces each. 

The Sardinians make ufe of the fkins dreffed, and wear them 
under their fkirts, under the notion of preferving them againft 
bad air. They alfo wear a furtout without fkeves, made of the 
fame materials, which falls below the knees, and wraps clofe 
about their bodies. The fkin is very thick, and might have been 
proof againft arrows, when thofe miffile weapons were in ufe. At 
prefent thefe furtouts are worn to defend them againft briars and 
thorns, in palling through thickets. In all probability they are 
the very fame kind of garment as the mafiruca fardorum* ', which Mastruca Sab.- 
the commentators on Cicero fuppofe to have been made of the D0RUM> 
fkins of the Mufro: and the Majlrucati Latrimculif the people 
who wore them. This is in a manner confirmed, as they are 
ftill in ufe with the latre or banditti of the ifland ; who find the 
benefit of them in their impetuous fallies out of the brakes of 
the country, on the objects of their rapine. 

The race is at prefent extinct in Spain; but is ftill found in Place. 
Sardinia and Corfica: whether it exifts ftill in Macedonia^, we are 
ignorant. It is found in thefe days in great abundance, but con- 
fined to the north-eaft of Af.a, beyond the lake Baikal, between 
the Onon and Argun, and on the eaft of the Lena to the height of 

• Quern purpura regalis non coramovit, eum fardarum mafiruca tentavit, 
Oratio pro M. jEmilio Scauro. 

f Cum mafirucatis latrunculis a propranore una cohorte auxiliaria gefta, &rc. 
De Provinciis conful. 

J Belon has given, in his Obfervauom, &c. p. 54. a figure and very accurate 
defcription of this animal, under the name of Tragilapbus. As he then wrote 
from Mount Athos, it probably was an inhabitant of the chain of mountains 
continued from that famous promontory, 


4 $ SHEEP. 

lat. 60; and from the Lena to Kamtfchatka; and perhaps the Kurili 
iflands. It abounds on the defert mountains of Mongolia, Songa- 
ria and Tartary. It inhabits the mountains of Perfia, and the 
north o*i Indojlan* . The breed once extended further weft, even 
to the Irtis; but as population increafed, they have retired to 
their prefent haunts, fhunning thofe of mankind. 
■California. It is probable that thefe animals are alfo found in California. 

The Jefuits who viiited that country in 1697, fay that they 
found a fpecies of fheep as big as a calf of a year or two old, 
with a head like that of a ftag, and enormous horns like thofe of 
a ram ; and with tail and hair fhorter than that of a ftag. This 
is very likely, as the migration from Kamtfchatka to America is 
far from being difficult. 
Once in Bri- They were once inhabitants of the Britifo ifles. Boethius men- 

tain. tions a fpecies of fheep in St. Kilda, larger than the biggeft he- 

goat, with tails hanging to the ground, and horns longer, and as 
thick as thofe of an ox-f. This account, like the reft .of his 
hiftory, is a mixture of truth and fable: I fhould have been filent 
on this head, had I not better authority; for I find the figure of 
this animal on a Roman fculpture, taken out of Antoninus' s wall near 
Glafgow \. It accompanies a recumbent female figure, with a 
rota or wheel, expreffive of a via or way, cut poffibly into Cale- 
donia ; where thefe animals might, in that early age, have been 
found. Whether they were the objects of worfhip, as among the 
antient Tartars, I will not pretend to fay; for among the graves 
of thofe diftant AJiatics, brazen images and ftone figures of their 
argali, or wild fheep, are frequently found ||. 

* Dr. Pallas. f Boelb. defc. Regn. Scotia;, 8. 

J Plates of the fculptures, publifhed by the univerfity of Glafgovo, tab. xvi. 

|| Pallas Spiril. Zool. fafc. xi. 19. Strabknhcrgs Hift, Rujfia, tab. B. 

8 Their 



Their prefent habitations, in Sibiria, are the fummits of the Manners. 
higheft mountains, expofed to the fun, and free from woods. 
They go in fmall flocks; copulate in autumn *, and bring forth, 
in the middle of March, one, and fometimes two young. At that 
feafon the females feparate from the males, and educate their 
lambs ; which when firft dropped are covered with a foft grey 
curling fleece, which changes into hair late in the fummer. At 
two months age the horns appear, are broad, and like the face 
of an ax. In the old rams they grow of a vaft fize. They are Great Horns. 
fometimes found of the length of two Ruffian yards, meafured 
along the fpires; weigh fifteen pounds apiece; and are fo capa* 
cious as to give flielter to the little foxes, who find them acci- 
dentally fallen in the wildernefs. Father Rubruquis, the traveller of 
1253, firft takes notice of thefe animals, under the name of Artak. 
He fays he had feen fome of the horns fo large, that he could 
fcarcely lift a pair with one hand; and that the Tartars made 
great drinking-cups with them f . 

They feed from fpring to autumn in the little vallies among the Foo*; 
tops of the mountains, on young fhoots and Alpine plants, and 
grow very fat. Towards winter they defcend lower, eat either the 
dry grafs, perennial plants, mofles, or lichens ; and are found very 
lean in the fpring. They are then purged by the early pulfatilU, 
and other fharp anemonoid plants, of which the tame fheep are 
alfo exceflively fond. They, befides, at all times of the year, fre- 
quent the places abundant in fait, as is frequent in every part of 
Sibiria, and excavate the ground, in order to get more readily at 
it. Thefe anfwer to the licking-places in America, and are the 
haunts of deer as well as argali. 

* Gmelin, in Nov. Com. Petrop. iv. 390. -f Parties, iii. 6. 

Vol. I. H They 



Tliey are very feaiful of mankind: when clofely purfued, they 
do not run in a progieffive courfe, but obliquely from fide to 
fide, in which they ihew the nature of fheep. They ftrive as 
foon as poffible to reach the rocky mountains, which they afcend 
with great agility; and tread the narroweft paths over the mod 
dangerous precipices with the greateft fafety. 

The old rams are very quarrelfome, and have fierce combats 
-among themfelves, fighting with their heads, like the common 
kind. They often ftrike their antagonist down the lteep preci- 
pices ; and their horns and bones are frequently found at the 
bottom ; a mark of the fatal effects of their feuds. . They will 
often entangle their horns accidentally, and thus locked, fall down 
together and perifh. 

They are important objects of the chace with the northern 
Usis. Jfmtlcs, for their ufes are considerable. The fiefh and fat are 

efteemed by the natives among the greateft delicacies. Doctor 
Pallas thought the lamb excellent; but the flefh, and efpecially 
the fat, of the old ones lefs agreeable, when boiled: but if roafted 
exceedingly good. The fkins, with their winter coat, ferve as 
warm raiments and coverlets: the horns for variety of neceflaries. 
Chace. The chace of thefe animals is both dangerous and difficult. As 

foon as they fee a man, they afcend to the higheft peaks of the 
rocks; and are (hot with the utmoft ftratagem, by winding round 
the rocks, and coming on them unaware. At other times they 
are taken in pit-falls made in the paths which lead to their fa- 
vorite fait or licking-places. Elks, ftags, and roes, and other wild 
beafts, are taken in thefe pits. They are oft'times (hot with crofs- 
Jqows, placed in the way of their .haunts, which difcharges its 



arrow whenever the bead treads on a firing fattened for that 
purpofe to the trigger. The Mongols and 'Tunguji nfe frequently 
a nobler method of chace, and furround them with horfes and 
dogs. The Kamifchatkans pafs the latter part of the fummer to 
December, with all their families, amidft the mountains, in pur- 
fuit of thefe animals *. The old rams are of vaft ftreng th. Ten 
men can fcarcely hold one. The young are very eafily made 
tame. The firft trial probably gave origin, among a gende race 
of mankind, to the domefticating thefe moft ufeful of quadru- 
peds : which the rude Kamtjcbatkans to this moment confider 
only as objects of the chace, while every other part of the world 
enjoy their various benefits, reclamed from a ftate of nature, 

Befides the notices before cited, taken of thefe animals by the 
antients, I may add, that Varro informs us, that in his days there 
were wild iheep in Pbrygiaf. Strabo fpeaks of the rams of Sar- 
dinia, which have hair inftead of wool, and are called mufmones \. 
Of their fkins were made both breaft-plates and cloathing. 

The antients did not negledl experiments whether they could 
not improve the breed. Columella || fays, that his uncle, M. 
Columella, a man of ftrong fenfe, and an excellent farmer, pro- 
cured fome wild rams, which had been brought among other 
cattle to Caks from Africa, by way of tribute, which were of a 
very lingular color. Thefe he turned to his common ftieep. The 
firft produce was lambs with a rough coat, but of the fame color 
with the rams. Thefe again produced, from the Tartntine ewes, 
lambs with finer fleeces ; and in the third generation, the fleeces. 

* Hift. Kamifchatia. -\ De re ruft. lib. ii. c»i. \ Lib. v. p. 344* 

j| De re mil. lib. vii. c. 2. 

H 2 v/ere 




were as fine as thole of the ewes, but the color the fame with 
that of the father and grandfather. This breed was the fame 
which the old Romans called umbri ; or fpurious *. But there had 
been once a notion, that the animal itfelf was no more than an 
Hybridous production. 

Tityrus ex ovibus oritur, hircoque parente : 
Mufimonem capra ex vervegno femine gignit f. 

14. Bearded. Tragelaphus feu Hirco-cervus, Caii Sibirian Goat.. fyn. quad. No. 11. ed. ill. 
tpufi. 59. 


H. with the hairs on the lower part of the cheeks and upper 
jaws extremely long, forming a divided or double beard : 
with hairs on the fides, and body fhort : on the top of the neck 
longer, and a little erect. The whole under part of the neck 
and fhoulders covered with coarfe hairs, not lefs than fourteen 
inches long. Beneath the hairs, in every part, was a fhort ge- 
nuine wool, the rudiments of a fleecy cloathing : the color of the 
breaft, neck, back, and fide, a pale ferruginous. Tail very fhort. 

Horns clofe at their bafe ; recurvated ; twenty-five inches long ; 
eleven in circumference in the thickeft place; diverging, and 
bending outwards; their points being nineteen inches diftant 
from each other. 
Place. * bought the fkin of this animal in Holland. The perfon who 

fold it, informed me that it came from the Eqft Indies: but I 

• Plin. Hill. Nat. lib. viii. c. 49. 

t An old epigram quoted by Hardeuin, on the above pa/Tage in Pliny. 

8 rather 



Imt^dX Aulr 

■ Sta / (As/ ') '//rr/s . I . 

n ■ 

SHEEP. $3 

rather imagine it was brought from Barbary, it being probably Barbary. 
the fame with the Lerwee or Fijhtal of Do&or Shaw '*; who fays, 
that his Lerwee is a moll timorous animal, plunging down the 
rocks and precipices when purfued. 

The fame animal was brought into England from Barbary in 
1 56 1, and well defcribed by my countryman, Dodlor Kay or 
Caius. He fays, that it inhabited the mountanous and rocky 
parts of Mauritania ; and feemed in confinement to be very 
gentle: full of play, and frolickfome, like a goat. The horns 
were like thofe of a ram. They were larger in all refpects than 
thofe I defcribe, fo belonged to a larger-fized animal, which he de- 
fcribes to be three feet and a half high to the mane: its 
whole length, four feet and a half. Under fide of the neck co- 
vered with very long hairs, falling as low as the knees : the 
knees covered alfo tranfverfely with long and thick hair, to pre- 
ferve them from injury from falls, in any of its vaft leaps. In my 
fpecimen, thofe parts were guarded by a callus : perhaps the hairs 
were rubbed off. 

The fkin I purchafed was defective about the face. I could 
not therefore remark nor underftand the divided beard defcribed 
by Dottor Caius, till I met with a very fine print, engraven by 
Bafan, from a painting by Oudry, taken from the living animal 
in the French King's menagery. From the print it appears that 
there was no beard on the chin; but that it was formed in the 
manner I defcribe by the affiftance of the engraving, which fup- 
plied me with the idea given by the learned phyfician. 

This I believe to be the Tragelaphus of Pliny +, not only on 
account of its beard, and the great length of hair on its fhoul- 

* Travels, 243. + Lib. viii, c. 33. 



ders ; but likewife of the place where that Roman naturalift fays 
it was found, near the river Phafis ; for I am informed by Doctor 
Pallas, that an animal with a divided. beard, probably the fame, 
has lately been difcovered by Profeffor GuihknJIaedt, on the moun- 
tains oiCancafus; from whofe foot * ariles the very river, on whofe 
banks were its antient haunts. 

This fpecies and the laft agree greatly together, the beard 
excepted, and great length of hair on the breaft. 




Horns bending backward, and almoft clofe at their bafe. IV. GOAT. 

Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the upper. 
The male bearded. 

Ibex. Plinl: lib. viii. c. 53. lis, In dorfum reclinatis, gulabarbata. i$- Ibex; 

Bouc eitniii. Bclon. obi. 14. Bouc fau- Lin.Jyll. 95. Klein quad. 16. 

vage. GaftondcFoix. 99. Capricorne. Le Bouquetin. de Buffon, xii. 136. tai. 

Munjler C-j'mogr. 381. xrii. xiv. Zimmerman. 114. 

Ibex. Gefier quad. 303. Raii fyn. quad. Steinbock. Kram. Auftr. 321. Ridingtr 

jy. Brijfon quad. 39. kteineThiere.No. 71. Br. Muf. Afim* 

Capra Ibex. C. Cornibus fupra nodo- Muf. Lev. Mus. 

Gwith large knotted horns, reclining backwards ; fometimes 
• three feet long. Eyes large, head fmall. Male fur™ 
■nifhed with a dufky beard. Hair rough. Color a deep brown, 
mixed with fome hoary. Legs partly black, partly white. Space 
under the tail, in fome tawny, in others white. Belly of a tawny- 
white. Tail fhort. Body fhort, thick, and ftrong. Legs ftrong. 
Hoofs very fhort. 

Females are leffer than the males; have fmaller horns, like 
thofe of the common fhe-goat; and have few knobs on the upper 

In Europe, inhabits the Carpathian and Pyranean mountains; and Place. 
on the higher piers of the Sierra de Ronda, in the province of 
Granada*; in the Grifons country ; and in the Vallais, amidft the 
higheft points of die Rhatian Alps, amidft fnow and glacieres. They 
are exceflively wild, and difficult to be fhot : in very fevere weather 

* Carter's NiJ. Malaga, 

■9 defcend v 

56 IBEX. 

defcend a little, in queft of pafturage. The males, during the time 
of rutting, bray horribly. The females, at the time of parturi- 
tion, feparate from the males, and retire to the fide of fome rill 
to bring forth : have one, or at moft two, at a time. 

Their chace very difficult and dangerous : being very ftrong, 
they fometimes tumble the incautious huntfmen over the preci- 
pices, except they have time to lie down, and let the animals 
run over them. 

It is faid, that if they are hard preiTed, and cannot efcape 
otherwife, they will fling themfelves down the fteep precipices, 
and fall on their horns fo as to efcape unhurt. Certain it is, 
that they are often found with one horn, the other being broken 
by the fall *. Some pretend, that to get out of the reach of the 
huntfmen, they will hang by their horns over the precipices, by 
a projecting tree, and remain fufpended till the danger is paft. 

Their flefh is efteemed good. Their blood was once in great 
repute in pleurifies. They are faid not to be long-lived. 

It is found in JJla, on the rude fummits of that chain of moun- 
tains from Taurus, continued between eaftern Tartary and Sibi- 
ria. It likewife inhabits the tract beyond the Lena; and per- 
haps Kamtfchatka : and a few are found to the eaft of the Jenefei, 
The Tartars call them Tau Tokke, or mountain goats. The horns 
of thefe feem more incurvated than thofe of the European j other- 
wife they agree. 

This animal alfo inhabits the province of Hedsjas, in Arabia f, 
and is called there, Baden. 

Laftly, it is found in the high mountains of Crete ; where 

* PalUs. f Fcrjkal. iv. 




BcIoh fays, that if one of them is wounded by an arrow, it cures 
jtfelf by browzing the herb dittany. Pliny favs, that flags ex- 
tract the {reeled inftrumcnt by the fame remedy *. He fpeaks 
much of their amazing agility. 

The former writer informs us, that there are two fpecies of 
thefe animals, and that he had feen the horns of each. This is 
now verified. The fecond I call the Qmcafany being lately dif- 
covered by profefibr Guildenjlaedt on that vaft chain of moun- 

Pa/en; Capricerva, Kttmpfer, Amscn. Act. Petrop. Acad. 1779. p. 273. 16. Caucasan. 

exot. 398. wEegag-us. Pallas SpiciJ. Zool. xi. 4J. 
Wild goat, 'Taveruiers Tr.iv. ii. 153. tdb. v. fig. 2, 3. 

Monardui de Lap, Eezcar 8. Ztmintimun, 062. Mus. Lev. 


with fmooth black horns, fharply ridged on their upper 
parts, and hollowed on their outward fides. No vef- 
tio-es of knots or rings, but on the upper furface are fome wavy 
rifm<*s: bend much back, like thofe of the laft; are much hooked 
at the end; approach a little at the points. Length three feet. 
Are clofe at the bafe : one foot diftant in the wideft part : only 
eight inches and a half from tip to tip. The weight of a pair in 
the Leverian Mufeum weighed ten pounds. 

On the chin a great beard, dufky, mixed with chefnut. Fore- jj e 
part of the head black, the fides mixed with brown; the reft of the 
animal grey, or grey mixed with ruft-color. Along the middle of 

• Hill. Nat lib. viii. c. 27. 

Vol. I. I the 




the back, from the neck to the tail, is a black lift. The belly, 
infide of the limbs, and fpace beneath the tail, white. The tail 
alfo black. 

The female is either deftitute of horns, or has very fhort ones, aivd 
is beardlefs. 
Size. In fize it is fuperior to the largeft he-goats, but in form and 

agility refernbles a flag: yet Monardus compares it to the he- 
goat, and fays that it has the feet of the goat. 
Place. Inhabits theloftieft and moft rude points of Caucafus, among the 

fchiftous rocks, and chiefly about the rivers Kuban and Terek. All 
Afia Minor*, and perhaps the mountains of India. They abound 
on the inhofpitable hills of Laar and Khorazanva Peifia; and accord- 
ing to Monardus are alfo found in Africa. They may likewife be 
found in Crete, and even on the Alps; for I find among the figures 
of animals by that great artift Ridinger, one f vvhofe horns bear a 
refemblance to thofe in queftion. The Tartars and Georgians make 
ufe of their horns for drinking cups, and highly efteem their fdefh. 
Agility. ^ 1S an animal of vaft agility. Monardus was witnefs to the 

manner of its faving itfelf from injury by falling on its horns; 
for he faw that which he defcribes leap from a high tower,, pre- 
cipitating itfelf on its horns ; then fpringing on its legs, and 
leaping about, without receiving the left harm. They go to rut 
in November, and bring forth in April, therefore, like the common 
goat, are with young five months. 
Bezoar. This is one of the animals which yields the once-valued alexi- 

pharmic, the Bezoar-ftone; which is a concretion formed of many 

t Nov. Com. Petro}. xx. 4J2. •}- Entivurf Einiger Thiere, 71. 

3 coarse 


coats, incrufting a nucleus of fmall pebble, ftones of fruits, bits 
of ftraw, or buds of trees. The incrufting coats are created 
from the vegetable food of the animals, efpeciallj* the rich, drv, 
and hot herbs of the Perfian and Indian mountains. Its virtues 
lire now exploded, and it is reckoned only an abforbent, and that 
of the weakeft kind. 

The orientalifts call the true kind Pajahr, from the word 
Pa/en, the name of an animal which produces it in Peijia; and 
from Pafahr is derived the word Bezoar*. It is produced from 
numbers of animals; from tame goats, cows, antelopes, deer, 
Lama, paces, and even porcupines, and the apes of Macajfar j. 
Thofe which are procured from the American animals are called 
occidental, and were left efteemed. But the oriental were lb 
highly valued, that Taveniier fold one, weighing 4-^ oz. for 2000 , 


Since the difcovery of this fpecies of goat, to it muft be This one Stocs 
given the origin of the tame, as there is the greateft conformity 
between its horns and thofe of the domeftic kinds-, unlets we can 
fuppofe that the latter, from their way of life, have loft the knots, 
the great character of the ibex, which I once fuppofed to be their 
only flock. I cannot help thinking with Doclor Pallas, that they 
may be derived from both, efpecially as we are allured that an 
union between the ibex and fhe goats will produce a fruitful off- 
fpring J : yet Mr. Ciddenjlaedt fays that the mountaineers of Caucafus 
never have obferved them to mix or couple with the common goats. 
I will therefore now proceed to the tame goat, and all its varie- 

* Ktempfer. f Taveniier, ii. 154. % Pallas Sp. Zool. xi. 48. 

Is a. Domestic. 

of the tame 


u. Domestic. CaDra, Gefncr quad. 266. Siege Klein quad. t F . 

Rati fyi:. qur.d. 77. Le Bouc, la chevre de Buffan, v. cq, 
Q. hircus, Lin./yjl. C. cornibus carinatis BriJIon quad. 38. 

arcuatis. 94. Goat, Br. Zcol. i. N° J. 
Gef. Faun. fuec. N° 44. Siegen Bock, 

The horns of the tame goats have a curvature outwards to- 
wards their ends. I have a pair belonging to a Welfo he-goat 
three feet five inches long, and three feet two inches between tip 
and tip. The color of the domeftic goats varies : the hair in 
fome long : in thofe of hot countries fmooth and fhort. 

Inhabits moft parts of the world, either native or naturalized : 
bears all extremes of weather; being found in Europe as high as 
Wardbuys in Norway, where they breed and run out the whole 
year ; but in winter only have, during night, the lhelter of 
hovels : feed in that feafon on mofs and the bark of fir-trees, and 
even of the logs cut for fuel. Their fkins in Norway and 
JVeft Bothnia an article of commerce*. Thrive equally well in 
the hotteft part of Africa f, and in India, and its iflands J. 

It is not a native of the new world, having been introduced 
there firft by the difcoverers of that continent; for the Ameri- 
cans were unacquainted with every domeftic animal, with flieep, 
goats, hogs, cows, and horfes ||. The increafe of thefe animals in 

f LACS. 

* Doftor Sol a ndek. 
•J- Bo/man, 227. 

J Dampier,\. \zo. Beedman's voyage to Borneo, 36. 

|i Ovalle's hi/}. Chile. Churchill's cell. iii. 43. Jacques Carthierf voy. Canada. 
HttckluyC s all. iii. 233. 


GOAT. 61 

all parts, efpecially on the fouthern tract of that continent, iY 
prodigious; but in the rigorous climate of Canada the animal in 
cjtieftion is too delicate to perpetuate its race * ; fo that new fup- 
plies are annually imported to prevent its extinction. We men- 
tion this, as an agreeable effayift on hufbandryf, and the Szoedijb 
naturaliftj, have given to America animals to which it has no 

No animal feems fo fubject to varieties (the dog excepted) as Varieties. 
the goat ; Capra tamen in multis fimilitudines tramfinirantur, is a 
very juft obfervation of Pliny § ; for befides thofe of Britain and 
France, are the following, that differ extremely from each other : 
at the head of thefe fhould be placed one not lefs eminent for its 
beauty than its ufe. 

( S Angora; Lin./yft.^\. De Buffbn,v. 71. Brijfon quad. 39. Zimmerman^ 
134. Lev. Mus. 

A variety that is confined to very narrow bounds ; inhabiting 
only the tract that furrounds Angora and Beibazar, towns in 
Aflat ix Turkey ||, for the diftance of three or four days journey. 
Strabo 4- feems to have been acquainted with this kind ; for fpeak- 
ing of the river Halys, he fays, that there are goats found near it 
that are not known in other parts. 

* De Btiffbn,\x, 71. 

t P. 137- 

J Sjfl. nat. p. 95. {p. 6. Sc 7. 

J Lib. viii. c. 53. || Tournt/crt's <voj. ii. 351. 4. Lib. xii. p. 823. 

6 In 

62 GOAT. 

In the form of their body they differ from the common goat, 
being fhorter; their legs too are fhorter, their fides broader and 
flatter, and their horns ftraiter; but the moft valuable charac- 
terise is their hair, which is foft as filk, of a glofly filvery 
whitenefs, and curled in locks of eight or nine inches in length. 
Uses. This hair is the bafis of our fine camlets, and imported to 

England, in form of thread ; for the Turks will not permit it to be 
exported raw, for a reafon that does them honor; becaufe it fup- 
ports a multitude of poor, who live by fpinning it *. 

The goatherds of Angora and Beibazar are extremely careful 
of their flocks, frequently combing and wafhing them. It is ob- 
ferved, that if they change their climate and pafture, they lofe 
their beauty; we therefore fufpect that the defign of Baron Al~ 
ftroemer, a patriotic Sivede, turned out fruitlefs, who imported 
fome into his own country, to propagate the breed, for the fake 
of their hair. 

We imagine that the goats of Cougna (the old Iconhni) are 
varieties of the Angora kind; for Tonrnefort mentions them to- 
gether, and fays the former are preferred becaufe the latter are 
all either brown or black. 

The horns of the he-goat do not bend, but Hand diverging 
from each other; their length is two feet one; the fpace be- 
tween tip and tip two feet ten and a half; they are twilled fpi- 
rally, in a moft elegant manner. The horns of the female bend 
back, and are fhort. 

* HaJfcljuiJ!' 's voy. Etig. tranjl. 191. Tourtiefort <voy. ii. 351. According to 
Hieuhtjf they are alio found at Gomron, Churchill's coll. 232. 

y Syrian, 



v ' ■ / ' 

GOAT. 63 

y Syrian. Capra mambrina feu fyriaca. Brijfon quad. 47. 

G'fner quad. 153. Raiijyn. quad. 8 1 . Prafper Alp. hijt. JEgyfti, i. 2 29. 

C. cornibus reclinatis, auribus pen- Rauvoolff' s trwveh, ii. 71. RuJ/il's Aleppo, 

dulis, gula barbata. Lin. jyjl. 95. 62. Zimmerman, 335. 

Plentiful in the Eaf : fupply Aleppo with milk. Their ears of 
a vaft length, hanging down like thofe of hounds : are from one 
to two feet long : fometimes they are fo troublefome, that the 
owners cut off one to enable the animal to feed with more eafe. 
The horns are black and fhort. 

The fame fpecies is alfo found among the Kirgkijlan Tartars, 
and fometimes brought down to AJlracan. 

$ African. Capra deprefla. C. cornibus Le bouc d'Afrique. Be Bujfitt, xiii. 154. 
ereftis apice recurvis. Lin. fyji. 95. tab. xvili. xlx. Lev. Mds. 

A dwarf variety, found in Africa. The male covered with 
rough hair, and beneath the chin hang two long hairy wattles : 
the horns fhort, very thick, and triangular, and lie fo clofe to the 
fcull as almoft to penetrate it : the horns of the female are much 
lefs, neither has it wattles : its hair is fmooth. 

£ Whidaw. Capra reverfa. C. cor- fyfl-^- 

nibus depreffis incurvis minimis era- Le bouc de Juda. De Bujjtm, xii. 154, 
nio incumbentibus, gula barbata. Lin. tab. xx. xxi. 

From Juda or Wh'nlazv, in Africa. A fmall kind: the horns 
ihort, fmooth, and turn a little forwards. Linnaus fays, that this 


i 4 

C O A T. 

-and the preceding came from America; but certainly, before its 
difcovery by the Spaniards, the goat and every other domeitic 
animal was unknown there. 

£ Capricorn. Lc C.ipricorne. Dc B.tjln, xii. 146. tab. xv. 

A variety with fhort horns, the ends turning forward : their 
fides annulated : the rings more prominent before than behind. 

In the country of the Cabouas, north of the Cape of Good 
Hope, is a fpecies of tame goats refembling the common kind, 
only that they want horns*. 


17. Pudb. Le Pndu Molina Chili 291. Ovis Pudu Gmtlin Lin. 201. 

with brown hair; round fmooth horns turning outwards: 
fize of a kid fix months old: no beard; in all other 
refpeds has quite the characters of the goat. 
Place. Inhabits the Andes; defcends at approach of winter, in vafr. 

herds, to feed on the fouthern plains of Chili. The Chilians catch 
them in great numbers, not only for food, but for the fake of rearing 
them, in which they have great fuccefs : they are gentle animals, 
and very foon domefticated. 

"* Journal hiftorique, 76. 




//""//"■"'' <"''"'''/""''■-■ ,A ' 


Horns fhort, upright, truncated at the top. V. GIRAFFE. 

Neck and (houlders of a vaft length. 

Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, the two outmoft bilo- 
bated. No teeth in the upper jaw. 

Camelopardalis. PH/iii lib. viii. c. 18. Dion Cervus camelopardalis. C.comibus fim- 18 Cameloparb. 

Cajjius, lib. xliii. Prreneft.pawm. apitd plicibus, pedibus anticis longiffimis. 

Shatvfupp/.SS. Opjiian cyneg.'iu. 466. Lin. fyji. 92. Tragus Giraffa. Klein, 

La Giraffe que les Arab's nomment Zur- quad. 22. Zimmerman, 534. Spar- 

napa. Belon obf. 118. 119. Leo Afr. man's voy. ii. 149. 237. Pater/en's 

337. Gefmr quad. 1 60. Raiijyn. quad. Travels. 1 2 J. 

90. Brijpmquad. 37. De Buffon, xiii. 1 , 

Gwith fhort ftrait horns covered with hair, and truncated 
• at the end and tufted : in the forehead a tubercle, 
about two inches high, refembling a third horn. The length, 
according to the meafurement given by Mr. Hop in his journal 
hijiorique, p. 28, from the nofe to the tip of the tail above eighteen 
feet. Height from the crown of the head to the foles of the fore 
feet feventeen feet : from the top of the rump to the bottom of 
the hind feet only nine : length of the neck feven : from the 
withers to the loins only fix : the fore legs not longer than the 
hind legs ; but the (boulders of a vaft length, which gives the 
difproportionate height between the fore and hind parts : the cheft 
extremely projecting, and almoft tuberous : head refembles that of a 
ftag : the neck flender and elegant : on the upper part is a fhort erect 
mane : the ears large : horns, according to Mr. Paler/on, one foot 
and half an inch long, ending abrupt, and with a tuft of hair ifluing 
from the fummit : they are not deciduous. 

Vol. I. K The 


The height of that killed by Mr. Paterfon was only fifteen feet. 
The head is of an uniform reddifh brown : thenetk, back, and fides, 
outfides of the moulders and thighs varied with large tefTellated, 
dull ruft-colored marks of a fquare form, with white feptaria, or 
narrow divifions : on the fides the marks are lefs regular : the 
belly and legs whitifh, faintly fpotted : the part of the tail next to 
the body is covered with fhort fmooth hairs, and the trunk is very 
flender : towards the end the hairs are very long, black, and coarfe; 
and forming a great tuft hanging far beyond the tip of the trunk: 
the hoofs are cloven, and nine inches broad, and black. This 
animal wants the fpurious hoofs. 

The female has four teats. Mr. Pater/on faw fix of thefe animals 
together ; pofiibly they might have been the male and female, 
with their four young. 
Placb and Inhabits the forefts of ^Ethiopia, and other interior parts of 

Manners. Africa, almoft as high as Senegal; but is not found in Guinea, or 

any of the weftern parts; and I believe not farther fouth than 
about lat. 28. 10*, among the Nemaques on the northern fide of 
the Orange river. It is very timid, but not fwift : from the 
ftrange length of its fore legs, cannot graze without dividing 
them to a vaft diftance ; it therefore lives by brouzing the leaves 
of trees, efpecially that of the mimofa and a tree called the wild 
aprico:: kneels like a camel when it would lie down ; and is a gentle 
animal. When it would leap, it lifts up its fore legs and then its 
hind, like a horfe whofe fore legs are tied. It runs very badly and 
aukwardly, but continues its courfe very long before it flops. It is 
very difficult to diftinguilb this animal at a diftance, for when find- 
ing they look like a decayed tree by reafon of their form, fo are 

* Journal hiilorique, &c. 24. 



parTed by, and by tbat deception efcape. I faw the fkin of a young 
one at Leyden, well fluffed, and preferved ; otherwife might poflibly 
have entertained doubts in refpeft to the exiftence of fo extraor- 
dinary a quadruped. Belon's figure very good. 

Known to the Romans in early times ; appears among the 
figures in the affemblage of eajlern animals on the celebrated 
Pranejlim Pavement, made by the direction of Sylla, and is re- 
prefented both grazing and bronzing, in its natural attitudes : was 
exhibited at Rome by the popular Qefar, among other animals in 
the Circaan games. Finely and juflly defcribed by Opfian. 


K 2 Annulated 


VI. ANTELOPE- Annulated or twifted horns. 

Eight broad cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the 

Infide of the ears marked lengthways with three feathered 

lines of hair. 
Limbs of a light and elegant form. 

TH E feveral fpecies that compofe this genus, two or three 
excepted, inhabit the hotteft part of the globe; or at left 
thofe parts of the temperate zone that lie fo near the tropics as 
to form a doubtful climate. 

None therefore, except the Saiga*, and the Chamois, are to be 
met with in Europe; and, notwithftanding the warmth of South 
America is fuited to their nature, yet not a fingle fpecies has 
ever been difcovered in any part of the new world. Their pro- 
per climates feem therefore to be thofe of Afta and Africa, 
where the fpecies are very numerous. 

As there appears a general agreement in the nature of the fpe- 
cies that form this great genus, it will prevent a needlefs repe- 
tition, to obferve here, that the Antelopes are animals generally 
of a moft elegant and active make; of a reftlefs and timid difpofi- 
tion ; extremely watchful ; of great vivacity ; remarkably fwift, re- 

• Found between the Don and Dnieper ; and, as I have heard, even Tranjjl- 



markably agile; and mod of their boundings fo light, fo elaftic, as 
to ftrike the fpe£tator with aftonilhment. What is verv Angular, 
they will ftop in the midlt of their courfe, for a moment gaze at 
their purfuers, and then refume their flight*. 

As the chace of thefe animals is a favorite diverfion with the 
eaftern nations, from that may be collected proofs of the rapid 
fpeedofthe Antelope tribe. The Grehound, the fleeted: of dogs, 
is ufually unequal in the courfe; and the fportfman is obliged to 
call in the aid of the Falcon, trained to the work, to feize on the 
animal and impede its motions, to give the dogs opportunity of 
overtaking it. In India, and in Perjia, a fort of Leopard is made 
life of in the chace: this is an animal that takes its prey not by 
fwiftnefs of foot, but by the greatnefs of its fprings, by motions 
fimilar to that of the Antelope; but fhould the Leopard fail in 
its firft eflay, the game efcapesf. 

The fleetnefs of this animal was proverbial in the country it 
inhabited even in the earlieft times : the fpeed of Ajahel \ is 
beautifully compared to that of the || Tzebi; and the Gadites 
were faid to be as fvvift as the Roes upon the mountains. The 
facred writers took their fimilies from fuch objecls as were be- 
fore the eyes of the people they addrefled themfelves to. There 
is another inftance drawn from the fame fubjecT:; the difciple 
raifed to life at Joppa was fuppofed to have been called Tabitha, 
i. e. Dorcas, or the Antelope, from the beauty of her eyes; and 

* Sba<w's trav. 244: 

f Ber/iier'i trav. iv. 4$. Voy. de Boullayt le Gouz, 248. 
J 2 Sam. ii. 1 8. 

|| Shaw's trav. fuppl. 74; who informs us, that this word fhould have been 
iranilated, the Antelope; not the Roe, as the text has it. 




this is ftill a common comparifon in the Eajl: Aim el Czazel, or 
" You have eyes of an Antelope," is the greateft compliment 
that can be paid to a fine woman *, 

Some fpecies of the Antelopes form herds of two or three 
thoufands, while others keep in fmall troops of five or fix. They 
generally refide in hilly countries ; though fome inhabit plains t 
they often bronze like the goat, and feed on the tender fhoots of 
trees, which gives their flefh an exelknt flavor. This is to be 
underftood of thofe that are taken in the chace; for thofe that 
are fattened in houfes are far lefs delicious. The flefh of fome 
fpecies are faid to-tafte of mufk, which perhaps depends on the 
qualities of the plants they feed on. 

This preface was thought neceffary, to point out the difference 
in nature between this and the Goat kind, with which moft of 
the fyftematic writers have clafled this animal: but the Ante- 
lope forms an intermediate genus., a link between the Goat and 
the Deer. They agree with the firft, in the texture of the horns, 
which have a core in them ; and they never caft them : with the 
kft, in the elegance of their form, and great fwiftnefs. 

* with hooked horns. 
iq.Gnod. Eos Gnou. Zimmerman, 372. Journal //j/?.. 5 3 . tab. js 54. Lev. Mus. 

Horns. A with horns fcabrous, and thick at the bafe, bending forward 

il» clofe to the head, then fuddenly reverting upwards: 
the ends fmooth . bafes two inches diftant : tips one foot three 1 
length along the curve one foot five. The females are horned 

• Fr. Alp. hif. JEgjpt. u 232. 


G N O U. 

exaflly like the males*. Horns in the young animals quite 

Mouth fquare; upper and lower tip covered with fhort ftiff Head. 
hairs : the lower with long briftles intermixed. Noftrils covered 
with broad flaps. From the nofe, half way up the front, is a 
thick oblong-fquare bruih of long ftiff black hairs reflected up- 
wards, on each of which the other hairs are long, and point 
clofely down the cheeks. Round the eyes are difpofed in a radi- 
ated form feveral ftrong hairs. 

Neck (hort, and a little arched. On the top a ftrong and up- Neck. 

right mane, reaching from the horns beyond the ftioulders. On 
the chin a long white beard; and on the gullet a very long pen- 
dulous bunch of hair. On the breaft, and between the fore legs, 
the hairs are very long, and black. 

Tail reaches to the firft joint of the legs, and is full of hair Tail. 

like that of a horfe, and quite, white. 

The body is thick; and covered with fmooth fhort hair of a Color. 

rufty brown color tipt with white. 

Legs long, elegant, and flender, like thofe of a flag. On each 
foot is only a fingle fpurious or hind hoof. 

The height of one brought over to the Hague was three feet Sise.' 

and a half. The length from between the ears to the anus fix 
and a half: but they grow to a greater fize. 

It is a ftrange compound of animals : having a vaft head like 
that of an ox : body and tail like a horfe : legs like a flag : and 
the finns lacrymales of an antelope. 

The flefh is of a very fine grain, very juicy and of a mod de- 
licate flavor, in tafte refembling that of others of the genus, and 
without the left refemblance to that of beef. 

* Sparman, 
4- tt 


?2 G N O U. C H A M O I S. 

Place. It inhabits in great herds the fine plains of the great Namac- 

quas, far north of the Cape of Good Hope, extending from S. lat. 
25. to 28. 42. where Africa feems at once to open its vaft treafures 
of hoofed quadrupeds. It probably may be found higher, but as 
yet that is uncertain. 

It is exceedingly fierce, and ufually on the fight of any body 
drops its head and puts itfelf into an attitude of offence : and 
will dart with its horns againft the pales of the inclofure towards 
the perfons on the outfide; yet will afterwards take the bread 
which is offered. It will often go upon its knees, run fwiftly in 
that lingular pofture, and furrow the ground with its horns and legs. 
Name. The Hottentots call it Gnou from its voice. It has two notes, 

one refembling the bellowing of an ox, the other more clear. It 
is called an ox by the Europeans. I therefore fufpecl: the wild grey 
ox, of great fwiftnefs, defcribed by Leo, to be of this kind ; and 
perhaps the Baas, p. 36 of this work. 

20. Chamois. Rapicapra, Pllnli lib. viii. c. 15. Gef- Brljfon quad. 41. de Buffbn, xii. ^6. 

ner quad. 290. Rail fyn. quad. 78. tab. xvi. 

Scheucbzer. It. J/p.i. 155. &c. Gemfe, Klein quad. 18. Ridinger Kleint 

Capra rupicapra. C. Cornibus ereftis Thiers, No. 72. wild Tbiere, 25. 

uncinatis. Lin.fyjl. 9$. Antilope rupicapra. Pallas mifal. 4. 

Chamois ou Yfard. Belon obf. 54. Sficil. xii. 12. Lev. Mus. 
Yfarus ou Sarris. Gajton de Foix, 99 *. 

Gwith flender, black, upright horns, hooked at the end : be- 
• hind each a large orifice in the fkin : forehead brown : 
cheeks, chin, and throat white : belly yollowifh : reft of the body 

• Gafion de Foix, Seigneur du Ru, commonly called Roy Phebus, a celebrated 
writer on hunting, whofe works are added to thofe of Jaques de Fouilloux, en- 
titled, La Veneris (J Fauconnerie. Paris, 1585. 

5 deep 


■deep brown : hair long : tail fhort : hoofs much divided, fhort 
and goat-like. 

In fome (differing perhaps in fex) the cheeks and chin are 
dufky, and the forehead white. 

Inhabits the Alps of Daupbine, Switzerland, and Italy; the Pyra- Place. 

nean mountains, the Sierra de Ro>ida, Greece, Crete, and the mountains 
of Caucafus and Taurus. It does not dwell fo high in the hills as 
the Ibex, and is found in greater numbers. They feed before fun- 
rife and after fun-fet : during winter lodge in hollows of the rocks, 
to avoid the falls of the Avelenches : during that feafon, eat the 
ilender twigs of trees, or the roots of plants, or herbs, which they 
find beneath the fnow: are very timid and watchful: each herd 
has its leader, who keeps centry on fome high place while the reft 
are at food ; and if it fees an enemy, gives a fhort fort of a hifs by 
way of fignal, when they inftantly take to flight. 

They have a moft piercing eye, and quick ear and fcent : 
are exceffively fwift and active : are hunted during winter for 
their Ikins, which are very ufeful in manufactures, and for the 
flefh, which is very well tafted. The chace is a laborious em- Chaos. 

ploy : they muft be got at by furprize, and are fhot with rifle- 
barrel'd guns. In their ftomachs is often a hairy ball, covered 
with a hard cruft of an oblong form : are faid to be long lived: 
bring two, feldom three, young at a time. 

Vol. I. L ** With 



** With arcuated horns. 

CI. Blwi. ElueGoat. Kolbeti'sCape ii. 114. Spirit. Zoo!. 6. Br. Muf. Lev. Mui, 

Antelope Leucophcea. Pallas Mi/cel. 4. Le Tzeiran de Buffon/u'pl. vi. 168. 


with (harp-pointed, taper, arcuated horns, bending back- 
wards, marked with twenty prominent rings, but fmooth 
towards their points; twenty inches long: ears (harp-pointed, 
above nine inches in length. Larger than a buck. Color, when 
alive, a fine blue, of a velvet appearance : when dead, changes 
to a blueifh-grey, with a mixture of white. The hairs long. ' Be- 
neath each eye is a large white mark. The belly white. The 
tail feven inches long ; the hairs at the end fix inches. 
% ltu In fize, fuperior to the fallow deer or buck. 

I defcribed it from a (kin which I bought at Amjierdam, 

Piacs. brought from the Cape of Good Hope. I was informed, that they 

are found far up the country, north of that vaft promontory ; 

which I find confirmed by the late journies*. It is called by 

the Dutch the Blauzve Bock, or blue goat. 

M. de Buffon defcribes it under the fame name, fappl. vi. 194. and 
in p. 168. again under the improper Afiat'ic name of Tzeiran, which 
belongs to a very different fpecies, the Chinefe, No. 36. but 
has borrowed the figure from the Dutch travellers. 

This is the fpecies, which, from the form of the horns and 
length of the hair, feems to connect the Goat and Antelope race. 

• Journal Hiftorique, &c. Amjierdam, 1778, p. 58, where it is called Boue~ 
thamais ; and a good figure given of it. 

*** Strait 


*** Strait horns, 

Gazella indica cornibm recYislongifllmis 14, Ant. oryx. xi!. 16. 12. ^Ecyptian. 

nigris prope caput tantum annularis. Le Pafan. journal hi/lorique, 56. 

Raii fyn. quad. 79. La Gazelle des Indes. Brijfon quai. 43 . 

Capra Gazella. C. cornibus teretibus Le Pafan. De Buffon, xii. 213. tab. xxxiii. 

rectiffimis longiffimis annulatis Lin. fig. 3. xv. 190. Br. Muf. AJbm. Muf. 

fyft. 96. Lev. Mus. 
Antelope Bezcartica. Pallas, fp. Zool. i. 

A with flrait flender horns, near three feet long, annulated 
• above half of their length : the reft fmooth. Space be- 
tween horn and horn at the points fourteen inches. At their 
bafe is a black fpot; in the middle of the face another ; a third 
falls from each eye to the throat, united to that in the face by a 
lateral band of the fame color : the nofe and reft of the face 
white. From the hind-part of the head, along the neck and top 
of the back, runs a narrow dufky line of hairs, longer than the 
reft, and {landing above them, dilating towards the rump. Sides 
of a light reddifh afh-color ; the lower part bounded by a broad 
longitudinal dufky band, reaching to the breaft. 

Belly, rump, and legs white; each leg marked below the 
knees with a dufky mark. Tail covered with long black hairs ; 
from the rump to the end of the hairs, two feet fix inches long. 

The length of the fkin, which I examined, was above fix feet 
fix inches. 

Inhabits Algypt, Arabia, India, and the North-weftern parts of 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

It is faid to be a moil dangerous animal when wounded, nor 
will the Hottentots approach it, unlefs they are fatisfied that it be 
totally deprived of life. 

L 3 A'uelopt 


23. Leucoryx.. Antelope Leucoryx cornibus fubulatis teo ? Pallas fp.Zosl. acii. 16. 

reftis, convexe annularis, corpore lac- Oryx, Oppiati. Cyneg. ii. v. 445. 



with the nofe thick and broad, like that of a cow. Ears 
fomewhat flouching. Body clumfy and thick. Limbs 
lefs fo. Horns long, very flightly incurvated, flender, annulated 
part of the way : black, pointed. Tail reaching to the full joint of 
the legs, and tufted. Color in all parts a fnowy whitenefs, except 
the middle of the face, fides of the cheeks, and limbs, which 
are tinged with red. 
Size of a IVetJli runt. 

This fpecies inhabits Gow Bahrein, an ifle in the gulph of 
Place. Bajfora. I difcovered two drawings of the animal in the Britifo 

Mufeum, taken from life in 1712, by order of Sir John Lock, 
agent to the Eajl India company at Ifpahan.' They were preferv- 
ed as rarities by Shah < Sultahn Hsujjein, emperor of Perfia, in his 
baague of Cafar, a park eight leagues from the capital *. 

A horn, fufpefled by Dr. Pallas to have belonged to a beaft of 
this kind, was found foflil in Sibiria-\. 

This animal is probably the Leucoryx of Oppian, and differs 
only in wanting the black marks about the temples and cheeks* 
as mentioned in the following excellent defcription of the poet's, 
and which Sir John Lock's painter might omit. 

* The account is taken from a paper attending the drawings 
•J- AW. Ctm. Pe/rop. xiii. 468. tab. x. fig. 5. 





C//fY'///.r ■ ///U/s'//' 

_ , /a-.= 


En enim fera quae fylvas perlullrat opacas ; 
Cornua acuta ferens animifque ferocibus iratn 
Formidandus oryx, homines ferafque laceflans; 
Huic candore cutis niveo diftinfta relucet 
In morem verni lactis; fed tempora circuni 
Atque genas nigricat, duplicem pinguedine fpinam 
Late diffindit ; mucrones cornibus atri. 

Oppian de Ven. ii. Interpret. Gabr. Bodent. 

Gornu ignotum. Gcfner quad. 309. La Gazelle du Bezoar. EriJJin quad. 44. 24, Algazel. 

La Gazelle. Belon. obf 120. Alptn.hi/l. Algazel. De Bujfon, xii. 2 1 1 . tab. xxxiii. 

jEgypt. i. 232. tab. xiv. fig. 1. 2. 

Animal bezoarticum. Rati fyn. quad. Capra bezoartica. C. cornibu? arcua- 

80. tis totis annulatis, gula barbata. Lin. 

Antelope Gazella. Palla!,/p. Zool.fafc. fyft. 96. Br. Muf. Ajhm. Muf. Lev. 

xii. 16. Mus. 

A with very long, flender, upright, horns, bending at the 
"* upper part inward towards each other; fome are much 

annulated, odiers fmoother. The color red; breaft and buttocks 

Inhabits Bengal, Lyhia, ^Egypt, and ^Ethiopia. It runs fwiftly up 
hill, and but flowly along a plain : is very eafily made tame. 

Both Belon and Alpinus note the form of the horns, which they 
call lunated, or in form of a crefcent. 

I never faw any more of this animal than its horns,' which are 
not unfrequent in the cabinets of the curious. They are fuffi- 
cient to determine me to pronounce the fpecies to be diftincT: 
from the foregoing. Belon and Pro/per Alpinus agree in the color, 
which they declare to be red, and omit all mention of the flriking, 
and very characteriftic marks of the other. 

Vol. I. L 3 Le 


zz. Indian. ^e Coudous. Dt Buffbn, xii. 357. tab. An. oreas. ffic. xii. 17. 

47. Pacafie. Voy. Congo. Churchill's Coll. i. 

Antilope oryx. Pallas fpidl, 15. 623. Br, MuJ. Ajhm. Muj. Lev. Mus. 


with thick ftrait horns, marked with two prominent fpiral 
ribs near two-thirds of their length ; imooth towards 
their end: fome are above two feet long: thofe at the BritiJJj 
Mufeum, with part of the fkin adhering, are black. Head of a 
reddifh color, bounded on the cheeks by a dufky line. Ears of a 
middling fize. Forehead broad: nofe pointed. On the forehead, 
a ftripe of long loofe hairs, and on the lower part of the dewlap, 
a large tuft of black hair. 

Along the neck and back, from head to tail, is a black fhort 
mane: the reft of the body of a blueifh grey, tinged with red. 
Space between the hoofs and falfe hoofs black. 

The tail does not reach to the firft joint of the leg; is co- 
vered with fhort cinereous hair; the end tufted with long black 

The hoofs are fhort, furrounded at their junction with the legs, 
with a circle of black hairs. 
SlzE> The height to the fhoulders is five feet: is thick bodied, and 

flrongly made : but the legs are flender. 
t . The females are horned like the males. This fpecies wants the 


funis lacrymalis *. 
Name. The Caffres call this fpecies Empofos. If this is the PacaJJ'e, as 

there is reafon to fuppofe it to be, they vary in color; the Pacaffe 
being white, fpotted with red and grey. The Dutch of the Cape 




call it the Eland or Elk. The Hottentots, tgann, from which is 
formed the name Canna. M. de Buffon, by miftake, calls this the 
Coudous, which he ought to have beftowed on his Condoma. 

Inhabits India, Congo, and the fouthern parts of Africa. Fre- 
quents the plains and vallies of the country. They feed chiefly by 
browfing on fhrubs and bufhes ; and when taken young are foon 
domefticated. As it is an animal of great ftrength, it feems poflible 
to render it as ufeful as the horfe or ox, which would be of no fmall 
fervice to the African colonifts in the neighborhood of the Cape, as 
it is faid to be content with a very little food. Thefe animals are 
in feafons of great drought fuppofed to migrate from the interior 
parts of Africa in greater numbers than ufual. They live in nume- 
rous heards; but the old males are often folitary. They grow very 
fat, efpecially about the breaft and heart: fo that they are eafily 
caught : and when purfued, will fometimes fall dead in the chace. 
Are flow-runners : when roufed, always go againft the wind, nor 
can the hunters (even if they front the herd) divert them from their 
courfe. The flefh is fine grained, very delicious, and juicy. The 
hide is tough and thick, efpecially that of the neck of the male; 
and is reckoned the beft next to that of the Cape buffalo, p. 3$, for 
making of traces, harnelTes, or field fhoes. The Hottentots make 
tobacco-pipes of the horns. 

Ourebi, Allamand Sufpkm. V. 33. tab. xii. 26. Ourebj. 

\ with fmall (trait horns, fmall head, long neck, long point- 
•*■ *■• ed ears. Color above, a deep tawny, brightening towards 
the fides, neck, head and legs ■, lower part of the breaft, belly, 



buttocks, and infide of the thighs, white. Tail only three inches 
long, and black. Hair on the body fhort, under the cheft long 
and whitifh. On each knee is a tuft of hair. The females are 

Size. Length three feet nine to the tail. 

Place. Inhabits the country very remote from the Cape. Seldom 

more than two are feen together: they ufually haunt die neigh- 
borhood of fountains furrounded with reeds. Are excellent ve- 

2-. Khp A. oreotragus. Scbreber. tab. cclix. Gmelin, Lin. 189. 

Spri nger. 


with horns quite ftrait, flender, fharp pointed, wrinkled at 
' the bafe, five inches long. Female head hornlefs, round, of 
a yellowifh grey marked with black rays. Color of the body a 
yellowifh tawny. Tail very fhort, lies clofe to the body, covered 
with very fhort hairs, and is fcarcely vifible. Size of a roebuck. 
Place. Inhabits the fummits of the higher!: and mod tremendous rocks 

near the Cape, and on the fight of man retires to the mod inaccef- 
fible precipices : and will jump from one crag to another over the 
moft frightful abyfTes. Nothing equals their activity: are fhot 
with a ball, and are much valued for the fine flavour of the flefh. 
We are indebted to Dodlor Forjier for an accurate figure and 
defcription of diis fpecies. 



£,e Guib. De Biffin, xii. 305. 327. tab. Spicil. 15. Sparman, ii. 219. 2 '8. Harnessed. 

xl. Antelope icripta. Pallas Mi/ctl, S. Spotted goat, Kolbir, ii. 1 15. 

A with ftrait horns nine inches long, pointing backwards, 
• with two fpiral ribs : ears broad : color a deep tawny : 
beneath each eye a white fpot: fides moil Angularly marked with 
two tranfverfe bands of white, croffed by two others from the 
back to the belly : the rump with three white lines pointing 
downwards on each fide: the thighs fpotted with white : tail ten 
inches long, covered with long rough hairs. 

Inhabits the plains and woods of Senegal, living in large herds. 
This is called at the Cape, the Bonis Bock, or fpotted goat. But is 
not found farther to the eaft of that part of Africa than Z\*'el- 

Capra fylveltris Afrhana Grimmii. Rati Le Chevrotain d'Afrique. Briffon quad. ig. Guinea. 

fyn. quad. 80. Klein quad. 19. 67. Seb.Muf. i. tab. 43. C. 1). 

Mofchus Grimmia. M. capite fafciculo Antlope Grimmia. PjiLss Mi/ccl. 10. 

tophofo. Lin.JyJl. 92. tab. i. SpiciL 38. tab. iii. Lev. Mus. 

La Grimme. De B.<ffon, xii. $07. tab. xli. 

A with ftrait black horns, flender, and iharp-pointed, not 
• three inches long, {lightly annulated at the bafe: height 
about 18 inches: meft elegant form: ears large: eyes dufky; 
below them a large cavity, into which exuded a ftrong-fcented 
oily liquid : between the horns a tuft of black hairs. The color 
of the neck and body brown, mixed with a cinereous, and a tinge . 
of yellow: belly white: tail fhort; white beneath, black above. 

I examined this animal a few years ago, in company with 
Vol. I. M Dodor 


Doctor Pallas, at the Prince of Orange's menagery, near the 
Hague. Several had been brought over from Guinea; but, except 
this, all died. Dr. Pallas faid that the females were hornlefs, but 
are tufted in the fame manner as the males: it feems, therefore, 
that Dr. Grimm, who firft defcribed this fpecies, never faw any 
but the female. 

A beautiful fpecimen of a male, in the Leverian Mufeum, is 
of a bright-bay color. The legs cinereous. 

This fpecies extends from Guinea to the Cape of Good Hope, and 
is known there by the name of the Duyker bock, or Diving Goat. It 
lives always among the brufh wood; and, when it perceives the ap- 
proach of a man, leaps up, and as fuddenly fquats down; then 
takes to flight, and every now and then fprings into fight to difcover 
whether it is purfued. 

30. Royal. King of the harts, Bofmans voy. 236. ddanfo'i's iioy. 207. 

Petite biche. Des Marcbais,\. 312. Le Chevrotain de Guinee. Be Buffont 
Cervula parvula Africana. Seb. Muf. i. xii. 315. tab, xXm.fg. 2. its horn. 

70. tab. xliii. 


with very fliort ftrait horns, black and fhining as jet; 
fcarcc two inches long: ears broad: height not above 
nine inches: legs not thicker than a goofe-quill: color a redd ifh 
brown. The females want horns. 
p LACE> Inhabits Senegal, and .the hotteft parts of Africa: called in 

Guinea, Gv.evei: is very agile, will bound over a wall twelve 
feet high : is very tame, but fo tender as not to endure tranf- 
portation into our climate. 

* * 




11/,/'/, ■-/,>,'/,;/. /j,/,/n 

,>//, I . .J'Z. 


*$* Horns bending forwards. 

-Quadruped from Bengal. Pb.Tr. No. 77;. Schreber. cclxil. 3r. In dost an. 

476. Akridg. x\. 898. /«£. vi. AntilopeTragocamelus. Pal.'as M:/ccl. J. 

Eiggel. Maudclfo's <vsy. Harris's coll. i. fy/<vV. 9. 

A with horns feven inches long, bending forward : eyes 
, black and lively : neck ftrong, bending forward like 
that of a camel ; along the top a fhort mane : on the (boulders a 
large lump, refembling that of the Indian ox, tufted with hair: 
hind parts like thofe of an afs : tail 22 inches long, terminated 
with long hairs : legs flendcr: on the lower part of the breaft 
the fkin hangs like that of a cow : hair fhort and fmooth, of a 
light afh-color, in fome parts dufky ; beneath the bread, and 
under the tail, white : on the forehead is a black rhomboidal 
fpot. The height of this animal, to the top of the lump on its 
fhoulders, was 12 hands. 

Inhabits the mod diflant parts of the AToguPs dominions; Place. 
chews the cud; lies down and rifes like a camel : its voice a fort 
of croaking, or like the rattle of deer in rutting-time. Doctor 
Parfons, to whom we were of late years obliged for the belt 
zoologic papers in the Philofopbical T~rcwfa£Iious, was the only- 
writer who has defcribed this animal. 

Antelope pi&a, Pallas fpicil. xii. 14. Nyl-ghau. Ph. 1"rahf. lxi. 1 70. tab. v. 32. White-foot- 
Schreber cclxili. Mus. Lev. ed . 

A with fhort horns, bending a little forward : ears large, 
• marked with two black ftripes : a fmall black mane on 
the neck, and half way down the back: a tuft of long black hairs 

M 2 on 


on the fore-part of the neck; above that a large fpot of white; 
another between the fore-legs on the chefl: one white fpot on 
each fore-foot; two on each hind-foot: tail long, tufted with 
black hairs : color a dark-grey. 
Female. Female of a pale brown color : no horns : with a mane, tuff, 

and ftriped ears, like the male : on each foot three tranfverfe 
bands of black and two of white. 
Size. Height to the top of the fhoulders four feet and an inch. 

Length from the bottom of the neck to the anus four feet*. 
Horns. Horns feven inches long: triangular towards their bottom ; 

- blunt at top. Diftant at their bales three inches and a quarter; 
in which they vary from thofe of the Antelope race. Diftant 
at the points fix inches and a quarter. The head is like that of 
a flag. The legs delicate. 

Place. Inhabits the diftant and interior parts of India, remote from 

our fettlements. They are brought down as curiofities to the 
Europeans, and have of late years been frequently imported into 
England. I am not acquainted with the particular part of the 
country which they inhabit at prefent. In the days of Aurenge 
Zebe, they abounded between Delli and Labor, on the way to 
Cachemire. They were called Nyl-gkau, or blue or grey bulls : and 

Chace. were one of the objects of chace, with that mighty prince, during 

his journey : they were inclofed by his army of hunters within 
nets, which being drawn clofer and clofer, at length formed a 
fmall precinct; into this the king, his omrahs, and hunters en- 
tered, and killed the beafts with arrows,, fpears, or mufquets ; and 

* Thefe meafurements are taken from the accurate description with which 
Doftor Hunter has favoured the public, in the Philofcphica! TranfaSions. 



fometimes in fuch numbers, that Aurenge Zcbe ufed to fend 
quarters as prefents to all his great people *. 

They are ufually very gentle and tame, will feed readily, and Manners. 
lick the hands which give them food. In confinement they will eat 
oats, but prefer grafs and hay; and are very fond of wheaten 
bread. When thirfly, will drink, two gallons at a time. 

They are faid to be at times very vicious and fierce. When 
the males fight, they drop on their knees at a diftance from one 
another, make their approaches in that attitude, and when they 
come near, fpring and dart at each other. They will often, in 
a ftate of confinement, fall into that pofture without doing any 
harm. They will, notwithstanding, attack mankind unprovoked. 
A laborer, who was looking over fome pales which inclofed a 
few of them, was alarmed by one of the males flying at him like 
lio-htnine; but he was faved by the intervention of the wood- 
work, which it broke to pieces, and at the fame time one of its. 

They have bred in England. They are fuppofed to go nine 
months with young, and have fometimes two at a birth. The 
young is of the color of a fawn. The dung is round and fmall, 
and comes away in quantities at a time, like that of deer. 

Dama. PVniilib. xi. c. 3-. xxxir. 33. SwfFT. 

Cemas. JElian. An. lib. xiv. c. 14. Antilope dama. Pallas llifcul. $. SpiciU 

Le Nangusr. De Bujfon, xii. 213. tab. 8. 

A with round horns, eight inches long, reverting at their 
• ends : length of the animal three feet ten inches ; height 
two feet eight inches : general color tawny : belly, lower part of 

Bemier <voj. Cacbanirt, 47. 



■the fide?, rump, and thighs, white : on the fore- part of the neck 
a white fpot : but this fpecies varies in color- 
Inhabits Senegal', is eafily tamed; very fwift. JETian com- 
pares 'its flight to the rapidity of a whirlwind. 

34. Red. Ls Nagor. DeBuffbn,xa 326. tab. x!vi. Anlllope redunca. Pallas Spirit. 8. 

A with horns five inches and a half long; one or two flight: 
• rings at the bafe : ears much longer than the horns : 
length, four feet; height, two feet three inches : hair ftiff and 
bright : in all parts of a reddifh color; paleft on the cheft. Tail 
very fhort. Inhabits Senegal, and the Cape, where it is very fre- 
quent, and is a common food. 


- - Cinereous. Antilope Ele.otragu:. Schreler. eclxvi. 

with horns, elegantly marked with fpiral wreaths. Head, 

.• hind part of, and fides of the neck, back, fides, fhoulders, 

and thighs, of a mod elegant greyifh afh color. Tail fhort, covered 

with longifh hair of the fame color. Front of the neck, bread, 

belly, aadiegs, of a pure white. 

An elegant fpecies, defcribed from Mr. Schreber's print; pro- 
bably a native of Africa. 

36. Forest. Le Bofbok. Alamand Supplim. V. 37. tab. xv. A. Sylvatica. Gmelin. Lin. 192. 

with the head and upper part of the body dark brown, 

• approaching about the head and under the neck to red. 

Belly and infide of the thighs and legs white. Rump marked 




with fmall round fpots of pure white. Horns ten inches long; 
almoft ftrait, bending very flightly forward, and twilled fpiral- 
ly for more than the lower half. Ears long and pointed. Tail 
fix inches long, and covered with long white hairs. Female 

Length to the tail three feet fix. Size. 

Inhabits the forefts a hundred and fixty leagues beyond the Place. 

Cape ; are often difcovered by their voice, which refembles the 
barking of a dog. 

This fhould be placed as the link between this clafs and the 

Allamand Supfkm. V. 34. tab. xiit, 37. Ritbok. 

A with horns one foot three inches long, bending for- 
• ward, annulated half way up, very fharp pointed ; their 
length in a ftrait line from bafe to point only ten. The whole 
upper part of the animal of an afh colored grey. Throat, belly, 
buttocks, and infide of the legs, white. Ears very long, white 
within, and near each is a bald fpot. Tail eleven inches long, 
flat and covered with Ions; white hairs. 

The length of this fpecies from nofe to tail is four feet five. Sizf. 

Inhabits the country a hundred leagues to the north of the Place. 
Cape of Good Hope. Are numerous, but go in fmall herds, and fome- 
times only the male and female confort together. They frequent 




!I J 


white ftripe: from this are feven others, four pointing towards 
the thighs, and three towards the belly : but I have obferved 
them to vary in number of ftripes. On the upper part of the 
neck is a fhort mane : beneath the neck, from the throat to the 
breaft, are fome long hairs hanging down: the breaft and belly 
are grey. Tail two feet long, brown above, white beneath, black 
at the end. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, where it is called Coedoes. 
This name (perverted to that of Coudous) M. de Bttffon has ap- 
plied to the Indian Antelope, N° at. I believe Kolben means this, 
by his wild goat, ii. 115. tab. vi. It is faid to leap to a molt 
aflonifhing height *. 



Strcpficeros et Addax ? Plinii lib. viii. L' Antelope. De TSnffon, xii. 215. tab. 39. Common. 

c. 53. 


Gazella Africana, the Antilope. Rati Allamands De Buffo?!, v. $8. tab. v. 

fyn. quad. 79. 
Tragus Strepiiceros. Ken quad*. 18. 
Capra Cervkapra. C. corr.ibus tereti- 

bus, dimidiato-anr.ulatis, fiexuofis con- 

tortis. Lin.jyjt. 96. 

Li (jazelle. BriJJo/i quad. 44. 
Antilope cervicapra. P alias Mifiel. g. Spi- 
rit. 18. tab. i. ii. Br. M11/. AJhm. Muf. 


A with upright horns, twitted fpirally, furrounded almofl: to 
• the top with prominent rings-, about fixteen inches long, 
twelve inches diftance between point and point: in fize, rather 
lefs than the fallow-deer or buck: orbits white: white fpot on 
each fide of the forehead : color, brown mixed with red, and 

Vot. I. 

* Forfeits Voj. i. 84. 




dufky : the belly and infide of the thighs white : tail fhort, black 
above, white beneath. The females want horns. 

Inhabits Barbary. The form of thefe horns, when on the 
fcull, is not unlike that of the antient Lyre, to which Pliny com- 
pares thofe of his Strepfueros *. The Brachia, or fides of that 
Lyres. inftrument, were frequently made of the horns of animals, as 

appears from antient gems. Montfaucon has engraved feveral. 

To convey the idea of their ftructure, I cauied the figure of one 
to be engraved, taken from the fifth volume of the Philofophical 
Tranfaftions abridged, taj). xiv. p. 474. T prefer this to many 
other figures, as the fhell of a tortoife forms the bale; which gave 
rife to the beautiful comment on this paffage in Horace, by Doctor 

O Teftudinis aurea; 
Dulcem qua; ftrepitum, Pieri temporas ! 

O mutts quoque fifcibus 
Donatura Cygni, fi libeat, fonum. 

The art of giving to dumb fifties the voice of a Swan, was 
thought a ftrange idea, till that gentleman pointed out that a 
Tortoife made part of the Lyre; which animal was by the an- 
tients ranked in the clafs of filh-f-: and even gave the name of 
^£Au; to that fpecies of mufical inftrument. Horace again 
invokes his lyre by an addrefs to the Tortoife; which flings 
light on a feven-ftringed one preferved in the fupplement to 
Montfaucon \. 

Tuque Teftudo refonare feptem 

Callida nervis, 
Nee loquax olim neque grata. 

* Plinii bijt. nat. lib. xi. c. 37. + Plinii nat. hijl. lib. ix. c. X. 

% iii. tab. 75. fig. 6. 

a Browk 


a Brown. Lidmee? Shaw's travels. 

Lefs than a Roebuck, horns like thofe of the laft: face, back, 
and fides of a very deep brown, the laft bordered with tawny: 
belly and infide of the legs white: above each hoof a black 
fpot : tail black above, white beneath. Inhabits Bengal: poffibly 
alfo Barbary, being nearer the fize of the Lidmee than any 

P Smooth horned. De Buffon, xii. 217. tal. \xx\\.fig. 3. 

In my cabinet is a pair of horns twifted like thofe of the pre- 
ceding, but quite fmooth and black: they are joined together in 
a parallel direction, the points turned different ways: when thus 
mounted, they are carried by the Faquirs in India, by way of wea- 
pon. See Mus. Lev. where weapons formed of the horns of the 
fpecies N c 30 are preferved. 

N 2 »***, With 


***** ^h horns bending in the middle, and reverting 
forwards towards their end. 

40. BarbarY. Gazella Africana cornibus brevioribus, LaGazelle. De B:/Jbti,x'u. 201.tai.xxm. 

ab imo ad fummum fere annularis, La Gazelle d'Atrique. BriJ/in quad. 4;. 

et circum medium inflexis. Rati fyn. Capra Dorcas. Lin.fyjt. 96. 

quad. 80. Antilope Dorcas. Pallas Spicil. xii. u. 

A with horns twelve inches long, round, inclining firfl back- 
• wards, bending in the middle, and then reverting for- 
wards at their ends, and annulated with about thirteen rings on 
their lower part: upper fide of the body reddiih brown; lower 
part and buttocks white : along the fides the two colors are fepa- 
rated from each other by a ftrong dufky line : on each knee a 
tuft of hair : the Dorcas of /Elian, lib. xiv. c. 14. 

Inhabits Barbary, JEgypt, and the Levant: goes in large 

4I.Flathorned. Le Kevel. De Buffon, xii. 204. tab. Antilope Kevella. Pallas Mi/cel.j. Spi- 
xxiv. cil. xi. 6. 8. 15. 

A with horns fhaped like thofe of the laft, but flatted on 
• their fides; the rings more numerous, from fourteen to 
eighteen: the fize equal to a fmall roebuck : in colors and marks 
refembles the preceding. 

3 Inhabits 


Inhabits Senegal. This, the Barbary, and Harnefled, have the 
fame manners and food; live in great flocks, are eafily tamed, 
and are excellent meat. 

Either this animal, or one of thofe nearly allied to it, is found 
in abundance in the country on the eaft fide of the Cajpian fea: 
the Perfian name of it is DJJmran, not Ahu, which Kampfer, by 
fome miftake, applies to it. 

Antilope pygargus. Pallas Spirit. \. 10. & xii. 15. Lev. Mus. . 2i White- 


A with horns like thofe of the Kevel, fixteen inches long ; 
• five between tip and tip; annulated in the male, fmooth 
in the female : ears feven inches long : face, and fpace between the 
horns, of a pure white : cheeks and neck of a fine bright bay: 
back, of a cinereous brown, dafhed with red : along the middle, a 
dark lift : fides, flanks, and fhoulders, a deep brown ; feparated 
from the belly by a broad band of darker color. 

Belly and rump, and a fmall fpace above the tail, white. 

Trunk of the tail feven inches long, covered with black coarfe 
hairs, which extend four inches beyond the end of the trunk : 
hoofs fhort. 

In fize fuperior to the buck, or fallow deer. The length of Size. 

the fpecimen in the Lever i an Museum is five feet four inches : 
height three feet to the top of the fhoulders. 

Inhabits the countries north of the Cape of Good Hope. Place. 




43. Springer. La Gazelle a bourfe fur le dos. Allemande. Antilope Euchore Torfter, Schrcbcr, cclxxii. 


with the face, cheeks, nofe, chin, throat, and part of the 
under fide of the neck, white: a duflcy line paries from the 
bafe of each horn, and beyond the eyes, to the corner of the 

Horns flender: annulated half way: twice contorted. Ears 
very long, dufky. 

Whole upper fide of the neck, part of the lower, the back, 
fides, and outfide of the limbs, of a pale yellowifh brown. 
JDarkeft on the hind of the neck. Cheft, belly, and infide of the 
limbs, white : the fides and belly divided by a broad band of 
chelhut, which runs down part of the fhoulders. 

Tail reaches to the firft joint of the leg. The upper part is 
white : the lower black, and furnifhed with long hair. The 
under fide appears nearly naked. Buttocks are white ; and from 
the tail, half way up the back, is a (tripe of white, expanfible at 

6 IZE . This elegant fpecies weighs about fifty pounds, and is rather 

lefler than a roebuck. 
Place. Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope : called there the Spring-bock, 

from the prodigious leaps it takes on the fight of any body. 
When alarmed, it has the power of expanding the white fpace 
about the tail into the form of a circle, which returns to its 
linear form when the animal is tranquil. 

They migrate annually from the interior parts in fmall herds, 
and continue in the neighborhood of the Cape for two or three 

months : 


months : then join companies, and go off in troops confiding 
of many thoufands, coveiing the great plains for leveral hours 
in 'their paffage. Are attended in their migrations by numbers 
of lions, hyjenas, and other wild beads, which make great de- 
ftru&ion among them. Are excellent eating, and, with other An- 
telopes, are the veniion of the Cape. 

Mr. MaJJbn * informs us, that they alfo make periodical migra- 
tions, in feven or eight years, in herds of many hundred thoufands, 
from the north, as he fuppofes from the interior parts of Terra 
de Natal. They are compelled to it by the exceflive drought 
which happens in that region, when fometimes there does not 
fall a drop of rain for two or three years. Thefe animals in their 
courfe defolate Caffraria, fpreading over the whole country, and 
not leaving a blade of grafs. Lions attend them ; where one of 
thofe beafts of prey are, his place is known by the vaft void 
vifible in the middle of the timorous herd. On its ap^ roach to 
the Cape, it is obferved that the avant guard is very fat, the centre 
lefs fo, and the rear guard almoft ftarved, being reduced to 
live on the roots of the plants devoured by thofe which went 
before; but on their return, they become the avant guard, and 
thrive in their turn on the renewed vegetation : while the former, 
now changed into the rear guard, are famithed by being com- 
pelled to take up with the leavings of the others. Thefe animals 
are quite fearlefs, when affembled in fuch mighty armies, nor 
can a man pafs through unlefs he compels them to give way . 
with a whip or flick. When taken young they are eafily 
domefticated : the males are very wanton, and apt to butt at 
ftrangers with their horns. 


* Fbil. Tranf lxvi. 310. 


9 6 



aL Chinese. Caprea campeftris gutturofa. Nov. Com. 2',%, 290. Le Brun,\. iij. 

4+* Fc/r^. v. 347. /«£. ix. Le Tzeiran de Antilope. BelPs'fravels/i. 311'. 319. 

Buffo n, xii. 207. A. gutturofa. Pallas S/icil. xii. 14.46. <«£. 
Yellow Goat. £>« ifoAfc C&/aa, ii. 253, ii- 

with horns about nine inches long, of a yellow color, 
opake, annulated almoft ro their ends, reclining back- 
wards, diverging much at the upper part, with their points bend- 
ing towards one another. Head rather thick. N'ofe Very blunt, 
and convex above. Ears frnall, lharp-pointed. On the middle 
of the neck is a great protuberance, occafioned by the uncom- 
mon ftruciure of the windpipe. Tail not five inches long. 

The hair on the approach of winter grows long, rough, and 
hoary; fo that at a diftance it appears almoft white. In the be- 
ginning of May, the animal changes its coat for one very fhort, 
clofe, 2nd tawny. 
Females. The females are hornlefs ; but do not differ in color from the 


Length of a male from nofe to tail about four feet and a half. 
Weight from eighty-one to ninety-eight pounds. 

Thefe animals abound in the country of the Mongol Tartars, ' 
and the deferts between Thibet and China, and along the river 
Amur to the Eaftern Sea. They are found alfo between the 
country of Tangut and the borders of India. 

The Mongols call them Dferen; the Chinefe, Hoong Tang, and 
Whang Tang, or Yellow Goats*. They are very fwift, and take 
prodigious leaps, and when frightened will bound over three or 
four fathoms fpace at one fpring. Are very fliy and timorous: 

* Du Halls, ii. 25 3. 





love dry and rocky plains : fliun water; nor will they go into 
it even to fave their lives, when driven by dogs or men to the 
brink of a river*. Are equally fearful of woods. 

Go in fmall flocks in fpring and fummer: collect in great 
numbers in winter. They do not run confufedly, but in a file -f-, 
one after another; an old one leading the way. Seldom emit 
any voice. If taken young, are eafdy tamed. Are objects of 
chace, being a great food among the 'Tartars. Their horns are 
an article of commerce, and in great requeft with the Cbinefe. 
Thefe are the Ablavos*, which Le Brim met with by thoufands 
near lake Baikal, in the land of the Burattcs. 

A. Sub-gutturofa. Ail, Pitr. 1778. i. 251. tab. 9. 12. Gmilitt, Lin. 186.. a$. Guilden- 


A with horns fhaped like the former, but of the length of 
• thirteen inches: color of the body and outfides of the legs 
and thighs cinereous brown : tail fhort and full of hair : form of 
neck, breaft, and belly, white : fpace round" the vent of the fame 
color. On the fore part of the neck is a protuberance, but lefler than 
that of the former. Knees tufted : fize of a roebuck: inhabits Perfia, , Place. 
between the Cajpian and Euxine feas: is gregarious: feeds chiefly on 
the artemifia pontica. The fle(h delicious : the female brings 
forth in May, drfcovered by that able traveller the late Mr. Guil- 

* In my former edition I was mifled by Gmelin into a very different opinion. 
+ Du Halde, ii. 290. 
J Doftor Pallas. 

Vol. I. O Colus 

9 8 


46. Scythian. Colus. Gefner quad. 361. reftiufculis perfeae annularis apice 

Suhak. Rzaczinjki hift. Pclan. 224. diaphanis gula imberbi. Un.fyfl. 97. 

Ibex imberbis. Nov. com. Peirop. v. Le Saiga, de Bi/fon, xii. 198. tab. xxii. 

tab. xix. vii. 39. xiv. 512. j%- z. Suppl. vi. 149. 

Sayga. /^/'A Tr. 1767. />. 344- i?i//V Antilope Scythica. Pallm fpicil. xii. 21. 

travels, i. 43. ' fl ^- '• FaunuL fvitus. Lev. Mus. 
Capra Tatarica. C. comibus teretibus 



Horns. /% with horns diftant at the bafe, and with three curvatures; 

J~\ • the laft pointing inward. Stand a little reclining: the 
greateft part annulated: ends fmooth. Color a pale yellow. 
Are femi-pellucid : length about eleven inches. 

Head rather large. Nofe in the live animal much arched and 
thick : very cartilaginous : divided lengthways by a fmall fur- 
rovy: end as if truncated. 

Ears fmall: hides of a yellowifh brown. Neck flender: pro- 
minent about the throat. Knees guarded by tufts of hair. 

The hair, during fummer, is very fhort: grey mixed with yel- 
low : below the knees darker. Space about the cheeks whitifh : 
forehead and crown hoary, and covered with longer hairs. Un- 
der fide of the neck and body white. 

Winter coat long, rough, and hoary. 
Tail. Tail four inches long: naked below; above cloathed with 

upright hairs, ending with a tuft. 

Size of a fallow deer. 

Females deftitute of horns. 

Thefe animals inhabit all the deferts from the Danube and 
Dnieper to the river Irtifi, but not beyond. Nor are they ever 



feen to the north of 54 or 55 degrees of latitude. They are 

found therefore in Poland, Moldavia, about Mount Caucafus, and 

the Cajpian Sea, and Siberia, in the dreary open deferts, where 

fait fprings abound, feeding on the fait, the acrid and aromatic p 00D 

plants of thofe countries, and grow in the fummer-time very fat: 

but their flefh acquires a tafte difagreeable to many people, and 

is fcarcely eatable, until it is fuffered to grow cold after dreffing. 

The females go with young the whole winter; and bring forth 
in the northern deferts in May. They have but one at a time ; 
which is fingular, as the numbers of thefe animals are prodi- 
gious. The young are covered with a foft fleece, like new-dropt 
lambs, curled and waved. 

They are regularly migratory. In the rutting-feafon, late in Migratory. 
autumn, they collect in flocks of thoufands, and retire into the 
fouthern deferts. In the fpring they divide into little flocks, and 
return northward at the fame time as the wandering Tartars 
change their quarters. 

They very feldom feed alone; the males feeding promifcuoufly 
with the females and their young. They rarely lie down all at 
the fame time: but by a providential inftinct fome are always 
keeping watch : and when they are tired, they feemingly give 
notice to fuch which have taken their reft, who anfe inflantly, 
and as it were relieve the centinels of the preceding hours. 
They thus often preferve themfelves from the attack of wolves, 
and from the furprize of the huntfmen*. 

They are exceflively fwift, and will outrun the fwifteft horfe or Swiftv 

gre-hound: yet partly through fear, for they are the moft timid 

* Doftor Pallas.. 

O 2 of 




of animals, and partly by the fhortnefs of their breath, they are 
Very timid. ver y f on taken. If they are but bit by a dog, they inftantly fall 
down, nor will they even offer to rife. In running they feem to 
incline on one fide, and their courfe is fo rapid that their feet 
feem fcarcely to touch the ground*. 
Short-sighted. They are during fummer almoft purblind; which is another 

caufe of their deftrucrjon. This is caufed by the heat of the 
fun, and the fplendor of the yellow deferts they are fo conver- 
fant in. 

In a wild ftate they feem to have no voice. When brought 
up tame, the young emit a fhort fort of bleating, like fheep. 
Libidinous. The males are moft libidinous animals : the Tartars, who have 

fufficient time to obferve them, report that they will copulate 
twenty times together; and that this turn arifes from their feed- 
ing on a certain herb, which has moft invigorating powers. 

When taken young, they may eafily be made tame: but if 
caught when at full age, are fo wild and fo obftinate as to refufe 
all food. When they die, their nofes are quite flaccid. 
Chace. They are hunted for the fake of their flefh, horns, and fkins, 

which are excellent for gloves, belts, &c. The huntfmen always 
approach them againft the wind, leaft they fhould fmell their 
enemy: they alfo avoid putting on red or white cloaths, or any 
colors which might attracl: their notice. They are either fhot, or 
taken by dogs; or by the black EAGLEf, which is trained to 
this fpecies of falconry. 

No animals are (o fubject to vary in their horns; but the color 
and clearnefs will always point out the animal to which they 

* Dr. Cook's travels, i. 3 j 7. f Br. Zool. i. N° 2. 

3 This 


This probably was the animal called by Strabo KoX»? *, found Colos of 

• StR ABO 

among the Scytha and Surmata, and an object of chace with the 
antient inhabitants. He fays it was of a fize between a flag and 
a ram, and of a white color, and very fwift. He adds, that it 
drew up fo much water into its head, through its noftrils, as 
would ferve it for feveral days in the arid deferts: a fable natu- 
rally formed, in days of ignorance, from the inflated appearance 
of its nofe. 

Le Corine. Je Buffoi, xii. 205. tab. xxvii. "Lev. Mus f. 47- Corine. 

A with very flender horns, fix inches long, furrounded with 
• circular ru?<e: ears large : lefs than a roebuck : on each 
fide of the face is a white line : beneath that is one of black : 
neck, body, and flanks, tawny : belly and infide of the thighs 
white: feparated from the fides by a dark line: on the knees is 
a tuft of hair. 

Inhabits Senegal. Doftor Palhis doubts if this is not the fe- 
male of the flat-horned, N° 32; but the form of the horns pre- 
vents my affent. 

* Lib. vii./. 480. f A fine entire fpecimen. 



48. Cervine. Eubalus. Plirii lib. viii. e. 15. £«£«?.©•? i. 20$. 

Oppian Cyneg. ii. Lin. 300. Le Bubale deBuffon, xii. 294. tab. xxxvii. 

Bufelaphus. Gi/ner quad. izi. xxxviii. 

Capra Dorcas. Ljn.fyji. Antilopc Bubalis. Pallas fpicil. xii. 16.. 

Vache de Barbaric Memoire de Vacad. Mus, Lev. 

A with horns bending outward and backward, almoft clofe at 
• their bale, and diftant at their points; twifted and annu- 
lated; very ftrong and black; fome are above twenty inches 
long, and above eleven in girth at the bafe : head large, and like 
that of an ox : eyes placed very high, and near to the horns: the 
form of the body a mixture of the flag and heifer: height to the 
top of the fhoulders four feet : the tail rather more than a foot 
long, afinine, and terminated with a tuft of hair : color, a reddifh 
brown : white about the rump, the inner fide of the thighs, and 
lower part of the belly : a dark fpace occupies the top of the 
back, the front of the upper part of the fore legs, and hinder 
part of the thighs. 

Inhabits Barbary, and probably other parts of Africa, being 
alfo found towards the Cape of Good Hope. It is the Bekker el 
ivaJJo of the Arabs, according to Dr. Skazv ; who fays, that its 
young quickly grow tame, and herd with other cattle. Mr. For- 
Jlal mentions it among the Arabian animals of an uncertain ge- 
nus, by the name of Bakar Uafch. This is the Bubalus of the an- 
tients, not the Buffalo, as later writers have fuppoled. Pliny re- 
marks an error of the fame kind in his days ; fpeaking of the 
Urtts, he fays, Uros, quibits imperitum valgus bubalorum nomen 
imponit, cum id gignat Africa, vituli ,polius cervive auadam fimili- 




'>//■/;// ,///// /o//, , i'.'pi'. 


The Butch of the Cape call this fpecies, Hartebee/l. They go 
in great herds; few only are folitary. Gallop feemingly with a 
heavy pace, yet go fwiftly. Drop on their knees to fight, like 
the wbite-foo/ed Antelope, or Nil-ghatt. The flefh is fine- grained, 
but dry ■-. 

Le Koba. Dc Bujfon, xii. 210. 26-. tab. ccl.vxvii. 

xxx'n.fg. 2. Anu-iope Bubalis. Pallas fpic'l. xii. j/5. 49. Senegal. 

Cerf qu'on nomment Temama5ama. Seb. Lev. Mus. 

Muf. i. 69. tab. xlii. fg. 4. Scbreber. Bucula cervina. Caii opufc. 63. 

A with horns almoft clofe at the bafe, a little above bending 
• out greatly; then approach again towards the ends, and 
recede from each other towards the points, which bend back- 
wards; the diftance in the middle fix inches and a half; above 
that four inches; at the points fix; length, feventeen inches; cir- 
cumference at the bottom eight ; furrounded with fifteen promi- 
nent rings; the ends fmooth and fharp : head large and clumfy, 
eighteen inches long: ears feven : head and body of a light red- 
difh brown : from the horns to the nofe along the face a ftripe of 
black : down the hind part of the neck a narrow black lift : rump, 
a dirty white: on each knee, and above the fetlock, a duiky 
mark: on the lower part of the ham and lower part of the fhoul- 
ders another: hoofs fmall : tail a foot long, covered wich coarle 
black hairs, which hang far beyond the end. Length of the 
whole fkin, which I bought at Amfterdam, feven feet. 

Inhabits Several, where the Fr-ench call it La pranik vache 
brum. Certainly, neither the Temamacama of Hernandez, nor 
even a native of America, as Seba aflertsj nor yet to be made 
fynenymous with the former. 

* Spa-man in Slockb, Wettfk. Handl. 1779. p. 151, 




50. Gambian. Le Kob, ou petite vache brune. de Buffon, xii. 210. 267. tab. xxxn.fg. !.. 

A with horns thirteen inches long: five inches and a half 
• round at the bottom : pretty clofe at the bafe and 
points ; very diftant in the middle. Surrounded with eight or 
nine rings : frnooth at their upper part. 
Inhabits Senegal 



. I": 





( '/r. />/■ ■ i//r->.u _////' • V. .7/ 

DEER. ioj- 

Horns upright, folid, branched, annually deciduous. VII. DEER. 

Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw; none in the upper. 

* With palmated horns. 

Alcemachlis, Plinii lib. viii. c. 15. Gef- palmatis, caruncula gutturali, Lin. ri. Elk. 

ner quad. i. 3. Munjler Coftnog. 883. fyfl. 92. -ffilg. Faun. Suec. No. 39. 

Cervus palmatus, Alee, Elant Klein Los, Rzacxinjki Polon. 212. 

quad. 24. Ridinger wild Tbiere. 36. C. cornibus ab imo ad fummum pal- 

Allamand, XV. 50. tab. ii. maris, Briffon quad. 6. Faunul. Sinens. 

Elk, Raii fyn. quad. 86. Seheffer Lap!. L'Elan, de Buff on, xii. 79. tab. vii. viii, 

133. Belt's trav. i. 5. 215. 322. Br. Muf. Ajb. Muf. Lev. Mus. 
Cervus Alces, C cornibus acaulibus 

Dwith horns with fhort beams fpreading into large and Male. 
• broad palms, one fide of [which is plain, the outmoft 
furnifhed with feveral fharp fnags. No brow antlers*. The 
largeft I have feen is in the houfe belonging to the Hudfon Bay 

* In the Britijh Mufeum is a pair of Elk horns, which in all refpetts refembles 
the others, except that on the beam of each horn, about four inches from the 
bafe, is a branch, round and trifurcated; very different from a brow-antler. It 
is the only one of the kind I ever faw; fo, probably, is a mere accident; for 
neither the many European Elks horns, or the feveral pair of American Elk or 
Moofe, I have examined, are furnifhed with brow-antlers. Thofe in queflion 
fuetn to be the very pair which Mr. Dale defcribes and figures, Phil. Trattf. 
abridg. is. 85. tab. d.fg. 50. 

Vol. I. P company; 

io6 DEE R. 

company; weigh 'd 56.1b; length 32 inches ; between tip and" tip, 
34; breadth of the palm 13 ^. There is in the fame place an 
excellent picture of an Elk, which was killed in the prefence of 
Charles XL of Sweden, and which weighed 12291b. The length 
of one killed on the Altaic mountains in Sibiria, from nofe to tail, 
was eight feet ten inches, Paris meafure. The height before, five 
feet fix; behind, about two inches more. The full length of the 
head two feet five; yet this was not one of the largeft. The 
tail was only two inches and one-thiTd. It is a very deformed 
and feemingly difproportioned beaft. 
Female. A young female of about a year old, was to the top of the 

withers five feet high, or fifteen hands; the head alone two feet 
long; length of the whole animal, from nofe to tail, about feven 
feet: the neck much fhorter than the head, with a fhort thick 
upright mane, of a light brown-color. The eyes fmall : the ears 
one foot long, very broad and flouching : noftrils very large: 
the upper lip fquare, hangs greatly over the lower, and has a 
deep fulcus in the middle, fo as to appear almoft bifid : nofe 
very broad : under the throat a fmall excrefcence, from whence 
hung a long tuft of coarfe black hair: the withers very high: 
fore legs three feet three inches long; from the bottom of the 
hoof to the end of the tibia two feet four inches : the hind legs 
much fhorter than the fore legs : hoofs very much cloven : tail 
very fhort; dufky above, white beneath: color of the body in 
general a hoary black ; but more grey about the face than any 
where elfe. This was living at the Marquis of Rockingham's 
houfe, at Par/on s green. It feemed a mild animal; was uneafy 
and reftlefs at our prefence, and made a plaintive noife. This 
6 was 


DEER. loy 

was brought from North America, and was called the Moofe 
Deer *. 

A male of this fpecies, and the horns of others, having been Moose and Elk 
brought over of late years, prove this, on comparifon with the 
horns of the European Elk, to be the fame animal. But the ac- 
count that Jojfelyn-f gives of the fize of the American Moofe has 
all the appearance of being greatly exaggerated ; afferting, that 
fome are found twelve feet or thirty-three hands high. . But 
Charlevoix, Dierville, and Lefcarbot %, with greater appearance 
of probability, make it the fize of a horfe, or an Auuergne 
mule, which is a very large fpecies; and the informations 
alfo that I have received from eye-witnefTes, make its height 
from fifteen to feventeen hands. The writers who fpeak of the 
European kind, confine its bulk to that of a horfe. Thofe who 
fpeak of the gigantic Moofe, fay, their horns are fix feet high ; 
Jojfelyn makes the extent from tip to tip to be two fathom ; and 
La Hontan ||, from hearfay, pretends, that they weigh from 300 to 
400 lb. ; notwithftanding he fays, that the animal which is to 
-carry them is no larger than a horfe. Thus thefe writers vary 
from each other, and often are not confiftent with themfelves. It 
feems then that Jojfelyn has been too credulous, and takes his 
evidence from huntfmen or Indians, who were fond of the mar- 
vellous ; for it does not appear that he had feen it. The only 

* From Mufu, which in the Algonhn language fignifies an Elk. Vide Kaht. 
iter. vol. iii. 510. Germ. ed. De Laet. 73. Purchas Pilgr. iv. 1831. 

t Joffelyn'tvoy. New Engl. 88. New Engl, rarities, 19. 

% Charlevoix hift. nowvelle France, v. 185. Dierville voy. de VAcadie, I2Z. 
Lefcarbot hift. nowv. France, 8 10. The French call this animal, Original. 

\\ Voy, N. America, i. 57, 

P % thing 

10J DEE R. 

thing certain is, that the Elk is common to both comments ; and 
that the American, having larger forefts to range in, and mors 
luxuriant food, grows to a larger fize than the European. 
F ° U R°cr AME * In America they are found, tho' rarely, in the back parts o£ 
Nezv England; in the peninfula of Nova Scotia, and in Canada^ 
and in the country round the great lakes, almoft as low fouth as 

Europe. ^ Qj : i 0t J n Europe they inhabit Lapland, Norway, Sweden, and 

Rnffia; in Afia, the N, E. parts of Tartary and Siberia; but in 
each of thofe continents inhabit only parts, where cold reign3 
with the utmoft rigour during part of the year. 

Manners. They live amidft the forefts, for the conveniency of browzing 

the boughs of trees i by reafon of the great length of their legs, 
and the fhortnefs of their neck, which prevent them from graz- 
ing with any fort of eafe, they often feed on water-plants, which 
they can readily get at by wading ; and M. Sarrafin * fays, they 
are fo fond of the Anagyrh fetida, or {linking bean trefoil, as to 
dig for it with their feet, when covered with fnow. 

Speed. They have a fingular gait; their pace is a high fhambling 

trot, but they go with vaft fwiftnefs; in old times thefe animals 
■were made ufe of in Sweden to draw fledges ; but as they were fre- 
quently acceffary to the efcape of murderers and other criminals, 
the ufe was prohibited under great penalties. In palling thro' 
thick woods, they carry their heads horizontally, to prevent their 
horns being entangled in the branches. In their common walk 
they raife their fore-feet very high; that which I faw ftepped 
over a rail near a yard high with great eafe. 

They are very inoffenfive animals, except when wounded, or in 

* Martyn' s alridg. mem. and hijl . Acad.'vr. 253. 


DEER. 109 

the rutting-feafon, when they become very furious, and at that 
time fwim from ifle to ifle, in purfuit of the females. They 
ftrike with both horns and hoofs. Are hunted in Canada during 
winter, when they fink fo deep in the fnow as to become an eafy 
prey: when firft unharbored, fquat with their hind parts, make 
water, and then go off in a moft rapid trot: during their former 
attitude, the hunter ufually dire«£ts his (hot. 

The flefh is much commended for being light and nourifhing, Uses. 

but the nofe is reckoned the greatefl delicacy in all Canada: the 
tongues are excellent, and are frequently brought here from 
Raffia: the fkin makes excellent buff leather* ,• Linnaus fays, it 
will turn a mufket-ball : the hair which is on the neck, withers, and 
hams, of the full-grown Elk, is of great length, and very elaftic; 
is ufed to make matreffes. The hoofs were fuppofed to have great 
virtues, in curing epilepfies. It was pretended that the Elk, be- 
ing fubjeft to that difeafe, cured itfelf by fcratching its ears with, 
its hoof. 

The Elk was known to the Romans by the name of Alee and Alce and 
Maehlis: they believed that it had no joints in its legs; and, Machlis. 

from the great fize of the upper lip, imagined it could not graze 
without going backward. 

Before I quit this fubjecl, it will be proper to take fome notice 
of the enormous horns that are fo often found foffil in Ireland, Fossil horn;, 
and which have always been attributed to the Moofe Deer: I 
mean the Moofe Deer of Jojjelyn; for no other animal could pof- 
fibly be fuppofed to carry fo gigantic a head. Thefe horns differ 

* Numbers of the American Elk-feins are fent from hence to Bayonne, where 
they are dreffed, and fold to the Galhgos, who make buff waiftcoats of them. 


no DEE R. 

very much from thofe of the European or American Elk ; the 
beam, or part between the bafe and the palm, is vaftly longer: 
each is furnifhed with a large and palmated brow antler, and the 
fnags on the upper palms are longer. The meafurements of a 
pair of thefe horns are as follow: from the infertion to the tips, five 
feet five inches; the brow antlers eleven inches; the broadeft part 
of the palm, eighteen; diftance between tip and tip, feven feet 
nine : but thefe are fmall in comparifon of others that have been 
found in the fame kingdom. Mr. Wright, in his Louthiana, tab. 
xxii. book III. gives the figure of one that was eight feet long, 
and fourteen between point and point. Thefe horns are frequent 
in our Mufeums, and at gentlemen's houfes in Ireland: but the 
-Zoologift is ftill at a lofs for the recent animal. I was once in- 
formed by a gentleman long refident in Hudfon's Bay, that the 
Indians fpeak of a beaft of the Moofe kind (which they call 
IVaJkeffer) but far fuperior in fize to the common one, which 
they fay is found 7 or 800 miles S. W. of York Fort. If fuch 
an animal exifted, with horns of the dimenfions juft mention- 
ed, and of proportionable dimenfions in other parts, there was 
a chance of feeing jfojfelyns account verified : for if our larger! 
elks of feventeen hands high carry horns of fcarcely three feet in 
length, we may very well allow the animal to be thirty-three 
hands high which is to fupport horns of 3 or 400 lb. weight. 
But from later enquiries, I find that the Wajkejer of the Indians 
is no other than the animal we have been defcribing. 

Tarandus ? 



r 'tf/// ._/>//•. 5'.l . 

DEER. ix, 

Tarandus? Plhvi lib.xm. c. 34.. Rhen. Faun. Suec. No. 41. Aman. Acad. 52. Rein. 

Le Rangier ou Ranglier. Gajlon de Foix iv. 1 44. 

cbez du Fouillmix, 98. Le Renne. de Btiffon, xii. 79. tab. x. xi. 
Tarandus, Rangifer. Ge/ncr quad, 839, xii. Allamami, xv. 50. tab, iii. Brif- 

840. Icon. quad. 57, ;8. fin quad, 63. 

Cervus mirabilis. Jonfion quad. Mun/ler Reindeer. Scheffer Stiff I. 82. 129. Le 

Cofmog. 1054. Brun's travels, i. 10, 11. CEuvres *fe 

Macarib, Caribo, Pohano. Jcjfilyr's New Mauptrtuh, iii. [98. Voyage d'Ou- 

England rarities, 20. ?£/»-, 141. Hift. Kamtfcbatka, 228. 

Cervus rangifer. Rait Jyn. quad. S8. Bell's travels, i. 213. Martin's Spitz- 

Hennthitr. Klein quad. z$. Ridingerwild berg, 99. Crantz Greenl. i. yo. Egede 

Tbiere. 35. Greenl. bo. Dobbs's Hudfin's bay, 20. 

C. Tarandus. C. cornibus ramofis re 22. i*oy. //a^ &?y. ii. 17. 18. 

curvatis teretibus, fummitatibus pal- Le Caribou. Cbarle-voix "hifi. nouv. 

matis. /./'». ,/£/?. 93. Schreber, tab. France, v. 190. 2?r. Jl/a/ ^!6/a. il/a/C 

ccxlviii. A. B. C. Lev. Mus. 

Dwith large but flender horns, bending forwards; the top 
• palmated, with brow antlers broad and palmated : horns 
on both fexes; thofe of the female lefs, and with fewer branches. 
A pair from Greenland was three feet nine inches long; two feet 
fix from tip to tip; weighed 91b. i?.oz. Height of a full-grown 
Rein, four feet fix. Space round the eyes always black. When it 
firft fheds its coat, the hairs are of a brownifh alb-color; after 
that, changes to white ; the hairs are very clofely fet together; 
along the fore-part of the neck are very long and pendent: hoofs 
large and concave; tail fhort. 

Inhabits farther north than any other hoofed quadruped. Place. 
In America, it is found in Spitzbergen, and Greenland, but not 
further fouth than Canada ; in Europe, abounds in Samoidea, 
Lapland, Norway; in Afia, the north coaft, as far as Kamt- 
fchatka, and the inland parts as low as Siberia. Found in all 
thefe places in a ftate of nature; is domefticated only by the Lap- 
landers» Samoides and Kamtfchaikans; is to the firft the fubftitute 




of the horfe, the cow, the goat, and the fheep ; and is their only 
Uses. wealth. The milk of the Rein affords them cheefe; the flefli, 

food; the (kin, cloathing; the tendons, bowftrings; and when 
fplit, thread; the horns, glue; the bones, fpoons. During the 
winter it fupplies the want of a horfe, and draws their fledges 
with amazing fwiftnefs over the frozen lakes and rivers; or over 
the fnow, which at that feafon covers the whole country. In 
running makes a great clatter with the collifion of the fpurious 
hoofs, which are large and loofe. It does not gallop in the man- 
ner reprefented in the figure of it in my firft edition, or as repre- 
fentcd by Mr. Ridinger, in the 35th plate of his IVilden Thieve ; 
but has a rapid running pace. A rich Laplander is poflefied of a 
herd of a thoufand Reins. In autumn they feek the higheft hills, 
to ovoid the Lapland Gadfly*, which at that time depofits its 
eggs in their fkin; and is the peft of thefe animals, for >numbers 
die that are thus vifited. The moment a fingle fly appears, the 
whole herd inftantly perceives it : they fling up their heads, tofs 
about their horns, and at" once attempt to fly for ihelter amidft 
the fnows on the loftieft Alps. In fummer they feed on feveral 
plants; but during winter, on the rein-liverwort f, which lies 
far beneath the fnow; which they remove with their feet and 
palmated brow antlers, in order to get at their beloved food. 
Its horns fos- My very worthy friend, the late Doctor Ramfiy, profeflbr of 

sil. Natural Hiftory in Edinburgh, allured me, that the horns of this 

fpecies were found foflil, in 1775, in a marle-pit, five feet below 
the furface, near Craigton, in the fliire of Linlithgow. They live 
only fixteen years. 

* CEftrus Tarandi. Faun. Suec. Ne. 173 1. F/or. Lap. 360, 
f Lichen rangiferinus,^. //. ii. 1620. Flor. Lap. 331. 



The horns vary in fize, and a little in form: one at Mr. John 
Hunter's, has two broad four-furcated branches over the brow 
antlers, bending a little inwards: the whole was ftronger and 
broader, in proportion to the length, than common, and of a 
dull deep yellow color. Thefe are faid to be the horns of the 


rTfo*. Arijl. bill. An. lib. ii. c. 14. 
Platyceros. Plinii lib. xi. C. 38. Ofpian 

Cyneg. lib. ii. lin. 293. 
Platogna. Belon obf. 55. 
Dama vulgaris live recentiorum. 

quad. 307. 
Daniel. Rzaczinjki Polon. 4 1 7. 
Cervus Platyceros, Fallow Deer. Rait 

fyn. quad. 85. 
Cervus palmatus. Dam-tanhirfch. Klein 

quad. 25. 

Cervus dama. C. cornibus ramofis re- 
curvatis compreffis : fummitate pal- 
mata. Lin.fyjl, 93. Hajfelqitifl ', it in. 

Dof, Dofhiort. Faun. fuec. No. 42. 

Le Dain. de Buffon, vi. 161. tab. xxvii. 
BriJJbn quad. 62. 

Buck. Br. Zool. i. 34. Fentop. Norway, ii. 
9. Du HaLln China, l, 3IJ. Fauhul. 

Jinens. Lev. Mus. 

53. Fallow. 

Dwith horns palmated at their ends and pointing a little for- 
• ward, and branched on the hinder fide; two fliarp and 
flender brow antlers, and above them two fmall flender branches. 
Color of this deer various, reddifb, deep brown, white, fpotted. 

Not fo univerfal as the Stag; rare in France and Germany. 
Found wild in the woods of Lithuania* and Moldavia f, in 
Greece, the Holy Land, and the north of China. In great abun- 
dance in England; but, except on a few chafes, at prefent confined 
m parks. M. de Buffon fays, that the fallow-deer of Spain are 
almoft as large as flags. None originally in America. What are 



t Doftor Fallot. 

Vol. I. 


,, 4 DEE R. 

improperly called by that name will be defcribed hereafter. Arc 
eafily tamed : during rutting time, will conteft with each other 
for their miftrefs ; but are lefs fierce than the flag : during that 
feafon, will form a hole in the ground, make the female lie down 
in it, and then often walk round and fmell at her. 

** With rounded horns. 

54. Stac. Cervus. Plinii Hi. viii. c 32. Gefner quad. Kron-hiort. Taun.fuec. No. 4. 

3 z6. Le Cerf De Buffon, vi. 63 . tab. ix. x. 
Jelen. Rzaczinjki Pokn. 2.16. Briffon quad. 58. 

Red Deer, Stag, or Hart. Raiijyn. quad. Stag, or Red Deer. Br. Zcol. i. 34. Siaiv'i 

84. trawls, 243. 

Cervus nobilis. Hirfch. Klein quad. 23. Catejbj Carolin. Ace. xxviii. Laiu/on 
C. Elaphus. C. comibus ramofis tereti- Carolin, 123. Faunul. ftnens. Lev. 

bus recurvatis. Lin. fyji. 93. Hiort. Mus. 


with long upright horns, much branched: (lender and 
fharp brow antlers. Color of the flag generally a red- 
difh brown, with fome black about the face, and a black lift 
down the hind-part of the neck and between the fhoulders. 
Grows to a large fize; one killed in the county of Aberdeen 
weighed 18 ftone Scots, or 3141b. Horns of the Atnerican flags 
fometimes weigh 30 lb. and are above four feet high. 
Placs. Common to Europe, Barbary, north of Ajta, and North America. 

Numerous in the fouthern track of Siberia, where it grows to 
a monftrous fize. Extirpated in Rujfia. Arc flill found in a flate 
of nature in the highlands of Scotland. Lives in herds : one 
male generally fupreme in each herd. Furious and dangerous in 
rutting-time. Seeks the female with a violent braying. Rutting- 



feafon in Attgujl. Begins to (lied its horns the latter end of Fe- 
bruary, or beginning of March: recovers them entirely in July. 
Fond of the found of the pipe; will Hand and liften attentively. 
Waller, in his ode to Lady IJabella on her playing on the lute, 
has this allufion to the fondnefs of the animal for mufic : 

Here Love takes (land, and, while me charms the ear, 
Empties his quiver on the liftening deer. 

Play ford, in his introduction to mufic, has the following curi- 
ous paflage to this purpofe : " Myfelf," fays he, " as I travelled 
" fome years fince near Royjion, met a herd of ftags, about 
" twenty, on the road, following a bag-pipe and violin ; which, 
" while the mufic played, they went forward, when it ceafed, 
*' they all flood ftill ; and in this manner they were brought ouc 
" of Torkflnre to Hampton Court*." 

The account of the Cervina Seneclus -f-, or vaft longevity of the 
flag, fabulous. Hinds go with young above eight months, 
bring one at a time, feldom two : fecure the young from the 
ftag, who would deftroy it. Flefh of thefe animals coarfe and 
rank. : fkin ufeful for many purpofes : from the horns is extracted 
the celebrated fpirit of hartjborn ; but the horns of all other deer 
yield the fame fait. The Hippelaphus % of the antients, only a 
large race of ftags, with longer hair on the neck, giving it the 
appearance of a mane. This is diftinguifhed by the French with 

* Stillingfleet's Principles and Power of Harmony, 183. 

t Juvenal, Sat. xiv. 251. Plain lib. viii. c. 33, fpeaks of fome that were 
taken about 100 years before his time, with golden collars on their necks, which 
had been put on them by Alexander the Great. 

X Arijiot. Hijl. An. lib. ii. e. 1. 

Q^2 the 

! »5 

Il6 DEER. 

the title of Cerf a* Ardenne: by the Germans, with that of Brand- 
birtz. Under the fame variety may be alfo brought the Trage- 
laphus of Gefner, fo called from being more hairy than common *. 

Le Cerf 'de Corfe of M. de Buffon, vi. is the left fpecies, of a deep 
brown color. Vide p. 95. tab. xi. This may be the fame as the 
fmall kind of flag, rather larger than the fallow-deer, which Dr. 
Shaw fays is found in Barbary, whofe female the Moors call in 
derifion Fortafs, or Scald-head, from having no horns f. 

Du Halde, i. 122. fpeaks of a fmall fort of ftag, found in Sun- 
nan, a province of China, not bigger than a common dog. 

Virginian Fallow-deer. Laiv/bn CW.123. Catejby, Tr. abridg. ix. 86. Br. Muf. JJhitu 
55 ' Ace. xxviii. du Pratz, ii. 50. Muf. Lev. Mus. 

Dama Virginiana. Raiijyn. quad. 86. Ph. 


with flender horns, bending very much forward : nu- 
• merous branches on the interior fides; no brow ant- 
lers: about the fize of the Englijh fallow-deer: of a light color, 
a cinereous brown : tail ten inches long. A quite diftinct fpecies, 
and peculiar to America. 
Manners. Are found in vaft herds. Thofe near the fhores are lean and 

bad, and fubjedr. to worms in their heads and throats. Are very 
reftlefs; always in motion; not fierce: their fielh dry; but of 
the utmoft importance to the Indians, who dry it for their winter 
provifion. The fkins a great article of commerce, vaft numbers 
annually imported from our colonies. Feed during hard winters 

* Gefner quad. 296. Diftinft from the Tragelaphus Caii. 
t Trsvtli, 243. 


DEER. ir 

on the mofs which hangs in long firings from the American trees, 
in the northern parts. Are very eafily made tame, fo as to re- 
turn to their matter at night, after feeding all day in the woods. 
Thefe, not the Roe, as quoted by M. de Buffon *, are intended by 
Kalm 7, and probably by M. Fontannette. 

Axis. Plhii lib. viii. c. 2r. Be Ion eh/. L'AxIs. de Buffon, xi. 397. tab. xxxviii. 56. Spotted. 

1 19. (fjem.) Raiijyn. quad. 89. xxxix. Axis. 

Speckled Deer. Nkuhoff <voy . 262. 

Dwith flender trifurcated horns ; the flrft branch near the 
• bafej the feccnd near the top; each pointing upwards: 
fize of the fallow-deer : of a light red color: the body beautifully 
marked with white fpots: along the lower part of the fides, next 
the belly, is a line of white : the tail long, as that of a fallow- 
deer ; red above, white beneath. 

Common on the banks of the Ganges, and in the ifle of Ceylon. 
Pliny defcribes them well among the animals of India, and adds 
that they were facred to Bacchus. They will bear our climate ; 
and have bred in the Prince of Orange's menagery near the 
Hague: are very tame : hare the fenfe of fmelling very exqui- 
fite : readily eat bread, but will refufe a piece that has been 
breathed on : many other animals of this, the antelope, and goat 
kind, will do the fame. 

* de Buffon, Supplem. iii. 125. f Travels, i. 2Vj. 

D. with 

n8 DEE R. 

57. Middle- T*\ with rough and ftrong horns, trifurcated. The color of 
sized Axis. JL/« the hair is the fame with the former. Is of a middle fize 
between the fpotted and the great, or equal to that of our ftag ; 
and is never fpotted ; but fometimes varies to white, and is 
reckoned a great rarity. 
p LACE , Inhabits the dry hilly forefts of Ceylon, Borneo, Celebes, and Java, 

in herds of hundreds. In Java and Celebes they grow very fat : in 
thofe two iflands are great hunting-matches, and multitudes are 
killed at a time. The flefh is cut into fmall pieces, and dried in 
the fun, and falted for ufe. 

58. Great Axis. In the Britifh Mufeufh is a pair of large horns, of the fame 

fhape with the former, and, like them, trifurcated ; are very thick, 
ftrong, and rugged ; of a whitifli color ; two feet nine inches 
longj two feet four inches between tip and tip. 

Thefe probably came from Borneo or Ceylon. Mr. Loten having 
informed me of a fpecies of ftag in thofe iflands as tall as a horfe, 
and with horns three-forked. They are of a reddifh-brown 
color. The Dutch call them Elanden, or Elks. In Borneo, they are 
found in low marfhy places, for which reafon they are there 
called, in the jfavan and Malayan language, Mejangan Banjoe, or 
water flags. 

The fpecies of Deer, probably one of the three lafl, are foil id 
in Mindanao, Gilolo, Mandioly, Batchian, and all the Papuas iflan Is. 
Oxen, buffaloes, goats, hogs, dogs, cats, and rats are alfo 
found there, but no kind of beafts of prey. In New Guinea, all 
thofe kinds of quadrupeds ceafe, except the dog and hog. 

D. with 




:i 9 

Dwith flender trifurcated horns, thirteen inches long; fix 59. Porcine. 
• inches diftant at the bafe : head ten inches and a half 
long : body, from the tip of the nofe to the tail, three feet fix 
inches: height, from the moulders to the hoof, two feet two 
inches; and about two inches higher behind : length of the tail 
eight inches : body thick and clumfy : legs fine and flender : 
color on the upper part of the neck, body, and fides, brown ; 
belly and rump, of a lighter color. 

In poflTeflion of the late Lord Clive, brought from Bengal; Place 

called, from the thicknefs of their body, Hog Deer. The fame 
fpecies is alfo found in Borneo. They are taken in fquare pit- 
falls, about four feet deep, covered with fome flight materials. 
Of their feet, as well as thofe of the lefTer fpecies of Mufks and 
Antelopes, are made tobacco-ftoppers. 

Dwith three longitudinal ribs extending from the horns to 6o - Rib»faced. 
• the eyes. Horns placed on a boney procefs, like a pe- 
deftal, elevated three inches above the fcull, and covered with 
hair. The horns trifurcated ; the upper fork hooked. From 
each of the upper jaws hangs a tufk. 

In fize fomewhat lefs than the EngliJI} roe-buck, but of the Size. 

fliape of the Porcine deer. They live only in families. Inhabit 
Java and Ceylon ; where they are called in the Malaye tongue 
Kidang, and by the Javans, Munt-jak : are common, and efteemed 
for the delicacy of their flefti. 


120 DEE R. 

The pedeftals or pillars on which the horns (land, grow 
thicker as the deer advances in age; the margin alfo fvvells out 
around ; fo that if the horns are forced off the pedeftals, the 
furface of the laft have the appearance of a rofe. 

61 Roe. Caprea. Plinii lib. xi. c. 37. Lin. fyfl. 94. Radjur. Faun. fate, No. 

Caprea, capreolus, Dorcas. Ge/ner quad. 43. 

296. Le Chevreuil. de Buffon, vi. 289. tab. 

Sam. Rzaczinfki Polon. 27. xxxii. xxxiii. BriJJin Char- 

Cervus minimus. Klein quad. 24. Icvoix, N. Franc, v. 195. 

Cervus capreolus. C. cornibus ramofis Roebuck. Br. Zcol. i- 139, 200. Br. Muf. 

teretibus ereftis, fummitate bifida. AJb. Muf. Lev. Mus. 


with ftrong upright rugged trifurcated horns, from fix to 
'• eight inches long: length, from nofe to tail, three feet nine 
inches : height before, two feet three inches : behind, two feet feven 
inches: tail, one inch: weight of a full-grown buck near 60 lb. 
Hair in fummer very ftiort and fmooth; ends of the hairs deep 
red, bottoms dark grey: in winter very long, and hoary at the 
tips, except on the back, where it is often very dark : the legs 
flender ; and below the firft joint of the hind legs is a tuft of 
longhair: rump, and under fide of the tail, white. 

Place. Inhabits moft parts of Europe, as far north as Norway : is not 

found in Africa. Uncertain whether this kind is in N. America, 
notwithstanding it is mentioned by Charlevoix : being unnoticed 
by Law/on, Catejhy, Kalm, and Du Pralz. Frequent in the wooded 
parts of the highlands of Scotland, but, at prefent, in no other part 
of Great Britain. 

Food. Fond of mountanous wooded countries, brouzes very much, 

5 and 



and during winter eats the young (hoots of fir and beech: is 
very active; lives in fmall families: brings two young at a time; 
conceals them from the buck. The flefh delicate, but never fat. 

Cervus Pygargus. Pallas Itir.. i. 453. C. Aha. S. Gmelin iter, iii. 496. Cmelln, Lix. 6 2 . Tail-less. 

1 7 j. Scbreber, tab. ccliii. 

Dwith trifurcated horns like the former, very rugged at the 
• bale. The hairs of the eye-lids, and about the orbits, 
long and black. The infide of the ears covered with a very thick 
fur; nofe and fides of the under lip black: its tip white. No 
tail; only a broad cutaneous excrefcence above the anus. 

Color of a roe-buck. About the buttocks is a great bed of a 
fnowy whitenefs, extending to the back. 

Its whole coat exceffively thick; and in the fpring quite 
rough and ereft. 

Larger than the European kind*. Very common in all the Size. 

temperate parts of Rujia and Siberia, efpecially the fhrubby p LAC E. 
mountanous tracts beyond the Volga, and in the mountains of 
Hyrcania. But it does not extend to the N. E. of Siberia. 

At approach of winter defcends into the open plains, and the 
hair in that feafon affumes a hoary appearance. 

The Perjians call this animal, Ahu\. The tartars name it the Names. 
Saiga, which properly fignifies the roe-buck; and is now adopted 
for the Scythian antelope by the inhabitants of the RnJJian em- 
pire j. 

* Dr. Pallas. MS. The Roe-buck, Bell's Travels, i. 201, and Faunul. Sinens. 
•of O/leck, may be of this kind. 

f Pallas, Spicil. Zool. xii. 7. J The fame, 34. 

V~ol. I. R Teutlalmacame 

122 DEE R. 

(- 3. Mexican. Teutlalmacame. Hernandez An. Mexic. Biche des bois. Barren France JZquin, 

324. 151. 

Cuguaca-apara? Marcgrave Brafil. 235. Chevreuil d'Amerique, de Bitffim, vi. 210. 

Pifo Brafil. 97. 243. tab. xxxvij. 

Baieu. Bancroft Guiana, 122. Le Cariacou ? de Biffin, xii. 324. 347. 

Cervus major, corniculis breviffimis. tab. xliv. 

Dwith ftrong thick rugged horns, bending forward ; ten 
• inches long; nine between point and point; trifurcated 
in the upper part: one erect fnag about two inches above the 
bafe: by accident fubjec~t to vary in the number of branches: 
head large : neck thick : eyes large, and bright : about theTize 
of the European Roe: color of the hair reddifh: when young, 
fpotted with white. 

Inhabits Mexico, Guiana, and Brafil; not only the internal 
parts of the country, but even the borders of the plantations : 
the flefh inferior to that of European venifon. A fpecies very 
diftindl from the Roe of the old continent. Perhaps this is the 
wild goat (as Bo fit * calls it) which he fays is plentiful in Loui- 
fiana, whofe female has two cornichons or fnags to its horns. 

The Squinaton, or more properly the Scenoontung, an inhabi- 
tant of the countries weft of Hudfons Bay, is another obfcure 
animal, faid to be lefs than a Buck and larger than a Roe, with 
finer legs and {harper head. An accurate account of the hoofed 
quadrupeds of the new continent, is among the dcfiderata of the 

In the Mufeum of the Royal Society is a pair of horns of fome 
animal of the Roebuck kind, ftyled by Grezvf, horns of the In- 

• Travels, i. 350! f Rarities, 24. 




/vyfv/ , '//>/■//.!. n /i>f). irUmu /'/ ///,//■,'/////,///_' ti;: j>. //h 

S//i///.j <// ///r ■ If/: 

f//v/// _/ / ' /' /> /'il. 




dian Roebuck : they are fixteen inches long, and the fame be* 
tvveen tip and tip*, are very thick, ftrong, and rugged; near the 
bafe of each is an upright forked branch; the ends bend for- 
ward, divide into two branches, each furnilhed with numerous 

Cervus Guineenfis. C. grifeuj fubtus nigricans. Muf. Fr. Ad. \z. Lin. g. Grey 

fyfi- 94- 

AN obfcure fpecies, doubtful whether a Deer, a Mufk, or fe- 
male Antelope; for the horns were wanting in the animal 
defcribed by Linnaus. 

Size of a cat; of a grey color: between the ears a line of 
black : a large black fpot above the eyes : on each fide the 
throat a line of the fame color pointing downwards : the middle 
of the bread black : the fore legs and fides of the belly, as far 
as the hams, marked with black: ears rather long : under fide 
of the tail black. 

R % ** Without 

124 MUSK. 

** Without horns, 

VIII. MUSK. Two long tulks in the upper jaw. 

Eight fmall cutting teeth in the lower jaw; none in the upper. 

65. Tibet. Capreolus Mofchi. Ge/ier quad. 695. Du lalle China,]. 63. 324. Greiu's Mu- 

Animal Mofchiferum. Raii fyn. quad. feum, 21. 

127. Sclrockius hijl. Mcfcbi,\. Mofchus Mofchiferus. M. folliculo urn- 
Animal Mofchiferum, Kabarga. Nov. bilicali. Lin.fyfi. 91. 

com. Petrop. iv. 395. Tragulus, fp. 5. Le Mufc. BriJ/bn quad. 
Mufk animal. Tai'eniier's trail, ii. 153. 67. Klein quad. 18. 

Le Brun's trail, i. lid. Belts trail. Le Mufc. De Buffon, xii. 361. FaunuL 

i. 249. ii. 88. Strablenberg, 339. Jinens. Lev. Mus. 

Mof the form of a roebuck: length three feet three inches 5, 
• from the top of the moulders to the foles of the feer, 
two feet three inches. From the top of the haunches to thofe 
of the hind feet, two feet nine inches. 

Upper jaw much longer than the lower; on each fide a flender 
tufk, near two inches long, very fhort on the inner edge, and 
hanging out quite expofed to view: in the lower jaw eight fmall 
cutting teeth; and in each jaw fix grinders: ears long and nar- 
row, infide of a pale yellow, outfide deep brown : chin yellow : 
hair on the whole body erect, very long, and each marked with 
fhort waves from top to bottom : color near the lower part cine- 
reous, black near the end: the tips ferruginous. The forepart 
of the neck, in fome, marked on each fide with long white 
ftripes from the head to the cheft : back ftriped with pale brown, 
6 reaching 



.///y/ . /Iv.i/-.__jj/± 4 , I'.'O'j. 

MUSK. 125 

reaching to the fides : hoofs long, much divided, and black ; 
fpurious hoofs of the fore feet very long : tail an inch long, hid 
in the hair : the fcrotum of a bright red color ; but the penis {o 
hid as fcarce to be difcovered. 

Female lefs than the male : nofe fharper : wants the two tufks, 
and has two fmall teats. 

Inhabits the kingdom of Tibet, the province of Mohang Meng Place. 

in China, Tonquin, and Bontan ; about the lake Baikal, and near 
the rivers Jenefea and Argun. Found from lat. 60 to 44 or 45; 
but never wanders fo far fouth, except when forced through hun- 
ger, by great falls of mow, when they migrate to feed on 
corn and new-grown rice. Inhabit naturally the mountains that 
are covered with pines, and places the moft wild and difficult of 
accefs : love folitude : avoid mankind. The chace is a trade of 
great trouble and danger. If purfued, they feek the higheft 
fummits, inacceffible to men or dogs. 

That noted drug the mufk is produced from the male. It is Musk-eac. 
found in a bag or tumor of the fize of a hen's egg, on the belly 
of that fex only, kidney-fhaped and pendulous. It is furnifhed 
with two fmall orifices ; the largeft is oblong, the other round ; 
the one is naked, the other covered with long hairs. The mufk 
is contained in this ; for Mr. Cmelin tells us, that on fqueezing the 
tumor, the mufk was forced through the apertures in form of a 
fat brown matter. The hunters cut off the bag, and tie it up for 
fale; but are very apt to adulterate the contents, by mixing other 
matter with it to encreafe the weight. Thefe animals muft be 
found in great plenty, for Tavernier fays, that he bought in one 
journey 7673 mufk-bags. The mufk of Tibet is far fuperior to 
that of other places, and of courfe much dearer. The fiefh of 


126 M U S K. 

the males is much infected with this drug, but is eaten by the 
Ruffians and Tartars. It is ftrongeft in rutting time. 

64. Erasilan. Cuguacu-ete. Marcgraw Brafil. 23$. Cervula furinamenfis, fubrubra albis ma- 

Pijo Brafil. 97. culis notata. Seb. Muf. 1. 71. tab. 

Biche de Guiane. Des ISlarcbais, iii. 295. xliv. Klein quad. 22. Briffon quad. 67. 
Wirrebocerra. Bancroft Guiana. 123. 

about the fize of a roebuck : ears four inches long: the 
veins very apparent : eye large and black ; noftrils wide : 
fpace about the mouth black : the hind legs longer than the fore 
legs: tail fix inches long; white beneath: hair on the whole 
body (hort and fmooth : head and neck tawny, mixed with afh- 
color : back, fides, cheft, and thighs, of a bright ruft-color : 
lower part of the belly and infide of the thighs white. Marc- 
grave fays, that the throat and under fide of the neck are alfo 
white. In all other refpecls the Huffed fkin which I examined, 
agreed with his defcription. 

Inhabits Guiana and Brafil ; are exceflively timid, and moft re- 
markably active, and fwift; like goats, they can ftand with all 
their four legs placed together on the point of a rock. They 
are frequently feen fwimming the rivers, and at that time are 
eafily taken. The Indians hunt them, and their flefh is efteemed 
very delicate. The French of Guiana call them Bicbes or Does, 
becaufe, notwithstanding their likenefs to deer, both fexes are 
without horns. M. de Buffon accufes Seba of an error, in placing 
this animal in Surinam; but the lad is vindicated by feveral 
authorities, who have had ocular proof of its exiftence in Gin- 

ana, &x. 




//?tua#i . ////.)/■ n. /zy. 




Meminna. Knox h':Jl. Ceylon. 21. De Bvffon. xii. 315. Piffay. Hamilton's <voy. g- T nd(A n. 

E. ladies, i. 261. '' 

M length 1 foot 5 ; weight 5 lb. 4- •, of a cinereous olive- 
• color : throat, breaft, and belly white : fides and haunches 
fpotted, and barred tranfverfely with white : ears large and open : 
tail very fhort. 

Inhabits Ceylon and Java. A fine drawing of this animal was 
communicated to me by Mr. Lote/i, late governor in Ceylon. 

Le Chevrotain des Indes. De Buffon, Tr. indicus. 65. Klein quad. 21. 68. Guinea. 

xii. 315. 341. /«^. xlii. xliii. Cme/in, Mofchus pygmsus. Lin.JyJl. 92. Lev. 

Lin. 174. Mus. 

Tragulus Guineenfis. Brijfon quad. 66. 

Mnine inches \ long : head, legs, and whole upper part of 
• the body, tawny : belly white : no fpurious hoofs : two 
very broad cutting teeth in the lower jaw: on each fide of them, 
three others very {lender : in the upper jaw two fmall tulks : 
ears large : tail an inch long. 

The fpecimen in the Leverian Museum is ferruginous, mixed 
with black. The neck and throat ftriped downwards with 

They are found in the Eajl Indies, and feveral of the iflands : 
in Java and Prince's ifland. The Malay es call them Kant-chil; 
the Javans, Poet-jang. The natives catch them in great num- 
bers in little fnares, carry them in cages to market, and fell them 

for two-pence halfpenny a piece. 


I2S M U S K. 

The horn: which Lintiaus fays are fold as belonging to this 
animal, are thofe of the Royal Antelope, p. 20. 

To this genus mull be referred a large fpecies mentioned by 
Nieuhof, p. 209, found in the ifle of Formofa, which he calls 
flags, lefs than ours, but without horns. 


> Mil. 

/'. i 

(' //r//v//// i rr /////. t%g. • \'.0'(). 

CAMEL. 129 

No cutting teeth in the upper jaw. Upper lip divided like IX. CAMEL. 

that of a hare. Six cutting teeth in the lower jaw. 
Small hoofs. No fpurious hoofs. 

Ka^t/Xoj A^aCio?- Arijl. hift. An. lib. II. Camelus Dromedarius. C. toplio dorfi 69. Arab i aw, 

c.i. p unico. Lin.fyfl. 90. One-bunched 

Camelus Arabicus. Plinu lib. vm. c. 1$. Le Dromedaire. De Bufov, xii. zn. Dromsbart. 

Camel called Hugiun. Z,« J/r. 338. /a£. ix. Brijfon quad. 33. 

Camelus Dromas. G$/*w y»<7a'. 159. Camel with one bunch. Pocock's Ira-v. 

Pr. Alp. bift. Aigypt. i. 223. i. 207. ShavSi trav. 239. Ruff,V$ 

Camelus unico in dorfo gibbo, feu Dro- bijl. Aleppo. 56.57. Plevjhd's jmr- 

medarius. Camel, or Dromedary. vol. 82. 

Raii Jyn. quad. 143. Klein quad. $2. Djammel. ForJial,\v. N°. I a. 

Cwith a fingle bunch on the back: head fmall: ears fhort: 
• neck long, flender, and bending : height to the top of the 
bunch fix feet fix inches : hair foft : longeft about the neck, un- 
der the throat, and about the bunch: color of that on the pro- 
tuberance dufky : on the other parts a reddifh afh-coJor : tail 
long: the hair on the middle foft: on the fides coarfe, black, and 
long: hoofs fmall; feet flat, divided above, but not thorough: 
the bottom excefiively tough, yet pliant: has fix callofities on 
the legs; one on each knee; one on the infide of each foreleg, on 
the upper joint; one on the infide of the hind leg, at the bottom 
of the thigh; another on the lower part of the breaft: the places 
on which the animal refts when it lies down. 

The riches of Arabia, from the time of Job to the prefent. The 

patriarch reckoned 6000 camels among his pafloral treafures ; 

Vol. L S the 



the moderns eftimate their wealth by the numbers of thefe ufefut 
animals. Without them great part of Africa would be wretched ; 
by them the whole commerce is carried through arid and burning 
tra&s, impaflable but by beafts which Providence formed ex- 
prefsly for the fcorched deferts. Their foles are adapted to the 
fands they are to pats over, their toughnefs and fpungy foftnefs 
preventing them from cracking. Their great powers of fuftain- 
ing abftinence from drinking, enables them to pafs over unwa- 
tered tracts for feven or eight days, without requiring the left 
liquid; Leo Africanus fays for fifteen. They can difcover water 
by their fcent at half a league's diftance, and after a long abfti- 
nence will haften towards it, long before their drivers perceive 
where it lies. 

Their patience under hunger is fuch, that they will travel; 
many days fed only with a few dates, or fome fmall balls of bean, 
or barley-meal ; or on the miferable thorny plants they meet 
with in the deferts. 

The largeft kind will carry a load of iooo or 1200 lb. weight.. 
They kneel down to be loaded ; but rife the moment they find 
the burthen equal to their ftrength : and will not permit an- 
ounce more to be put on. Are mod mild and gentle at all times* 
but when they are in heat: during that period, arefeized with a fort 
of madnefs, that it is unfafe to approach them : cannot be prevaled 
on to quicken their pace by blows; but go freely if gently 
treated; and feem enlivened by the pipe, or any mufic. In. 
winter they are covered with long hair, which falls off in the 
fpring, and is carefully gathered, being wove into fluffs, and alfo 
cloths to cover tents. In fummer their hair is fhort. Before the 
great heats the owners fmear their bodies, to keep off the flies. 



The Arabs are very fond of the flefh * of young camels. The 
milk of thefe animals is their principal fubfiftencej and the dung 
of camels is the fuel ufed by the Caravans in the travels over the 

This fpecies is common in Africa, and the warmer parts of p L > 
Afia; not that it is fpread over either of the continents. It is 
a common bead of burden in ALgypt, and along the countries 
which border on the Mediterranean Sea; in the kingdom of Mo- 
rocco, Sara or the Defert, and in AZthiopia : but no where fouth 
of thofe kingdoms. In Afia it is equally common, in Turky and 
Arabia, but is fcarcely feen farther north than Perfta, being too 
tender to bear a more fevere climate. It is very common in India. 
They are ufed there for burden as well as carrying men : for the 
ufe of the latter, they generally have a pad put on their backs 
frequently covered with trappings of fcarlet cloth, or (ilk. 

There are varieties among the camels. The Turkman is the 
largeft and ftrongeft. The Arabian is hardy. What is called 
the Dromedary, Maihary, and Raguahl, is very fwift. The com- 
mon fort travel about thirty miles a day. The laft, which has a 
lefs bunch, and more delicate (hape, and alfo is much inferior in 
fize, never carries burdens ; but is ufed to ride on. In Arabia, 
they are trained for running-matches : and in many places, for 
carrying couriers, who can go above one hundred miles a day on 
them; and that for nine days together-]-, over burning deferts, 
unhabitable by any living creature. The African camels are the 
moft hardy, having more diftant and more dreadful deferts to 

• Athenaus relates, that the Perfian monarchs had whole camels ferved up to 
-their table, Lib. \v, p, 130. as the Romans had whole boars. 
t Leo A/r. 338. 

S 2 pafs 


132 CAMEL. 

pafs over than any of the others, from Numldia to the kingdom 
of JEthiopia. She Chin, a Chinefe phyfieian, fays, that camels are 
found wild N. W. of his country *. 

C BacTRIAN. Kfl^tiXo? BaxT£6?. Arift. hift. An.'v. e.l. Baflrianus. Raiijyn. quad. 14JZ 

Two-bunched Camelus Baftrianus. Plinti lib. viii. c. Camelus Baftrianus. C. dorfi tophia 
q AMBL 18. duobus. Lin.fyfl. 90. Klein quad. 41. 

Camel called Becheti. Leo Afr. 338. Le Chameau. De Bujfin, xi. 2,11. ta&u 
Camelus. &?/»«>- quad. 150. iV. ^. xxii. Briffon quad. 32. 

A//?. jEgypt. i. 223. f««. xiii. Perfian camel. Ruffifs hijt. Aleppo, $7. 

Camelus duobus in dofo tuberibus, feu Bocht. Forjkal, iv. 


with two bunches on the back ; in all other refpefts like 
the preceding ; of which it feems to be a mere variety r 
and is equally adapted for riding or carrying loads. 

Wild. The two-bunched camel is ftill found wild in the deferts of the 

temperate parts of Afia, particularly in thofe between China and 
•India. Thefe are larger and more generous than the domefti- 
cated race f. 

Tame. This fpecies is extremely hardy, and is very common in Afia; 

and is in great ufe among the 'Tartan and Mongols, as a beaft of 
•burden, from the Cafpian Sea to the Empire of China. It bears 
even in fo fevere a climate as that of Siberia, being found about the 
lake Baikal, where the Burats and Mongols keep great numbers. 
They are far lefs than thofe which inhabit Weftern Tartary. 
Here they live during winter on willows and other trees, and are 
by this diet reduced very lean. They lofe their hair in April, 

* Est Haldt China, ii. 225. f Fullas Splcil. Zool. fafc. xi. 4. 5. 

3 and 

. . 


> 'dacfyMvn ( "//"/■ — — 732 . 




v ///</ __ /.;.•; 

3. . r 




and go naked all May, amidft the frofts of that fevere climate. 
To thrive, they muft have dry ground and fait marfhes. Here 
is a white variety, very fcarce, and facred to the idols and 
priefts *. 

The Chinefe have a fwift variety, which they call by the ex- Chinese. 

preflive name of Fong Kyo Fo, or Camels with feet of the wind. 
Pat of camels, or, as thofe people call it, Oil of Bunches, being 
drawn from them, is efleemed in many diforders, fuch as ulcers, 
numbnefs, and confumptions -f- . 

This fpecies of camel is rare in Arabia, being an exotic, and 
only kept by the great men J. 

Camels have been introduced into Jamaica and Barhadoes ; but, 
for want of knowlege of their diet and treatment, have in gene- 
ral been of very little fervice j{. 

Ovis Peruana. Hernandez An. Mex. 660. Camelus Glama. C. corpore Iaevi, topho 70. Llama.' 

Marcgrave Brajil. 243. pe&orali. Lin. fyfl. 91. 

Huanueu-Llama. De Laet, 328. Camelus Peruvianus Glama diftui. Raii 

Alio- camelus. Scaligeri. Ovis Indica. Jyn. quad. 14;. 

Ge/ner quad. 149. Le Lama. De Biffin, xiii. 16. 

Llama. Ovalle Chile. ChurchiWscolI.^, Camelus pilisbreviffimis. LeChameaude 

45. Vlloa's voy. i. 478. Wood 's voyage Perou. Brijpm quad. 34. 

in Damper's, iv. 95. Molina. 301. Camelus fpurius. Klein quad. 4?. 


with an almoll even back, fmall head, fine black eyes, 
• and very long neck, bending very much, with a protube- 

• Pallas, M.S. 

■J- Du Halde, ii. *2f. 

J Forjkal, iv. Kiebuhr defer. Arable, 145. 

II Brovtint' i bift. Jamaica, 488. Ligon'ibiji. Bariaaeti, 58, 




ranee on the bread conftantly moift, with a greafy exudation, 
near the junction with the body : in a tame ftate, with fmooth 
ihort hair; in a wild ftate, with long coarfe hair * : white, grey, 
and ruffet, difpofed in fpots. According to Hernandez, yellowilh, 
with a black line from the head along the top of the back to the 
tail, and belly white. The. fpotted may pofJibly be the tame; 
the laft, the wild Llamas. The tail ihort : the height from four 
to four feet and a half: length, from the neck to the tail, fix 
feet. The whole animal, according to Mr. Byron, weighed 
300 lb. In general, the fhape exactly refembles a camel, only it 
wanted the dorfal bunch. 

It is the camel of Peru ; and before the arrival of the Spaniards, 

was the only beaft of burthen known to the Indians. It is as 

mild, as gentle, and as tradable. We find, that before the 

introduction of mules f, they were ufed by the Indians to plow 

the land ; that at prefent they ferve to carry burthens of about 

' ioolb.j that they go with great gravity, and, like their SpaniJI) 

mafters, nothing can prevale on them to change their pace. 

They lie down to be loaden ; and when weaned, no blows can 

provoke them to go on. Feuillee fays, they are fo capricious, that 

if ftruck, they inftantly fquat down, and nothing but carefles can 

induce them to rife. When angry, have no other method of 

revenging injuries than by fpitting, and they can ejaculate their 

Jaliva to the diftance of ten paces; if it falls on the fkin, it raifes 

an itching, and a reddifh fpot. Their flefti is eaten, and faid to be 

as good as mutton. The wool has a flrong difagreeable fcent. 

They are very fure-footed ; therefore ufed to carry the Peruvian 

• Vlka, i. 479. t Ovallc, 44, 

a. ores 


ores over the ruggedeft hills and narrowed paths of the Andes. 
They inhabit that vaft chain of mountains, their whole length, to 
the ftraits of Magellan ; but, except where thofe hills approach 
the fea, as in Patagonia, never appear on the coafts. Like the 
camel, they have powers of abftaining long from drink, fometimes 
for four or five days: like that animal's, their food is coarfe 
and trifling. 

Molina, who had frequent opportunity of feeing thofe animals 
in their native country, allures us that they differ fpecirically from 
the Guanaco. Lintiaus had united them, but we mult give way to the 
evidence of eye-witnefles. 

This and every other fpecies of South America inhabit the fnovvy 
Andes and Cordillera. Their bodies are covered with fat between 
the fkin and the flefh : and they abound with blood : both 
requifite to preferve warmth in their frozen refidence. 

They keep in great herds, in the higheft and fteepeft parts of 
the hills, and alfo near the fhores ; and while they are feeding, 
one keeps centry on the pinnacle of fome rock : if it perceives 
the approach of any one, it neighs ; the herd takes the alarm, and 
goes off with incredible fpeed. When they get to a confiderable 
diftance will flop, look at their purfuers till they come near, and 
then fet off again *. They out-run all dogs ; fo there is no other 
way of killing them but with a gun. They are killed for the fake 
of their flefti and their hair; for the Indians weave the laft into 
cloth-]-. From the form of the parts of generation, in both fexes, 
no animal copulates with fuch difficulty: it is often the labor of 
a. day, Anteauam ablum ipfum venereum incipiant, et abfolvant\. 

* Byrorfs <voy. 1 8. 
+, De Lacs, 329, \ Hernandez, 662. 



, 3 6 CAMEL. 

71. VlCOKKA. Li vigogne Molina, 29;. quad. 147.^ 

cccvii. Camelus Laniger. Aife/i faarf. 41. 

Ovis Chilenfis. #W* <ney. Dampier, Le Paco. Df .fla^ox, xiii. 16. 

iv. 9;. Narioiougb's woy. 32. Camelus pilis prulixis toto corpore vef* 
Vicunna, Alpaques. Frezier's wj. 153, titus. Le vigogne. Briffon quad. $5. 

1 54. I///«i'j ixy. i. 479. Camelus Pacos. C. tophis nullis, corpore 
Camelus feu Camelo congener Peruvia- lanato. Lin.fjft. 91. 

num. lanigerum,, Paces di&um. Raiifju. 

Cwith the body covered with long and very fine wool, of 
• the color of dried rofes, or a dull purple: the belly 
white. Head round, nofe fhort, tail like that of a goat. In a 
tame ftate, varies in color. Shaped like the former, but much 
iefs : the leg of one I faw was about the fize of that of a buck. 

Are of the fame nature with the preceding : inhabit the fame 

places, but are more capable of fupporting the rigor of froft 

and fnow : they live in vaft herds ; are very timid, and excef- 

fively fwift : fometimes the Guanacoes afibciate with them. The 

wool is very valuable both in Chili and in Europe, and is fufceptibte 

of any dye. The flefh is excellent eating. The Indians take the 

Paces in a ftrange manner : they tie cords, with bits of wool or 

doth hanging to them, above three or four feet from the ground, 

crofs the narrow pafTes of the mountains, then drive thofe 

animals towards them, which are fo terrified by the flutter 

of the rags as not to dare to pafs, but huddling together, give 

the hunters opportunity to kill with their flings as many as they 

... ,.-; pleafe. Thefe animals are not yet domefticated. 

Thefe animals yield a Bezoar: Wafer* fays he has taken thir- 

* Waftr't <v»y. in Dampier, iii. 384. 




zz M^tff jZJ,: 

■ ////■ I <rs/////// 7.?0. , 1.7/. 


teen out of the ftomach of a lingle breaft : they were ragged, 
and of feveral forms, fome round, fomc oval, others long: they 
were green at firft, but changed to afh-color. 

Le Paco ou Alpaco. Mo "ma, 295. Cimelus Paco. Gmelln, Lin. 17 1. 72. Pacos. 

Cwith an oblong vifage: body covered with very long wool : 
• of a make more robuft than the vicunna. 
Inhabits Peru only ; the natives keep vaft flocks of them for 
the fake of the wool, which they work into ftuffs as refplendent as 
filks. They ierve alfo to carry burdens ; and, like camels, they 
bend their knees to receive or difcharsre their loads. Thev are 
found on the mountains of Peru in a ftate of nature, as well as 
the vicunna, but never mix together. This deftroys the opinion 
M. i!e Buffon had, that the paco and vicunna were the fame animal, 
and that the fir ft was only a wild vicunna. Father Molina fatisfies 
us of that miftake: he befides adds three more of America': camels 
to the two we were before acquainted with. That gentleman 
was a jefuit, refident in South America, who had formed great 
collections in Natural Hiftory. When the order was expelled out of 
the new world, the Spaniards deprived him of every thing. By a 
ftrange accident on his return (I think to Bologna, his native place) 
he recovered one of his manufcripts, which was tranflated out of 
the Italian into French under the title of Effdi fur VHif.orie Naturelle 
du C ' published at Paris in 1789, in oftavo. It is a choice 

and i I active work; which gives us great realcn to regret the 
lofs c ; the reft of his labors. 

VOL. I. T Camtlus 


i 3 8 CAMEL. 

73. Gi'akaco. Camelus Huanacus. Molir.a, 300. Gmelin, Lin. 170. Sckrthtr, tab. cccvi. 

Cwith around head, pointed nofe: long hair; tawny on the 
• back, white on the belly : back arched : tail ihort, and 
turned upwards: ears (trait like thofe of a horfe : the hind legs 
very long : fometimes grows to the fize of a horfe. 

Inhabits, during fummer, the tops of the mountains; but more 
tender than the Pacos: defcends in winter into the vallies. It 
runs with amazing fwiftnefs; and, from the great length of the 
hind legs, prefers defcending the hills, which it does by leaps and 
bounds like the buck. When young it is hunted and taken with 
dogs; when old, they are chaced by the Indians mounted on fwift 
horfes, who catch them with noofes, which they fling with great 
dexterity. Thefe animals are eafily domefticated : their flefh is 
excellent when young: in an adult ftate it is faked, and is capa- 
ble of very long prefervation. 


74. Chili- Molina, 298. Camelus araucanus. Gvicl. Lin. 170. 


with a head like a fheep, ears oval, and lips thick and pen- 
dulous; nofe long, and arched: tail like that of a fheep: 
body covered with long wool, very foft: length fix feet; height 
four : varies in color (I fuppofe in a domeftic ftate) to white, 
brown, black, and grey. 

Thefe animals inhabit Chili, and were employed by the antient 

Chilians as beafts of burden. They were led by a cord paffed 

6 through 

CAMEL. , 39 

through the nofe. Before the conqueft of America the wool was 
manufactured in cloth, but is difufed fince the introduction of 
fheep. The Chilians love the flelh, but never kill the animal but 
on great feafts or folemn facrifices. 

1'his is the ovis cbihnfts of Ovalle. p. 44. Cieza, 232. and Feuille, 
iii. 23. and Marcgrave, 244. 

T 2 Cutting 



X. HOG. 

Cutting teeth in both jaws. 

Common" (Wili). Sus fera, aper. Plinii lib. viii. (Tame). Sus. Gefner quad. 872. Raii/ju, 

\V| LD. 



c. 5 J. Hefner quad. 918. 
Sus agreftis five aper, wild boar or fwine. 

Ra'i fyn. quad. 96. 
Wieprz lefny, Dzik. Rzatzynfii Polon. 

213. . 
Wild Schwein. Klein quad. 25. 
Le Sanglier. De Bujfan, v. 99. /*£. xiv. 
Sus caudatus, auriculis brevibus, fubro- 

tundis, Cauda pilofa. Brijfon quad. 

Sus aper. Ltn.fyft. 102. 

qual. 92. 
Schwein. Klein quad. 2$. 

Le Cochon. De Biffin, v. 99. Le Ver- 

rat. tab. xvi. 
Sus caudatus, auriculis oblongis, acutis, 

cauda pilofa. B'lJJbn quad. 74. 
Sus fcroia. S. dorfo amice fetofo, cauda 

pilofa. L'H.JyP. 101. Swiin. Faun, 

J'uec. N° 21. hr.Zool. i. 41. Lev. 


with the body covered with bridles : two large tufks 
. « above and below: fix cutting teeth in each jaw. In 
a wild ftate, of a dark brinded color : beneath the briftJes is a 
foft curled fhort hair: the ears ihort, and a little rounded. 
Tame: the ears long, lharp-pointed, and flouching: the color 
generally white, fometimes mixed with other colors. 

The Siam Hog of M. de Buffon is a variety, differing chiefly in 
the fuperior length of the tail. 

In a tame ftate, univerfal, except in the frigid zones, and 
Kamtfcbatka* , and fuch places where the cold is very fevere. 
Since its introduction into America, by the Europeans, abounds to 
excefs in the hot and temperate parts. Found wild in molt parts 
of Europe, except the Britiflo ifles, and the countries N. of the 

BiJl.Kamtf. 108. 

Baltic . 

XXV 1 1 . 


A/V7, /// (•/ I ■!'/// //U>/t (StCHT, /40. ■ '■/ ~ 



Baltic: in AJta, from Syria to the borJers of the lake Baikal*, 
and as high as 55" N. latitude: in Africa, on the coaft of 
bary. Are very numerou9 in %/twz, CWfto, and 7<te/a ; but are 
generally leffer than the European, yet are of the fame fpecies. 
In the forefts of South America -f are vaft droves, which derive their 
origin from the European kind relapfcd into a ftate of nature, 
and are what Mr. Bancroft, in his hiftory of Guiana, i?/~, defcribes 
as a particular fpecies, by the name of Warree. Inhabits wooded 
countries : very fwift : a ftupid, flothful, drewfy animal, fjnd of 
wallowing in the mud to cool its furfeited body. Greedv, vora- 
cious, but not indifcriminate in the choice of its food; has been 
found to eat 72 fpecies of plants, rejecl 171 : very fond of various 
roots : fo brutal as to eat its own offspring. Ufeful in America, by 
clearing the country of rattle- makes, which it devours with fafety. 
Reftlefs in high winds : has a natural difpofition to grow fat : is very 
prolific, brings fometimes 20 young at a time. Its flefli of vaft ufe; 
takes fait the beft of any ; our table with various deli- 
cacies; brawn, peculiar to the Englijlo. The -Romans made a 

Of the fwelling umfluous paps 
Of a fat pregnant Sow, newly cut off J. 

* Belts trav. i. 279. 

f Des Marcbais <voy. iii, 312. Gumilla Orenoque, ii. 4. 

J Akbjmift, Aft. ii. Sc. ii. 

« Guinea, 


M* HOG. 

a Guinea. Porcus Guineenfis. Mare- longitudine pedum. Lin.fyft. 103. 

grave Brnjil. 230. Rail fyn. quad. 96. Le Cochon de Guinea. De Buffen, xv. 
Suspoicu-. S. doifo poftice fetofo, cauda 146. BriJJbn. quad. 76. 

with a lefler head than the common kind : very long, flen- 
. • der, and {harp-pointed ears: tail hanging down to the 
heels, without hairs: the body covered with fhorr, red, mining 
hairs, but about the neck and lower part of the back a little 
longer: no bridles. A domeftic variety of the common kind. 

(3 The Siam hog is another variety, very little differing from the 
former. It is defcribed by M. de Buffon, under the title of Cochon 
de Sum. v. 99. tab. xv. 

y Chinese. Sus Cluneniis. Lin./jjf. 102. EriJJon, quad. 7$. Javan Hog. Kolbtn 

Cape i. 117. 

with the belly hanging almoft to the ground: legs fhort: 
tail very fhort : the body generally bare, as is the cafe in 
general with the fwine of India. 

Its wild breed is found in great numbers in Nezv Guinea, and 
in the iflands of that country, which the Papuas chace in their 
canons, as the animals are fwimming from illand to ifland, and 
kill them with lances, or moot them with arrows *. They are 
alio found on the ifland of Gilolo, and refort eagerly to the places 
where J ago trees have lately been cut down, to feed on the p : 

.• Ftrrcji's Voy. tab. xi. and p. 97. 



left there, which makes them very fat. They are faid to ap- 
pear, with their little black pigs, likefo many flies on a table* 

New. Guinea mult originally have fupplied with hogs fuch of 
the iflands of the South Sea, which are happy enough to poiTefs 
thefe animals. They paffed firft to the New Hebrides, thence to 
the Friendly IJles, the Society, and the Marque/as. All the iflands 
to the eaft, and even New Caledonia, a little to the fouth, are 
deftitute of them. They are of the fame variety with the Chi- 
nefe, and are more delicious food, being fed with plantanes, 
bread fruit, and yams: but are often too fat for an European 

They are the animals which are facrificed to the lefler deities 
of the ifles: are roafted whole, placed on altars, and left there 
to decay. 

The priefts fupport my notion of the place of their origin : 
men, dogs, hogs, poultry, and rats, fay they, came originally 
from an ifland, which they ftyle the Mother of Lands : i. e. fome 
ifland comparatively vaftly larger than their own. This ifland is 
prolably New Guinea, where the fame fpecies of hoo - , and the 
currifh fox-like dog, are found. As Captain Forrejl informed me 
that New Guinea is not deftitute of rats, it is not unlikely but that 
they were imported by fome of the early navigators, and, efcap- 
ing from the ihips, became the pelt of the iflands. 

* ForreJTi Vojr. p. 39. 


S. H. 


144 HOG. 

<J. H. with undivided hoofs, only a. variety of the common 

kind. " ' 

76. ^Ethiopian. Engalla. Sorrento 1 * <V0J. in Churchill, i. 1. tab. i. Flacourt hijl. Madagafcar. . 

667. Bar hot. 487. Dampier's <voy,? i. 511. 

220. Sus .Ethiopicu". S. faccalo rm ; li fub 
African wild boar. DeJIande's Martyn's oculis Lin.fyft. App torn. III. 223. 

m m. Acad. v. 386. Sanglier du Cap. Verd. ~de Buffo fup- 
Sus ^Ethiopicus, Hardlooper. PMas piem. iii. "6. tab. x\. Journal Hi/la- 

m'/cel. ,ooi. 16. tab. xi. jpicil. fa/c. ii. riant, tab. p. 02. Lev. Mui. 

T with fmall tufks in the lower jaws; very large ones in the 
upper; in old boars bending up towards the forehead, 

form of a femicircle. As a fmgular mark of this fpecies, it 
Has no foreteeth, their place being occupied by very h ' gu s. 

The nofe is broad, depreffed, and almoft of a horn\ bardnefs: 
head very large and broad : beneath each eye a holl< med 

of loofe fkin, very foft, and wrinkled; under thefe a great lobe 
or wattle, lying almoft horizontal, broad, fia a d rounded at 
the end, placed fo as to intercept the view of my thing below 
From the animal. 

Between thefe and the mouth, on each fi le, is a hard callous 
protuberance: mouth fmall: fkindufky: briftles difpofed in j 
cult, of about five each; longeft between the ears, and on 
beo-innino- of the back, and but thinly difperfed on the reft of the 

Ears lar^e and (harp-pointed, infide lined with long whitifh 

hairs: tail flender and flat; does nor reach lower than the thighs, 

and covered with hairs difpofed mfajcicuh. 




HOG. 145 

Body longer, and legs fhorter, than in the common fwinc : its 
whole length four feet nine inches; height before two feet two. 

Thefe animals inhabit the hotteft parts of Africa, from Sierra 
Leone to Congo, and to within about two hundred leagues of the 
Cape. The Hotteniots call them Kaunoba. They are found alfo in 
the ifland of Madagafcar *. 

We alfo fufpect that they are found in the ifle of Mindanao, for 
Dampierf fays that the hogs of that ifland are very ugly crea- 
tures, with great knobs growing over their eyes: that there are 
multitudes of them in the woods, and that they are commonly 
very poor, but fweet. 

It lives under ground "{' ; and burrows as expeditiously as the 
mole, forming almoft inftantaneoufly a great hole in the ground, . , 

by means of its callous fnout, as was experienced from the 
animal preferved in the Prince of Orange's menagery at the Hague. 

We know little of their manners; but they are reprefented as 
very fierce and fwift; and that they will not breed either with 
the domeftic or Chinefe fow ; for that at the Hague killed one of 
the laft, and, treated the other very roughly, which for experi- 
ment were turned to it||. Its favage nature proved fatal to its 
keeper, whom it flew, by a wound in the thigh. 

The Hottentots dread the attack of them more than that of the 
lion. If not timely repelled, they will rufh on a man, fnap his 
legs in two, or rip open his belly : when the old ones are clofely 
purfued, with their young, each will catch up a pig in its mouth, 
and convey it to a place of fecurity. 

* Ces fangliers, principalement les mafles, ont deux comes a coftez de nez qui 
ibnt comme deux callojitez. Flaeourt hifi. Madag. 152. 

f Voy. i. 321. % Sparman. |l Vofmaer Monogr. 

Vol. I. U Sanglier 

146 HOG. 

77. Cape Verd. Sanglicr de Cape Verd. De Buffon, xiv. 409. xv. 148. Ajb. Mu/l (the jaws only.) 

Lev. Mus. 

Hwith two cutting teeth in the upper, and fix in the lower 
• jaw. Six grinding teeth on each fide in both : the far- 
theft very large: twenty-four in all. The tu/ks large, and of 
the hardnefs of ivory. The tufks of the upper jaw thick, and 
truncated obliquely. 

Head long, nofe flender: upper jaw extends far beyond the 
lower. Ears narrow, upright, pointed, and tufted with very long 
briftles. The whole body covered with very long fine briftles, 
efpecially about the moulders, belly, and thighs, where they are 
of great length. The tail flender, and terminating in a large 
tuft. It reaches to the firft joint of the leg. 

Inhabits Africa, from Cape Verd to that of Good Hope. Seems 
to be the fame with that feen by Mr. Adanfon, who calls it a 
boar of enormous fize, peculiar to Africa. 

I believe that the only entire fpecimen of the head now in Europe, 
is in poffeffion of Sir Ajliton Lever, which he received from the 




QuauhtLi. coymatl. Quapizotl. aper 

Mexicarms. Hernandez an. mex. 6^7. 
Hogs with navels on their backs. P„r- 

cbas's P.lgr, iii. 863. 966. 
Tajacu. Pifo Bra/il. 98 Barren Trance 

eauin. J h 1 . 
Tajacu, Caaigora. Marcg'-ave B-af,l. 229. 

Qualle Chiie, Churchill, iii. 2. 
Tajacu feu aper Mexicanus mofchiferus. 

Roit fyn. quad. 77. 
Mexican inufk hog. Ph. Tr. abr. ii. 876. 

Pecary. Wafer's voy. Dumpies, iii. 328. 

iv. 48. Pogerj's iioy. 345. 
Des Marchais <voy. iii. 312. Camilla Ore- 

noaue, ii. 6. Bancroft Guiana, 124. De 

Buffon, x. 21. tab. iii. iv. Seb. muf. i. 

Javaris. Pochfort Antilles, i. 28c. 
Suj ecaudatus, folliculum ichorofum in 

dorfo gerens. Brifon quad. 77. 
Sus dorl'o cyilifero, cauda nulla. 
S. Tajacu. Lin. fyft. 103. Lev. Mus. 

78. Mexican. 

Hwith four cutting teeth above, fix below; two tufks in 
• each jaw ; thofe in the upper jaw pointing down, and 
little apparent when the mouth is fhut ; the others hid. Length 
from nofe to the end of the rump about three feet : head not fo 
taper as in common fwine : ears fhort and erect : body covered 
•with bridles, ftronger than thofe of the European kind, and more 
like thofe of a hedge-hog; they are dufky, furrounded with rings 
of white; thofe on the top of the neck and back are near five 
inches long, grow fhorter on the fides : the belly almoft naked : 
from the fhoulders to the breaft is a band of white: no tail: on 
the lower part of the back is a gland, open at the top, difcharg- 
ing a foetid ichorous liquor; this has been miftakenly called a 

Inhabits the hotteft parts of S. America, and fome of the An- 
tilles: lives in the forefts on the mountains: not fond of mire or 
marfhy places : lefs fat than the common hog: goes in great 
droves: is very fierce: will fight ftoutly with the beads of 
prey: the Jaguar, or American leopard, is its mortal enemy; 

U 2 often 

i 4 S HOG. 

often the body of that animal is found furrounded with thofe of 
numbers of thefe hogs, all (lain in combat. Dogs will fcarcely at- 
tack it : if wounded, it will turn on the hunter. Feeds on fruits 
and roots, on toads, and all manner of ferpents, and holding 
them with the fore-feet, (kins them with great dexterity. Is 
reckoned very good food ; but all writers agree that the dorfal 
gland muft be cut out as foon as the animal is killed, or the 
flefh will become fo infected as not to be eatable. The Indian 
name of this fpecies is Paquiras *, from whence feems to be de- 
rived that of Pecary, 

79. Eaby-ROussa. Aper in India, &c. Plinii lib. viii. c. 52. Sus dentibus duobus caninis fronti innatis. 
Y?T£T<>ixipws. JElian. an. lib. xv\i\. c. 10. S. Babyrufla. Lin.fyfi. 104. 

Baby-roufla. Bovtius India. 61, Grew's Sus caudatus, dentibus caninis fuperiori- 

Mujeum. 27. Raiifyn. quad. 96. Klein ribus, aborigine furfum verfis, arcua- 

quad. 25. Seb.Muf, \,\.Va- tis, Cauda floccofa. BriJJbn quad. 76. 

Untyn Ambein. iii. 268. Le Babiroufla. De Baffin, xii. 379. tab. 
Strange hog. Purcbas's Pilgr. ii. 1693. xlviii. Br. muf. Afim. muf. Lev. 

v. 566. Kieubojfsvoy. 19J. Mus. 

Hwith four cutting teeth in the upper, fix in the lower jaw ; 
• ten grinders to each jaw, in the lower jaw two tufks 
pointing towards the eyes, and (landing near eight inches out of 
their fockets; from two fockets on the outfide of the upper jaw, 
two other teeth, twelve inches long, bending like horns, their 
ends almoft touching the forehead : ears fmall, erect, (harp- 
pointed : along the back are fome weak bridles : on the reft of 
the body only a fort of wool, fuch as is on lambs : the tail long, 

_* Gumilla, 

8 ends 




ends in a tuft, and is often twifted : the body plump and fquare; 
not of the elegant form which Bontius and Nieuhoff give it; as 
appears by an original drawing Mr. Loten favored me with. 

Inhabits Boero, a fmall ifle near Amboina : but neither on the 
Continent of Afia, or Africa; what M. de Buffon takes for it, is 
the Mtbiopian boar. They are fometimes kept tame in the In- 
dian ifles: live in herds : have a very quick fcent : feed on herbs 
and leaves of trees ; never ravage gardens, like other fwine : their 
flefh well-tafted. When purfued, and driven to extremities, rufh 
into the fea, fvvim very well, and even dive, and pafs thus from 
ifle to ifle : in the forefts often reft their head, by hooking their 
upper tufks on fome bough *. The tufks, from their form, ufe- 
lefs in fight. 

* The natural hiftory of this animal is taken from Valentine's bifi. of the Eafi 
Indies, from a tranflation Mr. Loten was fo obliging to communicate to me. 





XL RHINO. With one, fometimes two, large bonis on the nofe. 

CEROs. Each i-, 00 f c i oven i mo tjjree parts. 

So. Two-horned. Rhinoceros cornu gemino. Martial /pec- p. 103. 

tac. ep. 22. Mr. ix. 100. Flacourt, bijl. Madag. 39;. De Biffin. 

xi. 910. Pb. Tr. vol. lvi. 32. tab. ii. xi. 186. Lobo, dljfs. 230. 

Kolben, ii. 101. Rhinoceros bicocnis. Lin J'yjl. 104. Er. 
Sparman, Mock, wettfk. Handl. 1778. muf. Lev. Mus. 

H. with two horns, one placed beyond the other. Length of 
the fore born of one in the Ph. Tranf. twenty inches, of the 
fecond horn nineteen ; but they vary in fizes. Upper lip fhort, 
reaching but a little way over the lower : no fore teeth. The fkin 
without any plica or folds ; much granulated or wart)' ; of a deep 
cinereous grey. Between the legs fmooth, and flefh-colored. In 
other parts are a few fcattered ftiff briftles, molt numerous about 
the ears and end of the tail. Tail thick as a thumb : convex 
above and below : flatted on the fides. Feet no more in diameter 
than the legs : but the three hoofs projedt forward. Soles cal- 
Place. Inhabits Africa. Obferved firft by Flacourt, in the bay of 

SaUagnc, near the Cape. Within thefe few years by Mr. Spar- 
man, a learned Swede, at fome diftance N. of that promontory. 
He, with the laudable perfeverance of a naturalift, watched the 
arrival of thofe and o'ther animals at a muddy water, whither the 
wild beafts refort to quench their third, and fome to indulge, in 
that hot climate, in rolling in the mud. In that fpot he fhot two 
of thefe animals : one was fo large that the united force of five 
men could not turn it. The leffer he meafured : its length 








was eleven feet and a half, the girth twelve: the height, between Size. 

fix and feven. 

The /kin is quite naked, very ftrong and thick, but is eafily 
penetrated with an iron bullet : one of lead is fiatten'd againft 
the hide. The Hottentots at prefent always kill thefe animals by a 
mufquet (hot, and the fkin is capable of being transfixed with the 
launce or dart. The Hottentots ufually haften the death of the 
Rhinoceros, by taking care to poifon the weapon. 

This fpecies feems to agree in manners with the following. Its Manners. 
flefli is eatable, and tafles like coarfe pork. Cups are made of 
the horns; and of the hide, whips. Its food is boughs of trees, 
which it bites into bits of the fize of a finger. It feeds alio much 
on fucculent plants, efpecially the (linking yfo/W/tf, and a fpecies 
of Stcebe called the Stoebe Rhinocerotis. 

It continues during day in a (late of reft. In the evenings 
and mornings (perhaps the whole night) wanders in queft of- 
food : or in fearch of places to roll in. 

Has no voice, only a fort of fnorting, which was obferved in 
females anxious for their young. 

Its dung is like that of horfes. It has a great propenfitv to 
cleanlinefs, dropping its dung and urine only in particular places. 

Its fen fe of fight is bad. Thofe of hearing and fmelling very 
exquifite: the left noife or fcent puts it in motion. It inllantly 
runs to the fpot from which thofe two fenfes take the alarm. 
Whatfoever it meets with in its courfe, it overturns and tramples 
on. Men, oxen, and waggons, have thus been overturned, and 
fometimes deftroyed. It never returns to repeat the charge ; but 
keeps on its way : fo that a fenfelefs impulfe, more than rage, 
feems the caufe of the mifchicf it does. 

5 This 



This was the fpecies defcribed by Martial, under the name of 
Rhinoceros cornu gemino : who relates its combat with the Bear. 

Namque gravem gemino cornu fie extulit urfum, 
Jattat ut impofuas taurus in aftra pilas*. 

In fadl, the Romans procured their Rhinocerofes from Africa only, 
which was the reafon why they are reprefented with double horns. 
That figured in the Prenejline pavement, and that on a coin of 
Domitian, have two horns: that which Paufanias-f defcribes un- 
der the name of Ethiopian Bull had one horn on the nofe, and 
another leffer higher up: and Cofmas Mgyptius%, who travelled 
into AEthiopia, in the reign of Jujlin'ian, alfo attributes to it the 
fame number : whereas Pliny, who defcribes the Indian kind, 
iuftly gives it but a Angle horn. Cofmas, vol. II. p. 334, fays, 
that its fkin was fo thick and hard, that the Ethiopians ploughed 
with it, and that they called the animal Aru and Harifi: the lafl 
fignifying the figure of the noftrils, and the ufe made of the fkin. 
He adds, that when the beaft is quiefcent, the horns are loofe, but 
in its rage become firm and immoveable. This is confirmed by 
Doctor Sparman, who obferved that they were fixed to the head, 
or rather nofe, by a ftrong apparatus of finews and mufcles, fo as 
to give the animal the power of giving a Heady fixture whenever 
occafion demands. 

Auguflus introduced a rhinoceros (probably of this kind) into 
the fhews, on occafion of his triumph over Cleopatra ||. 

s Sped. Epig. 22. f ix. 9. \ Tom. ii. 334. {\ Dion Cajfius, lib. li. 



Mr. Bruce' s figure of a Rhinoceros lies * under fome fufpicion of 
being moft faithfully copied from the fingle horned fpecies of M. 
de Buffotff, with the long upper lip and every charadteriftic fold 
and plait: but by the addition of another horn, it becomes 
Biavnis; and, as Mr. Bruce very juftly twice obferves, the firfl 
drawing of the kind ever prcfented to the public;};. So true 
is the old faying, Semper aliquid novi Africam afferrel 

I an) indebted to Mr. Patcrfoti for my figure of the two- 
horned ipecies : it does not differ materially from that by Doc- 
tor Spar man, unlefs in the lateral marks that diftinguifh the former: 
and feem no more than a loofenefs of fkin. M. AUamand had 
engraved the fame animal from a drawing communicated to 
him by Col. Gordon, the great explorer of Caffraria; and M. de 
E'lffon again copied his plate from a drawing, in which the 
loofenefs of the fkin on the fides is far better expreffed f|. 

I will not quit the fubjeS till I have laid before the public 
my reafons to imagine that this fpecies is not confined to Africa. 
Mr. William Hidfon, with his ufual friendship, communicated to 
me the following remark of Mr. Charles Miller, who was long 
refident in Sumatra: ' 1 never faw but two of the twodiorned 
'■ Rhinoceros; but I believe they are not uncommon in the ifland, 
' but are very fhy, which is the reafon they are but feldom 
' feen. I was once within twenty yards of one. It had not 
' any appearance of folds or plaits on the fkin ; and had a fmaller 

* horn refembling the greater, and, like that, a little turned in- 

* ward. The figure given by Doctor Sparman is a faithful re- 

* femblance of that I faw.' 

* Vol. v. tab. p. 85. + Vol. xi. tab. vii. 

\ Vol. v. p. 86. 87. || De Buffan Stipplem. vi. 78. tab. vi. 

Vol. I. X Rhinoceros. 


Si. One-bornsd. Rhinoceros. Plim'i lib. viii. t. 20. Gef- Rhinoceros or Abbados. Lhfcheiitn hln. 

ner quad. S42. Raii fy». quad. HZ. 56. Bontius India. 50. lorri b'lfi. 

Klein quad. 26. Grew's mufium, 29. Cecbin-Cbime. 797. Du HaUeChina, 

Worm. muf. 336. £{• Buffon, xi. 174. i. IZO. Faunul. Sinens. 

tab. vii. Rrijfon quad. 78. FA. 'Jr. Rhinoceros unicornis. £«r. .#/?. 104. 

^r. ix. 93. Sckeber, ii. 44. tab. EJ<w. 221. Br. Muf. Ajb. Muf. Lev. 

lxxviii. Mus. 

RH. with a iingle born, placed near the end of the nofe, fome- 
times three feet and a half long, black and fmooth : the 
upper lip long, hangs over the lower, ends in a point; is very 
pliable, and ferves to collect its food, and deliver it into the 
mouth: the noftrils placed tranfverfely: four cutting teeth; one 
on each comer of each jaw. Six grinders in each; the firft re- 
mote from the cutting teeth. The ears large, eredt, pointed: 
eyes fmall and dull: the fkin naked, rough, or tuberculated, 
thick and ftrong, lying about the neck in vaft folds; there is 
another fold from the moulders to the fore-legs ; another from the 
hind part of the back to the thighs : the tail is flender, flatted at 
the end, and covered on the fides with very ftiff thick black hairs : 
the belly hangs low : the legs ihort, ftrong, and thick : the hoofs 
divided into three parts; each pointing forward. 

Thofe which have been brought to Europe have been young 
and fmall : Bontius fays, that in refped to bulk of body, they 
equal the elephant, but are lower on account of the fhortnefs of 
the legs. 

Inhabits Bengal, Siam, Cochin-China, Quangfi in China, and the 
ifles of Java and Sumatra; loves fhady forefts, the neighborhood 
©f rivers, and marfhy places: fond of wallowing in mire, like 



the hog; is faid by that means to give fhelter in the folds of its 
Ikin to fcorpions, centipes, and other infects. Is afolitary animal: 
brings one young at a time, very folicitous about it: quiet and 
inoftenfive; but when provoked, furious: very fwift, and very 
dangerous: I know a gentleman* who had his belly ripped up by 
one, but lurvived the wound. Is dull of fight; but has a moil 
exquifite (cent: feeds on vegetables, particularly fluubs, broom, 
and thirties: grunts like a hog: is faid to confort with the tiger-; 
a fable, founded on their common attachment to the fides of 
rivers, and on that account are fometimes found near each other. 

It is faid, when it has flung down a man, to lick the flefh quite 
from the bone with its tongue: this is impoffible, as the tongue 
is quite fmooth ; that which wounded the gentleman, retired in- 
flantly after the ftroke. 

Its flefh is eaten; the ikin, the flefh, hoofs, teeth, and very 
dung, ufed in India medicinally; the horn is in great repute as 
an antidote againft poifonf, efpecially that oi a virgin Jbbada; 
cups are made of them, which are fuppoied to communicate the 
virtue to the liquor poured into them. 

Is the unicorn of holy writ, and Indian afs di Arijlotk\, who Tm Unicorn. 
fays, it has but one horn ; his informers might well compare 
the clumfy fhape of the Rhinoceros to that of an afs, fo that the 
philofopher might ealily be induced to pronounce it a whole- 
footed animal. I may add, that jElian, lib. iv. c. 22, attributes 
the fame akxipbarmic qualities to the horn of the Indian afs, as 

♦ Charles Pigot, Efqj of Pepiof, Sbropfoiri, at that time in the India fervice. 
\ It was not every horn that had this virtue : fome were held very cheap, while 
Others take a vail price. 
X HiJI. An. lib. ii. c. *. 

X 2 are 



are afcribed to that of the Rhinoceros. This was alio the /era 
monoceros of Pliny * ; which was of India, the fame country with 
this animal; and in his account of the monoceros, he exactly 
defcribes the great black horn and the hog-like tail. The uni- 
corn of holy writ has all the properties of the Rhinoceros, rage, 
unumeablenefs, great fwiftnefs, and great ftrength. 

Various animals were ftyled monoceros and unicornis, probably 
from the accident of having loft one of their horns. Thus Pliny 
mentions a bos unicornis, and oryx unkorne. Any of the great ftrait- 
horned antelopes, fuch as the Indian, K° 22, deprived of one horn, 
would make an excellent unicorn, and anfwer to the figure given 
of it : for on fuch an accident die fable feems to be founded, 
when the word is not applied to the Rhinoceros-. 

The combats between the Elephant and Rhinoceros, a fable, 
derived from Pliny. 

An entire Rhinoceros was found buried in a bank of a Siberian 
river, in the antient frozen foil, with the fkin, tendons, and fome 
of the flefh in the higheft prefervation. This fad, incredible as it 
is at fiift fight, is given, not only on the beft authority f : but, 
as an evidence, the complete head is now preferved in the 
Mufeum at Peter jlurg: the body was difcovered in 1772, in 
the fandy banks of the Whim, a river falling into the Lena 
below Jakutjk, in N. lat. 64, and a moft ample account of it 
given by that able naturalift Doctor Pallas, to whom this 
work is under fuch frequent obligations. 

» lib. viii. (, 2i« \ Dr Pallas, Nov. Com. Petnp. xvii, 585. tab. xv. 




e /£/■// , /(////t o//<//rr /t/r JS7. t Kcf^ 



Four cutting teeth in each jaw : two tufks in each. 
Each hoof divided into four parts. 


Tiritoi woTa//io;. Art/lot. hijl. An. lib. ii. 

.*■ 7- 

Hippopotamus. Pliniilib. viii. e. z6. Be- 

lonobf. 104. desPo'JJons, 19, 20. Ge/ner 

quad. 493. Radzivil iter Hierojol. 142. 

Rati Jyn. qua.i. 123. 
River Horfe, or Hippopotamus. Greta 1 

Mufium, 14. tab. i. Ludolph. jEthiop. 

Cheropotamus et Hippopotamus. Profp. 

Alp. hiji. Mgypt. i. 245. 
Sea Horfe. Leo Afr, 344. Sea Ox. ibid. 

Lobo Abyjf. 105. Kolben Cape,\\. 129. 
Hippopotamus, or Behemoth. Shaw's 

trail. Suppl. 87. 

Tgao of the Hottentots. 

Sea Horfe. Dampier's <voy, ii. 104. Adan- 

Jon's toy. 133. Moore's -voy. Gambia, 

10;, 188, 216. 
River-Paard. Houttayn, Nat. hijl. iii. 40J. 

tab. xxviii. 
Water Elephants. Bar bat <voy. Guinea, 


Hippopotamus pedibus quadrilobis. H. 
amphibius. Lin. Jyft. 101. HaJJelquiJl 
iter, 201. Klein quad. 34. Journal hijio- 
rique,t5c. 17. tab. ii., 124. 

L'Hippopotame. Be Buffon, xii. 22. tab. 
cxi. BriJfonquad.%i. Br. Muf.AJbm. 
MuJ. Lev. Mus. 

82. Hippopo- 

T A M E. 

Hwith four cutting teeth in each jaw ; thofe in die lower 
• jaw ftrait and pointing forward, the two middlemoft the 
longeft : four tulks ; thofe in the upper jaw fhort ; in the lower, 
very long and truncated obliquely ; fometimes thefe teeth weigh 
fix pounds nine ounces apiece, and are twenty-feven inches long*.. 
The head of an enormous fize : its mouth vaftly wide : the ears 
fmall and pointed, lined within very thickly with fhort fine hairs : 
the eyes and noftrils fmall, in proportion to the bulk of the ani- 
mal : on the lips are fome ftrong hairs, fcattered in tufts, or 
fafciadi, here and there : the hair on the body is very thin, of a 

» Sparman Stock: Wettfk. Handl. 1778. 329. tab. 



vvhitifh color, and fcarce difccrnible at firft fight : there is no 
mane on the neck, as fome writers feign ; only the hairs on that 
part are rather thicker : the (kin is thicker even than that of a 
Rhinoceros, and of a dufky color : the tail is about a foot long, 
taper, depreiied, and naked : the hoofs are divided into four 
parts; but, notwithftanding it is an amphibious animal, are un- 
connected by membranes i the legs fhort and thick. 

In bulk, it is fecond only to the Elephant : the length of a 
male has been found to be feventeen feet; the circumference of 
its body fifteen ; its height near feven ; the legs near three ; the 
head above three and a half; its girth near nine. Twelve oxen 
have been found neceffary to draw one afhore, which had been 
(hot in a river above the Cape. Haffelquijl fays, its hide is a load 
for a camel. 

Inhabits the rivers of Africa, from the Niger to Berg river, 
many miles north of the Cape of Good Hope. Thefe animals 
formerly abounded in the rivers nearer the Cape, but are now ex- 
tirpated. To preferve the few which are left in Berg river, the 
governor has abfoluteiy prohibited the (hooting them, without 
particular permiffion. 

It is not found in any of the African rivers which run into the 
Mediterranean, except the Nile, and even there only in the upper 
J&gypt *, and in the fens and lakes of JEthiopia, which that 
river paffes through. Is a mild and gentle animal, unlefs it be 

• Dr. Shaw fays, that the prefent race of ^Egyptians are not even acquainted with 
this animal ; none ever appearing below the cataracts of the Nile. It was not 
fo formerly ; for Radzivil relates, that he faw and Ihot at four near Damietta. 
Jiafcljuijl confirms the account of our countryman.^ 

provoked ; 


provoked: inhabits equally the land and the water: fwims very 
fwiftly : during night leaves the rivers to graze : goes in troops 
fometimes fix miles from the banks*, either in fearch of food or 
another river, and does great damage to the fugar-canes, and 
plantations of rice and millet: it alfo feeds on the roots of trees, 
which it loofeas with its great teeth ; but never eats fifth. It is a 
clumfy animal on the land, walks ilowly; but when purfued, 
takes to the water, plunges in, and finks to the bottom, and is 
feen walking there at full eafe : it cannot continue there long, it 
often rifes towards the furface; but in the day time is fo fearful 
of being difcovered, that when it takes in frefh air, the place is 
hardly perceptible, for it does not venture even to put its nofe 
out of the water. In rivers unfrequented by mankind, it is lefs 
cautious, and puts its whole head out of the water. 

In (hallow rivers it makes deep holes in the bottom, in order 
to conceal its great bulk. When it quits the water, it ufually 
puts out half its body at once, and fmells and looks around : but 
fometimes rufhes out with great impetuofity, and tramples down 
every thing in its way. 

Its voice is between the roaring of a bull and the braying of Voicb. 
an elephant ; and is at firft interrupted with frequent fhort paufes. 
It may be heard at a great diftance. 

If wounded, will rife and attack boats or canoes with great 
fury, and often fink them, by biting large pieces out of the fides : * 
and frequently people are drowned by them ; for they are as 
bold in the water, as they are timid on land. It is reported that 
they will at once bite a man in two. Are moft numerous high 

* Journal hijloriqut, 1 8, 


,6o H I P P O P O T A M E. 

-up the rivers; frequently found near their mouths. It is now well 
known that they will at times enter the fea, not for the fake of 
feeding, but to fport for a time in greater expanfe. They will not 
even drink the fait water; but come on fhore in the night to 
quench their thirft in a neighboring well*. 

They fleep in the reedy iflands in the middle of the flreani; 
and on which they bring forth their young. They perform the 
act of generation like our common cattle-, and for that purpofe 
felect a mallow part of the river. 

They are capable of being tamed. Belon fays, he has feen one 
fo gentle, as to be let loofe out of a ftable, and fed by its keeper, 
without attempting to injure any one. They are generally taken 
in pit-falls; and the poor people eat the flefh, which is reckoned 
.wholefome, and the fat is efteemed to be the bed lard. In fome 
parts, the natives place boards, full of (harp irons, in the corn- 
grounds i which thefe beads ftrike into their feet, and fo become an 
eafy prey. Sometimes they are ftruck in the water with harpoons 
fattened to cords ; and ten or twelve canoes are employed in the 
chafe +. The teeth are moft remarkably hard, even harder than 
ivory, and much lefs liable to grow yellow. It is certain that the 
dentifts prefer them for the making of falfe teeth. The ikin, when 
dried, is ufed to make bucklers, and is of an impenetrable hard- 

A herd of females has but a fmgle male : they bring one 

* Sj.a-man, ii. 285. 

f Purchases Pilgr. ii. 1544. Haffelquifl gives an account of another method 
of taking them. The natives lay a great heap of peas in the places the Hippopotami 
.frequents ; it eats greedily, then growing thirlty, drinks immoderately ; the 
peas in its belly f\vell> the animal burlts, and is found dead. p. 188. Evgl. Ed. 




■ »v ////>//• ,/f /////<>//(>/'/ ///( /(in 

H I P P O P O T A M E. l6i 

young at a time, and that on the land, but fuckle it in the water. 
Among other errors related of them, is that of their enmity with 
the Crocodile, an eye-witnefs declaring he had feen them fwim- 
ming together without any difagreement*. 

Among the antient paintings in the Rofpiglioji palace, ave fome 
mod ludicrous reprefentations of the chace of both thefe animals, by 
pygmies with long beards ; and the fcenery fuitable. The painter, in 
the circumftancecf the pygmies, dealt in the fiction of the times; in 
the former, (hewed his knowledge of the Hippopotame and Croco- 
dile being joint tenants of the fame waters ; and added the diminu- 
tive chafleurs with much propriety, as they were faid by fome to 
have their refidence in the country of thofe tremendous animals. 

It was known to the Romans: Scaurus treated the people with 
the fight of five Crocodiles and one Hippopotame t, during his 
jedilefhipj and exhibited them in a temporary lake. Augvftus 
produced one at his triumph over Cleopatra%. An antient writer 
aflerts, that || thefe animals were found in the Indus; which is 
not confirmed by any modern traveller. 

This animal is the Behemoth of Job ; who admirably defcribes 
its manners, food, and haunts. 

I. Behold now Behemoth, which I made near thee; he 
eateth grafs as an ox. 

II. Lo ! now, his ftrength is in his loins, and his force is in 
the navel of his belly. 

III. His bones are as ftrong pieces of brafs, his bones are 
like bars of iron. 

IV. He lieth under the fhady trees, in the covert of the 
reed and fens. 

* Purcbas'j Pitgr. ii. 1 544, 1 568. t WWJ lib. viii. C. 26. 

J Dion Caffius, lib. Ii. || Vide Gefner Pifc. 41 9. 

Vol. I. Y V. Behold! 

,6 2 H I P P O P O T A M E. 

V. Behold ! he drinketh up a river, and hafteth not. He 
trufteth he can draw up Jordan into his mouth. 
The firft, as the learned Bochart * obferves, implies the lo- 
cality of its fituation, being an inhabitant of the Nik, in the 
neighborhood of Uz, the land of Job. 

The fecond defcribes its great ftrength : and the third, the pe- 
culiar hardnefs of its bones. 

The fourth, its refidence, amidft the vaft reeds of the river of 
Egypt, and other African rivers overfhadowed with thick foreftsf. 

The fifth, the chara&eriftic widenefs of its mouth : which is 
hyperbolically defcribed as large enough to exhauft fuch a ftream 
as Jordan. 

* Hicrozoico7i, ii. 754. 

f See Majoris travels, Ph. Tranf. lxi. 292. 


xx x in 

I: . 


a/iur_ ,fy m , l ii: > 

T A P I I R, 163 

Fore hoofs divided into three parts; and a fort of falfe hoof XIII. TAPIIR. 

Hind hoofs into three. 

Tapiirete Brafillenjibut, Lujilanis Anta. Anta ou grand Bete. Gumitla Orenoque, S3. Long-nosed, 

Marcgrawe Brafil. 229. Pi ft Brafil. ii. 15. Condamine -vty. 82. 

101. Nieuhojfs'voy. 23. Rati fyn. quad. Species of Hippopotamus, or River 

126. Klein quai. 36. Horfe. Bancroft Guiana, 127. 

Elephant hog. Wafer's voy. in Daintier, Le Tapir ou Manipouris. Briffon quad. 

iii. 400. 81. De Buffbn, xi. 444. tab. xliii. 

Mountain cow. Dampicr, ii. 102. Hippopotamus terreftris. H. pedibus 

Susaquaticusmultifulcus. Barrere France pofticis trifukis. Lin.fyft.Ed.-x..*i\. 

JEquin. 160. 

Twith the nofe extended far beyond the lower jaw ; flender, 
• and forming in the male a fort of probofcis, capable of 
being contracted or extended at pleafure ; the fides fulcated ; the 
extremities of both jaws ending in a point*, ten cutting teeth in 
each ; between them and the grinders, a vacant fpace : in each 
jaw ten grinders : ears erecl, and oval, bordered with white: eyes 
fmall : body formed like that of a hog: the back arched : legs 
fhort : hoofs fmall, black, and hollow : tail very fmall : grows to 
the fize of a heifer half a year old: the hair is fhort: along the 
neck is a briftly mane, an inch and a half high : when young, is 
fpotted with white ; when old, of a dufky color. 

The nofe pf the female is deftitute of the probofcis, and the 
jaws are of equal lengths. 

Inhabits the woods and rivers of the eqftern fide of South Awe- Place. 
rica, from the ifthmus of Darien to the river of Amazons : fleeps, 

Y 2 during 

164 T A P I I R. 

during day, in the darkeft and thickeft forefts adjacent to the 
banks: goes out in the night-time in fe arch of food: lives on 
grafs, fugar-canes, and on fruits: if disturbed, takes to the wa- 
ter ; fwims very well, or finks below, and, like the Hippopotame, 
walks on the bottom as on dry ground. The Indians (hoot it 
with poifoned arrows : they cut the fkin into bucklers, and eat 
the fleih, which is faid to be very good. Is a falacious, flow- 
footed, and fluggifh animal : makes a fort of hiding noife. 
Mannehs. Thefe animals are of a very mild nature, and capable of being 

made very tame. In Guiana they are fometimes kept, and fed 
with other domeftic beafls in the farm-yards. They feed them- 
felves with their nofe, making ufe of it as the Rhinoceros does 
its upper lip. They know their matter, who brings them their 
food : will take any thing that is offered, and rummage people's 
pockets with their nofe for meat. Their common attitude is fit- 
ting on the rump, like a dog*. Notwithftanding their mild 
nature, Gumilla fays, that, if attacked, they will make a vigorous 
refiftance; and fcarcely fails to tear off the fkin from the dogs 
which they can lay hold of. 

Dampier and Bancroft give very faulty defcriptions of this 
bead, imagining it to be the fame with the Hippopotame. 

* Mamand't edit, of D* Buffbn, nouvelle ed. xv. 67. with two excellent 




< //,,/< r wiAa>?t£_ /6s. . r,v 




No cutting teeth; two vaft tufks; a long probofcis. 
Feet round, terminated by five fmall hoofs. 


EAsipa;. Arijl. Hifi. An. lib. i.e. II. ix. 
c. I. 

Elephas. Pllnii lib. viii. c. i. Ge/ner 
quad. 376. Raiifyn. quad. 131. Klein 
quad. 36. Ludolph. JEthiop. 54. Boul- 
laye le Gouz, 2^0. Dellon's voy. 71. 
Lto Afr. 336. Kolben's Cape, ii. 98. 
Bo/man's bijl. Guinea, 230. Lin/chot- 
ten iter, 55. .Da Halite's China, ii. 
224. Adan/ons voy. 138. Moore's 

trav. 31. Borri's account Cochin Chi- 
na, 795. Barbot's Guinea, 141, 206, 
307, 208. &■£. Afa/: i. 175. /«£. iii. 
Ediu. 221. Schreber, ii. 60. /«£. 

L'Elephant. 2?W^S« q Ua d. 28. Z>* •Pw/'"- 
/o«, xi. 1. tab. i. 

Elephas maximus. Lin. fyfl, 48. /"**- 
nul. Sinens. Br. Muf. Ajhm. Muf. Lev. 

84. Great. 

Ewith a long cartilaginous trunk, formed of multitudes of 
• rings, pliant in all directions, terminated with a fmall 
moveable hook: the noftrils at the end of the trunk; its ufe 
that of a hand, to convey any thing into the mouth : no cutting 
teeth: four large fiat grinders in each jaw; in the upper two vaft 
tufks, pointing forwards, and bending a little upwards; the 
largeft* are feven feet long, and weigh 1521b. each: the eyes 
fmall : ears long, broad, and pendulous : back much arched : legs 
thick, and very clumfy and fhapelefs : feet undivided •, but the 
margins terminated by five round hoofs: tail like that of a hog, 
terminated with a few long hairs, thick as packthread: color of 
the fkin dufky, with a few fcattered hairs on it. 

The females have two teats, very fmall in proportion to the 
bulk of the animal, and placed a little behind the fore legs. 

* To be underftood of thofe imported into England. 



Size. The largeft of land animals: there are certain accounts of 

their attaining the height of twelve feet; others are faid to have 
been three feet higher: but I fufpect that the laft is exaggerated, 
and the firft very rare. The height of nine feet and a half being 
reckoned a very tall beaft. 
Place. Inhabits India, and fome of its greater iflands*, Cochin-CMna, 

and fome of the provinces of China: abounds in the fouthern 
parts of Africa, from the river Senegal to about two degrees north 
of the Cape -fy and from thence as high as jEthiopia on the other 
fide: found in greateft numbers in the interior parts, where there 
are vaft forefts, near the fides of rivers: are fond of marfhy 
places, and love to wallow in the mire like a hog: fwim very 
well : feed on the leaves and branches of trees : do great damage 
to the fields of corn, and to plantations of Coco Palms, tearing 
up the trees by the roots to get at their tops. 
Manners. Often fleep (landing; are not incapable of lying down, as is 

vulgarly believed; are very mild and harmlefs, except wounded, 
or during the rutting-time, when they are feized with a tem- 
porary madnefs: are faid to go nine months with young: this is 
gueffed by the cafual efcape of the tame females, when in rut, 
into the woods; where they couple with the wild: are foon dif- 
covered and brought back ; and obferved to bring forth in about 

* Socio, an ifland to the fouth weft of Mindanao, was deftitute of elephants 
till a few were fent as a prefent from Siam. Some efcaped to the woods, and 
their offspring are now wild there. None are found in Mindanao, Celebes, or 
the other iflands to the eaft of Scolo. Capt. Forrejl. 

f From the names of many places, it is probable that elephants were for- 
merly found nearer to that great promontory; but at prefent none are feen fur- 
ther fouth than the country of the Jmacjuas. 



nine months from the time. According to the Ayeen Akbery *, i. 14?, 
they are faid to go eighteen months. In a wild ftate the young 
elephants do not attach themfelves to their dams, but fuck 
indifferently the milch females of the whole herd. They bring only 
oneatatime; very rarely two. The young are about three feet high 
when they are firft born ; aad continue growing till they are fix- 
teen or twenty years old. They are faid to live a hundred and 
twenty or thirty years -f. 

Drink by means of their trunk, fucking water up it, and then 
conveying it into the mouth; are very careful of the trunk, con- 
fcious that their exiftence depends on it; is to them as a hand; 
is their organ of feeling and of fmell, both which fenfes it has in 
the molt exquifite degree: its ftrength matchlefs; the tame ele- 
phants carry fmall pieces of artillery, fmall towers, with numbers 
of people in them, and alfo vaft loads : is not at prefent domef- 
ticated in Africa, only in the more civilized continent of Afia; 
they are much more numerous in Africa, in fome parts fwarm, fo 
that the negroes are obliged to make their habitations under 
ground for fear of them. Are killed and eaten by the natives ; 
the trunk faid to be a delicious morfel : caught in pit-falls, co- 
vered with branches of trees; fometimes chaced and killed with 
lances : are inftantly killed by a flight wound in the head, behind 
the ears. All the teeth are brought from Africa; frequently 
picked up in the woods; uncertain whether fhed teeth, or from 
dead animals: the African teeth J, which come from Mofambiquc, 

* Or inftitutes of the emperor Akber. 

f Taternier, ii. 96. 

% Dellon's <voy. 74. I have feen, in very Wge teeth, fmall brafs bullets lodged 
almoft in the centre: the orifice made by the ball was entirely filled up with the 
ivory matter, and the bullet formed a nucleus. 


?assing Rivers. 


are ten feet long ; thofe of Malabar only three or four ; the 
largeft in Afia are thofe of Cochin-China, which even exceed the 
elephants of Mofambique *. The fkin is thick, and, when tlrefled, 
proof againft a mufket-ball : the flefh, the gall, the fltin, the 
bones, according to Shi Chin, are ufed in medicine -f-. 

The wild elephants of Ceylon live in troops or families diftincT: 
and feparate from all others, and feem to avoid the ftrange herds 
with particular care. When a family removes from place to 
place, the largeft-tufked males put themfelves at the head ; and 
Manner, of if they meet with a large river, are the firft to pafs it. On arriv- 

ing on the oppofite bank, they try whether the landing-place is 
fafe : in cafe it is, they give a fignal of a note from the trunk, as 
if it were the found of a trumpet, on which the remaining part 
of the old elephants fwim over ; the little elephants follow, 
holding one another by locking their trunks together; and the 
reft of the old ones bring up the rear. 

In the woods are often feen a folitary male elephant, wandering 
like an outlaw banifhed from the herd, and all the race. Thefe 
are as if in a ftate of defperation, and very dangerous. A finglc 
man will put to flight whole herds of focial elephants. This, 
alone, fears not his prefence, but will ftand firm, putting his power 
to defiance J. 

* Borri, 79 J. 

t Du Haldt China, ii. 224. 

J The feveral curious particulars inferted in this edition, refpetting the ele- 
phant, are taken from a memoir on the fubjeft, tranfmitted by Mr. Marce/lut 
Bits, fecretary during twelve years to the Dutch government in Ceylon, and com- 
municated to me by Governor Lot en. 

8 In 



<J?emtUe. '/,///„„/ 




In Ceylon they are a great article of commerce, and are fold to Chacf. in Cev. 
the merchants of the Indian continent, who refort there to buy 
them for the ufe of the great men. This makes the taking of 
them a matter of importance. The Ceyhnefe fomctimes furround 
the woods where the elephants inhabit, with numerous bands, 
and drive before them, with all kinds of noifes, firing of guns, and 
with lighted torches, the beafts that happen to be there, till they 
are entrapped in a park inclofed with pallifades, constructed in the 
foreft," in form of a wheel. At other times, the younger and molt 
active Ceyhnefe follow them in the woods, and, putting them to 
flight, purfue till they have an opportunity of flinging a fort of 
fpringe, made of cord, round the hind legs of a beaft, which they 
follow, holding it in their hands till they can wind it round a 
tree : then they bring two tame elephants, which they place on 
each fide of the wild one, and fo conduct him home ; but fhould 
he prove reftive, they direct the tame ones to beat him with their 
trunks, which foon quiets even the mod ferocious. 

A third way of taking the wild kind, is by means of tame fe- 
male elephants, trained for the purpofe. Thefe the Indians carry 
into the woods, where the artful female foon enveigles a male out 
of the favage herd. As foon as ftie has made a conqueft, and 
feparated the male from his family, the Indians with a great noife 
terrify the reft, and put them to flight, and others make them- 
felves mailers of the beaft thus detached from its friends. 

The report of the great fwiftnefs of the elephants is erroneous : 
an active and nimble Indian can eafily outrun them*. 

* M. Bles. In Borneo, elephants are only found near a great inland lake, which 
feparates Banjarmaliug from the empire of Borneo, and in no other part of the ifland. 
Their tuflcs are a great article of commerce. 

Vol. I. Z By 



By the obfervations of Mr. Bles, it is very long before the 
tufks arrive at a great fize: neither is it every male that has 
them of the magnitude we often fee; not one in ten has them, 
notwithftanding they may equal, in vigor and bulk of body, 
thofe which have : on the contrary, their tufks are fhort, ilender, 
and blunt, and never above a foot long: nor is it poflible to 
know whether the tufks will be larger or not, till the bean; ar- 
rives at the age of twelve or fourteen. 
Sagacity. Are, notwithftanding the great dullnefs of their eye and ftupidity 

of their appearance, the moft docile and moft intelligent of animals: 
tractable and moft obedient to their matter's will : are fenfible of be- 
nefits, refentful of injuries: directed by a flight rod of iron hooked 
at one end : are in many parts of India the executioners of juftice; 
will, with their trunks, break every limb of the criminal, or tram- 
ple him to death, or transfix him with their tufks, according as 
they are directed : are fo modeft as never to permit any one to 
fee them copulate: have a quick fenfe of glory. In India, they 
were once employed in the launching of fhips : one was directed 
to force a very large veffel into the water: the work proved fu- 
peiior to his ftrength: his mafter, with a farcaftic tone, bid the 
keeper take away this lazy beaft, and bring another: the poor 
animal inftantly repeated his efforts, fractured his fcull, and died 
on the fpot*. In DelM, an elephant palling along the ftreets, 
put his trunk into a taylor's (hop, where feveral people"' were at 
work; one of them pricked the end with his needle: the beaft 
palled on, but in the next dirty puddle filled its trunk with wa- 

Ludclpb. Com. in bift. JEthiop. 147. 



ter, returned to the fhop, and fpurting every drop among the 
people who had offended him, fpoilt their work*. 

An elephant in Adfmeer, which often pafled through the Ba- 
zar or market, as he went by a certain herb-woman, always re- 
ceived from her a mouthful of greens : at length he was feized 
with one of his periodical fits of rage, broke his fetters, and, run- 
ning through the market, put the crowd to flight; among others, 
this woman, who, in hafte, forgot a little child (he had brought 
with her. The animal, recollecting the fpot where his benefac- 
trefs was wont to fit, took up the infant gently in his trunk, and 
placed it in fafety on a Pcall before a neighboring houfef. 

Another, in his madnefs, killed his Comae or governor: the 
wife, feeing the misfortune, took her two children and flung them 
before the elephant, faying, Now you have dejlroyed their father* 
you may as zvell put an end to their lives and mine. It inftantly 
flopped, relented, took the greateft of the children, placed him 
on its neck, adopted him for its Comae, and never afterwards 
would permit any body elfe to mount it j. 

The Indians have from very early times employed the elephant 
in their wars: Porus oppofed the paffage of Alexander, over the 
Hydafpes ||, with eighty-five of thefe animals; M. de Buffon very 
juftly imagines, that fome of the elephants which were taken by 
that monarch, and afterwards tranfported into Greece, were em- 
ployed by Pyrrbus againft the Romans. From the time of Solo- 
mon, ivory has been ufed in ornamental works; it was one of the 
imports of his navy of farjloip, whofe lading was gold and fil- 
ver, ivory, apes, and peacocks §. 

* Hamilton's account of Eajl India, ii. 109. + Terry's Voyage, 14.8. 

% De Buffon, xi. 77. || Shiint. Curtius, lib. viii. c. 43. § 2 Cbrtm. ix. 2r. 

Z 2 An 


An elephant was preferred, in 1254, to Henry III. by Louis IX. 
of France*, which was kept with great care in the Tower. A 
writ was iffued to the Sheriffs of London, directing them to make 
luffkient provifion for our Elephant, Elephans nojler, and its 
keeper-}-; and another, which orders them to " build, out of 
" the city revenues, in our Tower of London, one houfe of forty 
" feet long and twenty deep, for our Elephant \". 
Fossil in Enc- The teech of this animal are often found in a foffil ftate; fome 

land. years ago two great grinding teeth, and part of the tufks of an 

elephant, were given me by fome miners, who difcovered them 
at the depth of forty-two yards, in a lead-mine in Flintjlrire; one 
of the ftrata above them was lime-ftone, about eight yards 
thick; the teeth were found in a bed of gravel in the fame mine; 
the grinders were almoft as perfect as if juft taken from the ani- 
mal ; the tufk much decayed, foft, and exfoliating. A flag's 
horn was found with them. 
Siberia. The grinders and tufks of the Mammouth, fo often found foffil 

in Siberia, muft be referred to this animal, as is evident from the 
account and figures of thofe in the Ph. Tr. abridg. ix. 87. by Mr. 
Breyniits\\. The molares differ not in the left from thofe recent; 
but the tufk has a curvature far greater than thofe of any ele- 
phant I have feen ; whether this was accidental or preternatural, 
cannot be determined from a fingle fpecimen ; Strahlenberg fays, 

* Matthew Paris, 903. t Madax, Antiq. Exch. i. 377. % Mait/and's 

London, i. 171. 

U Who has given very accurate figures of the entire head, the molares, the 
tufk, and the thigh bone. 


E L E P H A N T. 

they are fomewhat more crooked* than elephants teeth com- 
monly are; and others relate that a pair weighed 400 lb. which 
exceeds the weight of the largeft recent tufks : there are alfo 
found with them foffil grinders of 241b. weight; but fince, in all 
oiher refpects, thofe grinders referable thole of the living ele- 
phants; and one being found lodged in the ikeleton of the fame 
head with the tufks, we cannot deny our afient to the opinion of 
thofe who think them to have been once the parts of the animal 
we have juft defcribed. 

Entire fkeletons, or parts of them, teeth, and tufks, are found 
in prodigious quantities all over northern Afia, there not being 
the bank of any great river in which they are not met with, 
wafhed out of the clay or rather muddy ftrata, in which they 
are lodged. All the country towards the ArSiic circle is a vaft 
moffy flat, formed of a bed of mud or fand, feeming the effect 
of the fea, and which gives great reafon to think, that immenfe 
tract was in fome very diftant age won from it. With them are 
mixed an infinitely greater number of marine bodies, than are 
found in the higher parts of that portion of Afia. I give the fad : 
let others, more favored, explain the caufe how thefe animals 
were tranfported from their torrid feats to the ArBic regions, for 
(as I have before mentioned, that the Rhinoceros, and the An- 
telope, have been found at this diftance from their native 
country, a flood muft have brought them here, and a fudden 
retreat of the water left them) I fliould have reconrfe to the 
only one we have authority for: and think that phasnomenon 
fufEcient : I mention this, becaufe modern philofophers look out 

• tiijl. RuJJia, 4.OZ. Alfo Bell's Travels, ii. 165. Le Brim's Travels, i. 63. 


i 7 4- ELEPHANT. 

for a later caufe : I reft convinced ; therefore avoid contradict- 
ing what never can be proved. 

The tufks are made ufe of as ivory, formed into combs, and 
ufed to inlay cabinets : and are a great article of commerce, es- 
pecially with the Cbimfe. The Tartars have many wild notions 
85. American, about the Mammoutk, fuch as its being a fubterraneous animal, 
he. &x. Linnaus* fays, it is the fkeleton of the Walrus flung 
on fhore. 

An animal only known in a foflil ftate, and that but partially; 
from the teeth, fome of the jaw-bones, the thigh-bones, and ver- 
tebra, found with many others five or fix feet beneath the fur- 
face, on the banks of the Ohio, not remote from the river Miame, 
feven hundred miles from the fea-coaft. 

Some of the tufks near feven feet long, one foot nine inches 
in circumference at the bafe, and one foot near the point ; the 
cavity at the root or bafe nineteen inches deep : the tufks of the 
true elephant have fometimes a very flight lateral bend, thefe have 
a larger twift or fpiral curve towards the fmaller end ; but the 
great and fpecific difference confifts in the fhape of the molares or 
grinders, which are made like thofe of a carnivorous animal, not 
flat, and ribbed tranfverfely on their furface, like thofe of the re- 
cent elephant, but futnifhed with a double row of high and conic 
procefles, as if intended to mafticate, not to grind their food. 

A third difference is in the thigh-bone : which is of a great 
difproportionable thicknefs to that of the elephant, and has alfo 
fome anatomical variations. 
Uses. The tufks have been cut and polifhed by the workers in ivory, 

* Syft. Nat. 49. 



who affirmed, that in texture and appearance they differed not 
from the true ivory : the molares were indurated to a great de- 
gree. Specimens of thefe teeth and bones are depofited in the 
Britiff] Mufeum, that of the Royal Society, and in the cabinet of 
that liberal man the late Do&or Hunter *. I mould have been lefs 
accurate in this defcription, had not that gentleman favored me 
with his obfervations on fome particulars, which otherwife might 
have efcaped my notice. 

Thefe foffil bones are alfo found in Peru, and in the Brazils : 
as yet the living animal has evaded our fearch ; it is more than 
probable that it yet exifts in fome of thofe remote parts of the 
vaft new continent, unpenetrated yet by Europeans. Providence 
maintains and continues every created fpecies ; and we have as 
much affurance, that no race of animals will any more ceafe 
while the earth remaineth, than feed-time and harvejl, cold and 
heat, futnnter and winter, day or night. 

Thefe reliques are not peculiar to America, for fome have of Siberia, 
late years been difcovered in Siberia, and perhaps in RuJ/iaf. It is 
remarked, that they are not only met with more rarely than thofe 
of the true elephants, but even at greater depths : in fuch ftrata, 
which are fuppofed to have been the ruins of the old world, af- 
ter the event of the deluge. 

To this may properly be added a very obfeure animal, men- 
tioned by Nieuhoff^, and called by the Chinefe of Java Suko- 

* Who has obliged the world with an ingenious eflay on the fubjeft, vide 
Ph. Tr. vol. lviii. 34. The late worthy Piter Collin/on, in the preceding volume, 
gave us other notices of thefe bones. 

f Pallas in Aft. Acad. Petrop. ii. 219: 

J Nieuhojfs <vaj. in Churchill's coll. ii. 360. 

4 ty™- 


i 7 6 ELEPHANT. 

tyro. It is of the fize of a large ox : has a fnout like a hog : 
two long rough ears ; and a thick bufhy tail : the eyes placed 
upright in the head, quite different from other beafts : on the 
fide of the head, next to the eyes, ftand two long horns, or ra- 
ther teeth, not quite fo thick as thofe of an elephant. It feeds 
on herbage, and is but feldom taken. 

D I V. 

D I V. II. 


Vol. I. 

A a 

178 APE, 

D I V. II. Digitated Quadrupeds. 

Sect. I. Anthropomorphos*. 

XV. APE. Four cutting teeth in each jaw, and two canine. 

Each of the feet formed like hands, generally with flat nails, 

and, except in one inftance, have four fingers and thumb. 
Eye-brows above and below. 

AMoft numerous race; almofA confined to the torrid zone: 
fills the woods of Africa, from Senegal to the Cape, and 
from thence to Althiopia : a fingle fpecies is found beyond that 
line, in the province of Barbary: found in all parts of India, 
and its iflands; in Cochin-China, in the S. of China, and in Ja- 
pan; and one kind is met with in Arabia: they fwarm in the 
f 01 efts of South America, from the ifthmus of Darien, as far as 

Are lively, agile, full of frolic, chatter, and grimace: from 
the ftrudture of their members, have many aflions in common 

* Animalt approaching the human form : A term to be taken in a limited fenfe ; 
to be applied to all of this fe&ion, as far as relates to their feet, which ferve the 
ufes of hands in eating, climbing, or carrying any thing : to the flatnefs of the 
nails, in many fpecies; and to fome refemblance of their actions, refulting from the 
flrufture of their parts only, not from any fuperior fagacity to that of molt others 
of the brute creation. 



with the human kind: mod of them are fierce and untameable; 
fome are of a milder nature, and will (hew a degree of attach- 
ment; but in general are endowed with mifchievous intellects: 
are filthy, obfcene, lafcivious, thieving : feed on fruits, leaves, 
and in feels: inhabit woods, and live in trees ; in general are gre- 
garious, going in vaft companies : the different fpecies never 
mix with each other, always keep apart and in different quarters : 
leap with vaft activity from tree to tree, even when loaded with 
their young, which cling to them. Are the prey of leopards, 
and others of the feline race ; of ferpents, which purfue them to 
the fummit of the trees, and fwallow them entire. Are not car- 
nivorous; but for mifchief-fake will rob the nefts of birds of the 
eggs and young. In the countries where apes mod abound, the 
fagacity of the feathered tribe is more marvelloufly fhewn in 
their contrivances to fix their neft beyond the reach of thefe in- 
vaders *. 

Apes and parrots (the apes of birds) are more numerous in 
their fpecies than any other animals ; their numbers and their 
different appearances made it neccfTary to mr'hodize and fubdi- 
vide the genus ; accordingly Mr. Ray firft diftributed them into 
three claffes : 

Si»iiiC, Apes, fuch as wanted tails. 

Cercopitheci, Monkies, fuch as had tails. 
And from the laft he formed another divifion, viz. 

Papiones, Baboons, thofe with fhort tails; to diftinguifh 
them from the common monkies, which have very long ones. I 
comprehend in this divifion of baboons, fuch whofe tails do not 

* Indian Ziolegy, p. 7. tab. viii. 

A a 2 exceed 

} ?9 

So APE. 

exceed half the length of their bodies, and commonly carried in 
an arched direction. Heads large; bodies fhort. 

From Ray, Linnaus formed his method; M. de Buffon followed 
the fame; but makes a very judicious fubdivifion of the long- 
tailed apes, or the true monkies, into fuch which had prehen- 
file tails*, and fuch which had not. I fhall endeavor in this 
genus no other reform in the fyftem of our countryman, than 
wharthat gentleman has made; in refpecl: to the trivial names 
of the fpecies, I have in general invented fuch as I fuppofed con- 
gruous, or in a few inftances retained thofe of M. de Buffon. 

Without tails; the true Apes. 

86. Gseat. Satyrus. quad. 863. L 'Homme de bois. Sinraunguibus omni- 

Pongo. Purchases PUgr. ii. 982. v. 62}. bus planis et rotundatis csefarie faciem 

Homo fylveflris, orangoutang. Bontius cingente. Briffon quad. 134. 

Java, 84. Beckman's Borneo, 37. Homo Troglodytes. Homo nofturnus. 

Baris. Nierembcrg, 179. ^'"'fyfl-ll- Am&n.Acad. vi. 6S. ty. 

Barrys. Buriot's Guinea, 10 1. 72. 

Quojas morrou, idem. 115. Simia fatyrus. S. ecaudata ferruginea, 
Chimpanzee. Scotin's print, 1738. Iacertorum pilis reverfis, nat;bus tec- 
Man of the wood. Edxv. 413. tis. Lw.Jy/t. 34. Br. Muf. 
Le Jocko, de Buffon, xiv. 44. tab. i. L'orang outang. Schteler, 64. tab. i. 
Le Pongo. ibid. ii. 

A with a flat face, and a deformed refemblance of the human : 
• ears exactly like thofe of a man : hair on tbe head longer 
than on the body: body and limbs covered with reddifh and 

* Animals with this kind of tail can lay hold of any thing with it, for it ferves 
all the ufes of a hand ; they can twift it round the branch of a tree, and fufpend 
themfelves by it, or keep them fecure in their feat, while their feet are other" 
wife employed. This faculty is common to fome Monkies, to Macaucos, and one 
fpecies of Porcupine. Fide plates of yellow Macauco, and Porcupine. 



78 1 

I ///Y///S/ ( tt/ff / 

rs////-/ r ///s/ //y a/ 

S t 

Qreat . r/if : 


APE. 181 

fhaggy hair; longeft on the back, thinneft on the fore-parts: 
face and paws fwarthy : buttocks covered with hair. 

This feems the leffer kind, and is that engraven by Mr. 
Edwards, tab. 213, and by Mr. Schreber, tab. 1. 

The Pongo olPurcbas is the greater, more robuft, mufcular, of a 
deeper color, and very thinly furnifhed with hair. This is 
figured by de Buffon, xiv. tab. i. and by Schreber, tab. ii. The 
hiftory of thefe is ftill obfcure, nor are we allured whether they 
are diftindl fpecies or only varieties. 

Inhabit the interior parts of Africa and the ifle of Borneo. Are 
folitary, and live in the moft defert places : grow to the height 
of fix feet : have prodigious ftrength •, will overpower the 
ftrongeft man. The old ones are fliot with arrows ; only the 
young can be taken alive. Live entirely on fruits and nuts : will 
attack and kill the negroes who wander in the woods : will drive 
away the elephants, and beat them with their fills, or pieces of 
wood : will throw ftones at people that offend them : lleep in 
trees; make a fort of fhelter from the inclemency of the weather : 
are of a folitary nature, grave appearance, and melancholy dif- 
pofition, and even when young not inclined to frolic : are vaftly 
fwift and agile : go e»ect : fometimes carry away the young 

When taken young are capable of being tamed: very docile; 
are taught to carry water, pound rice, turn a fpit. The Chim- 
panzee Ihewn in London, 1738, was extremely mild, affectionate, 

* Thefe accounts are chiefly taken from Andrew Battel, an Englijb failor, 
who was taken prifoner i^Sg, and lived many years in the inner parts of Co»go ; 
his narrative is plain, and feems very authentic. It is preferved in Purcbai'i 


,8z APE. 

good-natured •, like the fatyr of Pliny, mltifjlma natura ; very 
fond of the people it was ufed to: would eat like a human crea- 
ture : lay down in bed like one, with its hand under its head : 
fetch a chair to fit down on : drink tea, pour it into a faucer if 
too hot : would cry like a child ; be uneafy at the abfence of its 
keeper. This was only two feet four inches high, and was a 
young one: that defcribed by Doctor Tyfon * two inches fhorter. 
There is great poffibility that thefe animals may vary in fize and in 
color, fome being covered with black, others with reddifh hairs. 

Not the Satyrs of the antients, which had tails -j-, and were a 
fpecies of monkey. Linnaus's Homo notlurnus, an animal of this 
kind, unnecefTarily feparated from his Simla Satyrus. Some of 
the authorities in the Amocn. Acad, very doubtful. Sir John Man- 
deville, p. 361, certainly meant this large fpecies, when he fays 
he came to another yle where the Folk ben alle fhynned roughe beer, 
as a rough bejl, faf only the face, and the pazvme of the bond. 

* Orang oittang, Jive homo Jylvejlris ; or the anatomy of a Pygmy. Folio. 
London. 1699. 

t AZliau gives them tails, lib. xvi. c. si. Pliny fays they have teeth like dogs, 
lib. vii. c. 2. circuniftances common to many monkies. Ptolemy, lib. vii. c. z. 
fpeaks of certain iflands in the Indian ocean, inhabited by people with tails like 
thofe with which Satyrs are painted, whence called the ifles of Satyrs. Keeping, 
a Swede, pretended to have difcovered thefe Homines Caudati ; that they would 
have trafficked with him, offering him live parrots ; that afterwards they killed 
fome of the crew that went on fhore, and eat them, &c. &c. Amcen, Acad. vi. 71. 




IliSw?. Ariftot lift an. lib. c. 8. nis et rotundatis. Brijfon quad. 133. 8 P 

Simia. Ct/ncr quad.%^7. Raii fyn, quad. Le Pitheque. de Baffin, xix. 84. '" * IGMy * 

149- Simia fylvanus. S. ecaudatus, natibus 
Ape, 2d. fp. Bo/man's Guinea. z\t~ calvis capite rotundato. Lin./t/f. 34. 

Le Singe. Simia unguibus omnibus pla- Le finge commun. Schreber, So. tab. iv. 

A with a flattifh face : ears like thofe of a man : body of the 
• fize of a cat : color above of an olive brown, beneath 
yellowifh : nails flat: buttocks naked : fits upright. 

Inhabits Africa. Not uncommon in our exhibitions of ani- 
mals : very tractable, and good-natur'd : moft probably the 
pygmy of the antients. Abounds in JEthiopia*, one feat of that 
imaginary nation : was believed to dwell near the fountains of 
the Nilefi defcended annually to make war on the cranes, i. e. 
to fteal their eggs,- which the birds may be fuppofed naturally to 
defend-, whence the fiction of their combats. Strabo judicioufly £ 
obferves, that no perfon worthy of credit ever ventured to affert 
he had feen this nation : Arijlotie fpeaks of them only by hear- 
fay, wk(% teysrzi : they were faid to be mounted on little horfes, 
on goats, on rams, and even on partridges. The Indians taking 
advantage of the credulity of people, embalmed this fpecies of 
ape with fpices, and fold them to merchants as true pygmies § : 
fuch, doubtlefs, were the diminutive inhabitants mentioned by 
Mr. Grofe || to be found in the forefts of the Camatic. 

* Ludolph.JEthiof. 57. 
•j- Arift. bift. an. lib. viii. C. I J, 

% Gefner quad. 852, from Marco Polo. They take off all the hair, except a 1 
little by way of beard. 
§ Lib. xvii. 
|| Voj. E. Indies, 365. 

5 Feed 

1 84 APE. 

Food. Feed on fruits; are very fond of infects, particularly of ants: 

affemble in troops *, and turn over every ftone in fearch of 
them. If attacked by wild beads, take to flight; but if over- 
taken, will face their purfuers, and by flinging the fubtile fand 
of the defert in their eyes, often efcape -f\ 

Long-armed. Le grand Gibbon, de Bujfon,xw. 92. tab. ii. Schreber, 78. tab. iii. 

A with a flat fwarthy face, furrounded with grey hairs: hair 
• on the body black and rough : buttocks bare : nails on 
the hands flat ; on the feet long : arms of a moft difpropor- 
tioned length, reaching quite to the ground when the animal is 
ereft, its natural pofture : of a hideous deformity. Grows to the 
height of four feet: fometimes walks upright; fometimes on all 

a Lesser. Refembling the former, but much lefs : its colors 
brown and grey. From Malacca. Le petit gibbon, de Buffon, xiv. 
tab' iii. Schreber, 80. tab. iii./] 2. Mus. Lev. 

P A fpecies in poffeffion of Lord Give, about two years ago, 
much refembling the laft, but more elegant in its form, and the 
arms fhorter; but fo nearly allied in fhape, as not to be fepa- 
rated: face, ears, crown of the head, feet, and hands, black: 
the reft of the body and arms covered with filvery hairs : about 
three feet high : good- natured, and full of frolic. That which 

*Ludolph.jEtbiop. 57. 
•J- Idem, 58. 


sxxvm . 

J /'//,/ a,rmect . / 


'//. '//>, 


APE. 185 

tve have engraven is in the Lei'erian Mufeum ; and is remarkable 
for the great length and fhagginefs of its hair : feemingly needlefs 
for a native of the torrid zone. It was a female, and not three feet 

Thefe animals are mild, gentle, and modeft; feed on 
leaves, fruits, and barks of trees. Inhabit Malacca, the Molucca 
iflands, and Sumatra, where they are to be feen by hundreds on the 
tops of trees "*. Thefe laft feem our leffer variety, not exceeding 
three feet in height. They walk erect, and never on all four. 

The great black ape of Mangfi, a province of China, is pro- 
bably of this kind -f-. 

Pb. Tranf, lix. 72. tab. iii. 89. GoLOK. 

A with a pointed face, long and flender limbs : arms, when the 
• animal is upright, do not reach lower than the knees: head 
round, and full of hair : grows to the height of a man. 

Inhabits the forefts of Mevat, in the interior parts of Bengal. Place. 

They are gentle and modeft, called by the natives Golok, or wild 
men: diftindt from the orang outang, by their flender form; from 
the Gibbons, by having fliorter arms. 

Simia Lar. Gm. Lin. 27. Hfiller'j plates, tab. xxvli. q j jARl 

A with black face, crown of the head, fingers, and infide of the 
# feet and hands: round the face the hair long and whitifh, on 
the cheeks and chin forming a beard : hair on the body fliort and 

* Phil. Tranf. vol. lxviii. part. i. 170. f Du HaldeChina, i. 118. 

Vol. I. Bb dufky: 

x86 A P E. 

duflty : limbs very long : face obtufe. A fmall fpecies : feemingly 
diftinct from the others. 

Inhabits, according to Mr. Miller, China. 

Ol. BaRBART. KiwepaXo.;. Ariliot. hifi. an. lib. ii. c. 8. 13?. Schrehr, 84. tab. v. 

Cynocephalus. Mwi A*, viii. e. 54, Simialnuus. S. ecaudata naribus calvis, 

Simius cynocephalus. i>r. Alp. JEgypt. i. capite oblongo. lin.Jyft. 3;. 

241. te£. xv. xvi. Yellow ape? Du Halde China, i. 1 20. 

Le Magot. de Bujfon, xiv. 109./^. vii. La Roque voj. Arabic, 210. Mus» 

viii. Sbauu, Spec. Lin. 1. Lev. 
Le Singe Cynocephale. Brifon quad. 

A with a long face, not unlike that of a dog: canine teeth, 
• long and ftrong : ears like the human : nails flat : but- 
tocks bare : color of the upper part of the body a dirty greenifh 
brown : belly of a dull pale yellow : grows to above the length 
of four feet. 

Inhabits many parts of India, Arabia, and all parts of Africa, 
except ALgyp, where none of this genus are found. A few are 
found on the hill of Gibraltar, which breed there : probably 
from a pair that had efcaped from the town ; for I never heard 
that they were found in any other part of Spain. 

Are very ill-natured, mifchievous, and fierce; agreeing with 
the character of the antient Cynocephali : are a very common kind 
in exhibitions: by force of difcipline, are made to play fome 
tricks; otherwife, are more dull and fullen than the reft of this 
genus : aflemble in great troops in the open fields in India * : 
will attack women going to market, and take their provifions 



* Delloi'svoj. 83, 




/ 'ft,,',,-/,,,;;/ ,'>/j,r/-r>f» -• V^Z. 

A P E. r8 ; 

from them. The females carry the young in their arms, and 
will leap from tree to tree with them. Apes were worfhipped in 
India, and had magnificent temples erected to them. When the 
Tortugueje plundered one in Ceylon, they found in a little golden 
cafket * the tooth of an ape ; a relique held by the natives in 
fuch veneration, that they offered 700,000 ducats to redeem it, 
but in vain ; for it was burnt by the Viceroy, to flop the pro- 
grefs of idolatry. 

A. With fliort tails. 92. Hog-faced. 

Arljlotle barely mentions another fpecies of ape, under the title 
ot •Xj>^QTn§nMi,Jima Porcaria. In tab. of this work is an en- 
graving of this animal, taken from the drawing of one in the i?n- 
tiJJ) Mufeum, with a nofe exactly refembling that of a hog, which 
poffibly may be Jriflotk's animal; but there is no account attend- 
ing the painting, to enable us to trace its hiftory. 

M. Gmelin, in his Syjl. Lin. refers to Boddaert Naturf. 22. p. 17. tab. 
i. ii. fays it is half-tailed, has a naked face, olive brown body; 
buttocks cover'd, nails fharp. In fize of the length of three feet 
fix inches. 

Inhabits Africa. 

* Linfchottan's vcy. 53. In rfmadabat are hofpitals for apes, and other maimed 
animals. Tavernicr's voy. fart ii. 4.8. The fame writer fays, that they breed 
in great numbers in India, in the copfes of Bamboos, which grow on each fide 
the road, /. 94. 

B b 2 Papio. 


93.GREA.T. Papio. Gefner quad. 560, with a goed Le Choras. Simia mormon. Aljlroemtr^ 

figure. Sckrcbtr, 92. tab. viii. Mus. Lev, 

Simia fphynx. Lin./yjl. 35. 


with hazel irides : ears fmall and naked: face canine, and 
• very thick: middle of the face and forehead naked, and 
of a bright vermilion color •, tip of the nofe of the fame : it 
ended truncated like that of a hog : fides of the nofe broadly 
ribbed, and of a fine violet hue : the opening of the mouth very 
fmall : cheeks, throat, and goat-like beard yellow : hair on the 
forehead is very long; turns back, is black, and forms a kind of 
pointed creft. Head, arms, and legs covered with (hort hair, 
yellow and black intermixed ; the breaft with long whrtilh yel- 
low hairs; the flioulders with long brown hair. 

Nails flat; feet and hands black: tail four inches long, and 
very hairy ; buttocks bare, red, and filthy, but the fpace about 
them is of a moft elegant purple color, which reaches to the in- 
fide of the upper part of the thighs. 

This was defcribed from a fluffed fpecimen in Sir Ash ton Le- 
ver's Mufeum. In OElober, 1779, a live animal of this fpecies 
was fhewn at Chejler, which differed a little in color from the 
above, being in general much darker. Eyes much funk in the 
head, and fmall. On the internal fide of each ear was a white 
fine, pointing upwards. The hair on the forehead turned up like 
a toupee. Feet black : in other refpe&s refembled the former. 





Lsrea£ ■ Aya/won . i 





PWanJX S<*M< 


A Js/r f//;/ . J 

■S 3 


In this I had opportunity of examining the teeth : the cutting- 
teeth were like thofe of the reft of the genus ; but in the upper 
and lower jaw were two canine, or rather tuihes, near three inches 
long, and exceedingly (harp and pointed. This makes me fub- 
fcribe to Mr. Schreber's opinion, that the tufted ape of my 
former edition was defignedly cropped and difguifed by its 
keeper, to render it a monfter *. I offer in my defence of hav- 
ing inferted it as a genuine fpecies, that it had been defcribed 
by Doctor Bradley, and adopted by the Royal Society, and placed 
in their inftructive Tranfaiftions. 

This animal was five feet high, of a moft tremendous ftrength Size, 

in all its parts; was exceflively fierce, libidinous, and ftrong. 

Mr. Schreber fays, that this fpecies lives on fucculent fruits, Manners. 

and on nuts: is very fond of eggs, and will put eight at once inro 
its pouches; and, taking them out one by one, break them at 
the end, and fwallow the yolk and white. Rejects all fiefh- 
meat, unlefs it be dreffed : would drink quantities of wine or 
brandy. Was lefs agile than other baboons : very cleanly, for it 
would immediately fling its excrements out of its hut. 

That which was (hewn at Chefier was particularly fond of 
cheefe. Its voice was a kind of roar, not unlike that of a lion, 
but low and fomewhat inward. It went upon all fours, and never 
ftood on its hind legs, unlefs forced by the keeper; but would 
frequently fit on its rump in a crouching manner, and drop its 
arms before the belly. I have given a figure of that in the 
Leverian Museum, and another taken from the live animal, 
which (hews its common and natural attitude. The laft will be 

* I leave the figure as copied from the drawing in the Britifi Mu/eum. 

a proof 

i 9 o BABOONS. 

a proof of the excellence of Gejher's* figure of this fpecies, hi- 
therto thought erroneous. 
Place. Inhabits the hotter parts of Africa. 

94.. Ribbed Nose. Le Mandrill, de Buffm, xiv. 154.^. nis csrulels ftriatis. Lin.fyft.-tf, 

xvi. xvn. Le Maimon. f-chrelcr, go. tab. vii. 

S. maimon. S. caudata fubbarbata ge- Shaw, Spec Lin. 2. 


with a long naked nofe comprefled fideways, of a purple 
color, and ribbed obliquely on each fide: on the chin a 
fliort, picked, orange beard: tail very hairy, about two inches 
long, which it carries erecl : buttocks naked: hair foft, dufky 
mottled with yellow : length from nofe to tail, about two feet. 
Place. Inhabits Guinea. Thofe I have feen fat erect on their rump, 

but walked on all fours: were good-natured, but not fportive. 

Linnaus places this among the Jimia cauda elongata, and ap- 
plies to it fome of the fynonyms of the 72d fpecies : but his de- 
scription agrees with this fo exa&ly, that there can be no doubt 
but that it is his Simla maimon. 

This animal is well defcribed by M. de Buffon, Mr. Ray, Lin- 
ttaus, and M. Briffon; and indeed every Naturalift, except M. 
de Buffon, has copied Gefner: but we think the firft ought to have 
applied the name of Baboon to this fpecies, inftead of that de- 
fcribed by him, p. 133; the one having the character of this 
fection, the other having a length of tail, that conftitutes that of 
the monkey. 

The animal called, by Barbot and Bofman f, Smitten, is a 

• P. 560. Papio, a barbarous name : from whence the Englijh, Baboon : 
Italian, Babbuino ; and French Babouin. 

f Barbot's Guinea, 2 1 2. Bofman' s Guinea, 242. 

4 large 

A I . I I 

• //„.,/ ///„/„ 


BABOONS. i 9 i 

large fpecies to be referred to this genus : it is defcribed wiih a 
great head, fhort tail, and of a moufe color ; that it grows to the 
fize of five feet, is very fierce, and will even attack a man. 

The Tretretretre of Madagafcar is another animal of this kind; 
defcribed to be of the fize of a calf of two years old ■■, to have a 
round head, vifage and ears of a man, feet of an ape, hair curled, 
very fhort tail ; a folitary fpecies : the natives are greatly afraid of it, 
and fly its haunts as it does theirs *. 

Bwith a long dog-like face, covered with a fmall glofly black 9J. Wood. 

• fkin : hands and feet naked, and black like the face : 
hair on all parts long, elegantly mottled with black and tawny ; 
nails white. 

About three feet high when erect : tail not three inches ; and 
very hairy on the upper part. 

Inhabits Guinea, where it is called by the EngliJJi, the Man of 
the Wood. Lev. Mirs. 

Bwith a black long face : ears hid in the fur: over the eyes 9 6 « Yillow. 
• are feveral long dufky hairs : hands covered above with 
hair : color a bright yellow, mottled with black. This greatly 
refembles the wood Baboon, except in fize, and its hairy hands. 

Thefe two are about two feet long : probably natives of Africa - f 
but their place, age, and hiftory obfcure. Lev. Mus. 


with a duiky face : pale brown beard : body and limbs of a 97. Cinereous; 
cinereous brown : crown mottled with yellow. Lev. Mus. 

• Tlacourty hiJf.Madag, 154. 

B. with 

1 9 : 




«>s. Broao- -[j w i t h a blueifh face: two very flat broad fore teeth : a pale 
brown beard : long hairs over each eye: a tuft of hair be- 
yond each ear; the hair black and cinereous, mixed with dull 

Length about three feet. A fuller hiftory of thefe three is 
wrfhed. Lev. Mus. 

99. Brown. Simia Platypygos. Schrebcr, 89. tab. v. B. 

Bwith pointed ears, face of a dirty white ,• nofe large and 
• broad : hairs round the face fhort and ftrait : color of the 
upper part of the body brown; of the under, afh-color. 

Tail about four inches long; taper, and almoft bare of hair. 
Beneath, is quite naked. The animal which I called the New 
Baboon, in the firft edition, feems by the tapernefs of th'e tail, 
and general form, to be of this kind. 

;CO. Little. Simia apedia. S. femicaudata, palmarum Simia cauda abrupta, unguibus compref- 

pollice approximate, unguibus oblongis lis obtufiufculis, pollice palmarum di- 
pollicum rotundatis, natibusteftis. Lin. gitis adhsrente. Am<en. Acad. i. cc8. 

fyfl- 35- 

Bwith a roundifh head, mouth projecting, ears roundifh, and 
• naked; thumb not remote from the fingers: nails nar- 
row, and comprefled ; thofe of the thumbs rounded : color of 



the hair yellowifh, tipt with black. : face brown, with a few feat- 
tered hairs : tail not an inch long : buttocks covered with hairs : 
iize of a fquirrel, according to Linnaus. But Mr. Balk, in the 
Amcen. Acad, fays it is as large as a cat. 
Inhabits India: is a lively fpecies. 



with the hairs on the crown very long, and difhevelled ; i°i- Crested'. 
thofe on the cheeks of the fame form, and of a dufky 
color; breaft whitifh : reft of the body and limbs covered with 
black long hair. Face and feet black and bare : tail flender, 
taper, about feven inches long: whole length of the animal two 

Inhabits Africa. Lev. Mus. 

Pig-tailed Monkey. Edw. 2 T4. barbatagrifeairidibusbrumiei's, natibus 102. Pig-tail. 

Le Maimon. deBuJon, xiv. 176. tab. xix. calvis. Lin. Jyft. 35. Br. Muf. Llv. 
Simia Nemeftrina. S. Semicaudata fub- Mus. 


with a pointed face, not fo long as that of thelaft: eyes 
• hazel: above and beneath the mouth fome few black 
hairs : face naked, of a fwarthy rednefs : two fharp canine 
teeth : ears like the human : crown of the head dufky : hair 
on the limbs and body brown, inclining to afh-color, paleft on 
the belly : fingers black : nails long and flat : thumbs on the 
hind feet very long, connected to the neareft toe by a broad 
membrane : tail four inches long, flender, exactly like a pig's, 
Vol. I. C c and 



and almoft naked : the bare fpaces on the. rump red, and but 
(mall : length, from head to tail, twenty-two inches. 

Inhabits the lfle of Sumatra and Japan* : is very docile: in 
Japan is taught feveral tricks, and carried about the country by 
mountebanks. Kampfer was informed by one of thefe people, 
that the Baboon he had was 102 years old. 


** With longer tails. 

103. Dog-faced. 

Le Tartarin. Belon, portraits, 10?. Cercopithecus cynocephalus, parte ante- 

Simia .^gyptiaca Cauda elongata, clu- riore corporis longis pilis obfita, nafo 

nibus tuberofis nudis. Hajftlquiji, itin. violaceo nudo. Le Magot ou le Tar- 

189. tarin. BriJJon quad. 152. Ed<w. Jig. ined. 

Simia Hamadryas. S. caudata cinerea, Le Babouin gris. Scbreber, ioo. tab. x. 

auribus comofis, unguibusacutiufculis, Shaw, Spec. Lin. iii. 

natibus cah'is. Lin.fyfl. 36. 

T> with a long, thick, and ftrong nofe, covered with a fmooth 
-■-''• red ikin : eyes fmall : ears pointed, and hid in the hair : 
head great, and flat: hair on the fides of the head, and fore-part 
of the body, as far as the waift, very long and fhaggy; grey and 
olive brinded ; that on the top and hind part of the head very 
ihort: the hair on the limbs and hind part of the body alfo fliort: 
limbs ftrong and thick: hands and feet dufky : the nails on the 
fore feet flat ; thofe on the hind like a dog's : buttocks very 

* Kccmpfer shift. Japan, i. 126. 


XI. II! 

"> ,. 


bare, and covered with a fkin of a blood)' color : tail fcarcely die 
length of the body, and carried generally erect. 

Inhabit the hotteft parts of Africa and Af.a: keep in vaft 
troops : are very fierce and dangerous : rob gardens : run up 
trees when paffengers go by : fhake the boughs at them with 
great fury, and chatter very loud : are exceflively impudent, in- 
decent, lafcivious: moft deteftable animals in their manners, as 
well as appearance. Mr. Edwards communicated to me an ac- 
count and a fine print* of one, which was (hewn in London fonie 
years ago: it came from Mokha, in the province of Teman, in 
Arabia Felix. They inhabit the woods by hundreds, which obliges 
the owners of the coffee-plantations to be continually on their 
guard againft their depredations f. This animal was above five 
feet high ; very fierce, and untameable ; fo ftrong, as eafdy to 
mafter its keeper, a ftrong young man : its inclinations to wo- 
men appeared in the moft violent manner. A footman, who 
brought a girl to fee it, in order to teize the animal, killed and 
hugged her : the beaft, enraged at being fo tantalized, caught 
hold of a quart pewter pot, which he threw with fuch force, and 
fo fure an aim, that had not the man's hat and wig foftened the 
blow, his fcull muft have been fractured; but he fortunately ef- 
caped with a common broken head. 

Of the fame kind are thofe fo common about the Cape of Good 
Hope, or the following. 

* With feveral (ketches of the fame, and an ample defcription, in a letter, 
July 14, 1770. 

f Niebuhr, Defer. Arable, 147. 

C c 2 B. with 

J 95 

i 9 6 BABOONS. 

is 104. Unsijjp. "O with a great head and long thick nofe : fhort ears: crown 
covered with long upright hairs. The part of the head 

immediately above the forehead prominent, and terminating in a 

ridge. The whole body covered with long dufky hair, fo that at 

firft fight the animal appears like a young bear. 

Body thick and ftrong : limbs fhort : tail half the length of 

the body ; (Trait at the beginning, arched at the end : nails 

flat and round : buttocks of a bloody rednefs. 

Is four feet high, even when fitting; and as tall as a middle- 

fized man, when erect. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. Are very numerous, and go 

in troops in the mountains. When they fee any one approach, 
they fet up an univerfal and horrible cry for about a minute or 
two, and then conceal themfelves in their faftneffes, and keep 
a profound filence. They hardly ever defcend into the plains, 
unlefs it be to pillage the gardens, which lie at the foot of the 
mountains. It is faid, that while they are plundering, they 
place centinels to guard againft furprize; and that for greater 
expedition, they fling the fruit from one to another, in order to 
carry it off. They break the fruit into pieces, and cram it into 
the pouches nature hath furnifhed them with on each fide of 
their cheeks, in order to eat it afterwards at leifure. The cen- 
tinel, on fight of man, gives a yell; when the whole troop re- 
treats in the moft diverting manner, the young clinging to the 
backs of the parents *. 

* Kelbcx, ii. 120. La Caille, 296. 



When taken and confined, are tolerably tame ; but very re- 
vengeful when provoked. They are ftrong enough to draw the 
ftrongeft man to them, notwithftanding he makes the mod 
powerful refiftance. They ufually lay hold of the ears, and will 
bite off one as clofe as if it was done with a razor. 

This feems to be the fame with the Mandrill, defcribed by 
Smith in his voyage to Guinea, which he fays grows to a great 
fize, and that the body is as thick as a man's. Head very large : 
face covered with a white fkin : nofe always a running-, and body 
cloathed with long black hair, like a bear. 

LePapionouBabou'niproprementdit.^%^», xiv. 133. tab. Scbreber, 98. tab. vi. icj. Mottleh. 

Bwith the nofe covered with a dufky red fkin. Hair on the 
• head, neck, fhoulders, and bread, very long; in other 
parts fhorter. Colors a mixture of tawny, black, and brown : 
feet dulky : buttocks naked, and hideous. 

Tail, in the fpecimen defcribed by M. de Buffon, only feven 
inches long, it being mutilated: nails on the thumbs; on the 
toes, blunt and crooked claws. 

Height, when fitting up, fometimes three or four feet : has all Size. 

the deteftable manners of the former. 

From the defed in the tail, it is difficult to determine the 
fpecies, or be certain whether it fhould be placed with thefe long- 
tailed baboons, or as a conne&ing link between them and the 



b. Little. M. de Buff'ou has defcribed and engraven another, which he 

calls le Petit Babouin, differing only in fize from the other, being 
a quarter lefs; but I fall into Mr. Schreber's notion of its being 
only a young animal. See the former's account and figure, 
p. 147, tab. xiv. The latter's, p. 99, tab. vi, fig. 2. 

106. Lion-tail- Cercophithecus barbatus primus. Chfii Cercopithecus niger .^gyptiacus, ibid. 

sd. exot. 371. Rati fyn. quad. 159. Klein Simia Faunus. S caudata barbata, cauda 

quad. 89. apice floccofa. Lin.fvji. 36. 

Simia veter. S. caudata barbata alba barba Cercopithecus barbatus infra albus, barba 
nigra. Lin. f) <ft. 36. Briffbn quad. i^j. incana mucronata, cauda in floccum de- 
Simia filenus. S. caudata barbata nigra, finente. BriJJhn quad. 144.. 

barba nigra prolixa. Lin.fyjl. 36. Brif- Le finge barbu noir. Schrebtr, 107, tab. 
Jon quad. 149. xi. Mus. Lev. 

Bvvith a long dog-like face, naked, and of a dufky color : a 
• very large and full white or hoary beard : the beards of 
thefe females brown : large canine teeth : body covered with black 
hair : belly of a lighter color : nails flat : tail terminated with a 
tuft of hair like that of a lion : bulk of a middling-fized dog. 

Inhabits the Eajl Indies, and the hotter parts of Africa. 

One was fhewn in London fome years ago, exceffively fierce 
and ill-natured : the tail not longer than the back, ending with a 
large tuft: beard reaching quite up the cheeks, as far as the eyes. 
This is certainly the Ouanderm of M. de Buff on, xiv. 169. tab. 
xviii. which he makes a fort of Baboon, or Monkey with a fhort 
tail ; for he feems to have met with a fpecimen mutilated in that 
part; and defcribes it accordingly. 

To thefe may be added the following more obfcure fpecies. 

i. The 



I. ,/.///■//// (' ///■///■///_ /:'J). 


M O N K I E S. 

$. The little bearded men of Burbot, voy. Guinea, 212. and Bof- 
ttian, 242. are about two feet high, and are black as jet, with 
long white beards. The negroes fet a great value on the fkins 
of this fpecies, and fell them to one another at eighteen or twenty 
fhillings each. Of the fkins of thefe they make the caps for the 
Tie-tie's, or public Criers. 

*** With tails longer than their bodies, or Monkies. 

A. Thofe of the old world, or the continents of AJia and 
Africa, having within each lower jaw pouches for the 
reception of their food. 

Buttocks (generally) naked. 

Tails flrait, not prehenfile. 

Ti IT with a great triangular white beard, fhort and pointed at ,07. Purplk- 
■*■»-*•• the bottom; and on each fide of the ears extending in a faced. 

winged fafhion far beyond them; face and hands purple: body 
black : tail much longer than the body, terminated with a dirty 
white tuft. 

Inhabit Ceylon. The figure taken from a drawing communicated 
to me by Mr. Loten, is probably the fame with thofe called by 
Knox * Wanierows. Thefe are very harmlefs ; live in the woods, 
and feed on leaves and buds of trees ; and when taken foon become 

There is a variety entirely white ; but in form exactly like the 
others. Thefe are much fcareer f. 

* Hi/}. CtjUn, Z5. f The fame. 

4 This 

2oo M O N K I E S. 

This is defcribed in die former edition, p. 109, (2. as a variety; 
but on reconfideration, is here placed as a diftinct fpecies. 

108. Palatine. La Palatine. Scbreber,\. \i\,tah. xxv. 

La Palatine, ou Roloway. dllamande, 77. Lev. Mus. 

with a triangular black face, bordered all round with white 
» hair, which on the chin is divided into a long forked beard: 
back dufky : head, fides, and outfides of the arms and thighs, of 
the fame color, but each hair tipped with white : breaft, belly, 
and infide of the limbs, white, in the fubject fhewn in Europe, but 
in their native country orange, for they fade in our colder cli- 

About a foot and a half high : the tail of the length of the 

Inhabits Guinea; is called there Roloway: very full of frolic, 
and fond of the perfons it is acquainted with; averfe to others. 

100. Hare-lip- Cercopithecus angolenfis major, maca- S. Cynomolgus. S.caudataimberbis, na- 

p £D# quo. Marcgraw, Brajil. 227. Raiijyn. ribus bifidis elatis, cauda arcuata, nati- 

quad. 155. Klein quad. 89. buscalvis. Lin.jyji. 38. S. cynocephar 

Cercopithecus cynocephalus, naribus bi- lus. ibid. Le Macaque. DeBuffon,xiv. 

fidis elatis, natibus calvis. Brijfon quad. 190. tab. xiv. Scbreber, 11 2. 

152. C. Cynoceph. ex virid. &C. 151. Le Malbrouc. Scbreber, no. Mus.Lev.? 

Mwith the noftrils divided, like thofe of a hare : nofe thick, 
• flat, and wrinkled: head large: eyes fmall: teeth very 
white: body thick, and clumfy; buttocks naked: tail long:. 


M O N K I E S. 20t 

color varies j fometimes like that of a wolf; but others are 
brown, tinged with yellow, or olive: belly and infide of the limbs 
of a light afh-color : the tail is rather fhorter than the body, and 
is alway carried arched. 

Inhabits Guinea and Angola: is full of frolic, and ridiculous 

Le Malbrouck of M. de Buffon, xiv. 224. tab. xxix. fo much re- 
fembles this fpecies, that I place it here as a variety. That able 
Zoologift fufpected the fame ; but feparates them, on account of 
fome trifling diftin&ions, and]the difference of country: this being 
a native of India, the other of Africa: but fince thofe very dif- 
tinctions may arife from the laft caufe, it feems better to unite 
them, than to multiply the fpecies, already fo numerous. A few 
years ago, one that feemed of this fpecies was (hewn in London, 
equal in fize to a fmall greyhound. 

Cercopithecus barbatus Guineenfis, Ex- 147. Na. 23. 14S. A«. 24. 1 10. Spotted. 

quima. Marcgra-ve Brojil. 22 7. Rati Simia Diana. S. caudata barbata, fronte 
J'yn. quad. 156. barbaque faftigiata. Lin.fyjl. 38. 

Cercopithecus barbatus fufcus punftis L'Exquima. De Buffon, xv. 16. 

albis infperfis barba alba. Briffun quad. La Diane. Schreber, 1 15. tab. xiv. 

T\ yf" with a long white beard : color of the upper parts of 
"*--*■• the body reddifh, as if they had been finged, marked 
with white fpecks : the belly and chin whitifh : tail very long: 
is a fpecies of a middle fize. 

Inhabits Guinea * and Congo, according to Marcgrave : the Con- Place. 

* Purchas' s Pilgrims, W. 955. 

Vol. I. D d gefe 

ao2 M O N K I E S. 

gefe call it Exquima. M. de Buffon denies it to be of that cour> 
try : but, from the circumftance of the curl in its tail, in Marc- 
grave's figure, and the defcription of fome voyagers, he fuppofe-s 
it to be a native of South America. 

Linnaus defcribes his S. Diana fomewhat differently : he fays 
it is of the fize of a large cat; black, fpotted with white: hind 
part of the back ferruginous : face black : from the top of the 
nofe is a white line palling over each eye to the ears, in an arched 
form : beard pointed ; black above, white beneath •, placed on a 
fattilh excrefcence : breaft and throat white : from the rump, crofs 
the thighs, a white line : tail long, {trait, and black ; ears, and 
feet, of the fame color : canine teeth, large. 

ki.Lonc-nosid. T\/f wuri a very long {lender nofe, covered with a flefh-colored 
■*■*■*•* naked Ikin : hair on the head falling back; on the body 
and breaft long: color of the head, and ipper part of the body 
and limbs, pale, ferruginous, mixed with black ; of the breaft 
aad belly light alh: tail very long. 
Size. Height when fitting down about two feet :. very good-natured. 

Defcribed from a drawing by Mr. Paillou, animal painter. Place 
uncertain, probably Africa-. Its face very like that of a long- 
nofed dog. 

I engrave another in the fame plate, under the title of the 
Prude, which poflibly may be related to the former. 

M. with 



M O N K I E S. 205 

TIT with a black face: great canine teeth : great black naked na. Yellow is « 
J-*-*- • ears : on the fide of the cheeks long hairs, of a pale yel- 
low, falling backward towards the head : long hairs above each 
eye : throat and- bread of a yellowifti white : crown, upper part 
of the body, arms, and thighs, cinereous, mixed with yellow. On 
the lower part of the arms and legs, and on the tail, the cine- 
reous predominates. Hair on the body coarfe. Tail the length 
of the body. 

Size of a fox. 

Inhabits Guinea? Lev. Mus. 

Simius Callitrichus. Trefp.Alp.JEgypt.'x. 145. et Cercobarbatus rufus facie ni- I| j < G R4EM , 

Simia fabsa. S. caudata imberbis flavi- gra, csfarie albacinfta. 149. 

cans, facie atra, cauda cinerea, natibus Le Callitriche. De Buffon, xiv. 272. tab. 

calvis. Lin.fyfl. 38. Edwards, 21 j. xxxvii. Schreber, xviii. Mus. 

Cercopithecus ex cinereo flavefcens, ge- Lev. 

nis longis pilis albis obfita. Brijfin quad. 

Mwith a black nofe : red flattifh face : the fides of it bounded 
• by long yellow hairs, falling backwards like a muftachio, 
and almoft covering the ears, which are black, and like the hu- 
man : head, limbs, and whole upper part of the body and tail* 
covered with foft hairs, of a yellowifh green color at their ends, 
cinereous at their roots : under fide of the body and tail, and in- 
ner fide of the limbs, of a filvery color: tail very long and flen- 
der : fize of a fmall cat. 

Inhabits different parts of Africa: keep in great flocks, and 

D d 2 live 

204 M O N K I E S. 

live in the woods : are fcarce difcernible when among the leaves, 
except by their breaking the boughs with their gambols, in which 
they are very agile and filent : even when fhot at, do not make 
the left noife; but will unite in company, knit their brows, and 
gnafh their teeth, as if they meant to attack their enemy * : are 
very common in' the Cape Verd iflands : and alfo found in the 
Etiji Indies : from whence Sir A. Lever had his fpecimen. 


114. White P> Simia JEihiops. caudata iraberbis, ca- Le Mangabey. De Buffon, xiv. 244. tab. 

pillitio eredto lunalaque fronds albis. xxxii. xxxiii. Scbreber, 128. tab. xx. 

Lin./yft. 39 HaJJhlquijlitin? iqcSbaiv, xxi. Lev. Mus. 
/pec. Lin. iv. 

TV/T with a long, black, naked, and dog-like face: the upper 
J.YA. eve .iid s f a p ure white: ears black, and like the hu- 
man: no canine teeth : hairs on the fides of the face, beneath the 
cheeks, longer than the reft : tail long : color of the whole body 
tawny and black: flat nails on the thumbs and fore-fingers ; 
blunt claws on the others : tail, hands, and feet black. 

Shewn \a London a few years ago: place uncertain: that de- 
fcribed by M. de Buffon came from Madagafcar: was very good- 
natured, went on all fours. 

Le Mangabey a collier blanc-\> is a variety, with the long hairs 
on the cheeks and round the neck white. 

I have feen one at Mr. Brook's, perhaps of this kind, with the 
crown of the head ferruginous : cheeks, under fide of the neck, 
and belly, white : back, legs, and tail black. 

* Adanfon , s woy. 316. f Of M, de Buffon, tab. xxxiii. 


M O N K I E S. 


Cercopithecus alius Guineenfis. Marc- 
grave Braftl. 22S. Raii Jyn . quad '. 156. 

S. cephus. S. caudata buccis barbatis, 
vertice flavefcente.pedibus nigris, Cau- 
da apice ferruginea. Lin.Jyjt. 39. 

Cercopithecus nigricans, genis et auri- 

culis Iongis pills ex albo flavicantibus 
obfitis, ore cserulefcente. Brifen quad. 
Le Moultac. De Buffon, xiv. 283. tab. 
xxxix. Schreber, 125. tab. xix. Lev. 

115. Mustache. 

1\ /f with a fhort nofe, of a dirty blueifh color; beneath the 
■*■* •"••nofe a tranfverfe ftripe of white : edges of both lips, and 
fpace round the eyes, black : on the cheeks, before the ears, two 
large tufts of yellow hairs, like mujlaches; ears round, and tufted 
with whitiih hairs : the hair on the top of the head long and up- 
right : round the mouth are fome black hairs: the color of the 
hair on the head yellow, mixed with black : on the body and 
limbs, a mixture of red and afh-color : the part of the tail next 
the body of the fame color ; the reft yellowifh : the under part 
of the body paler than the upper : the feet black : nails flat: its 
length one foot ; that of the tail, eighteen inches. 
Inhabits Guinea. 

Simla niflitans. S. caudata imberbis nigra Cercopithecus Angolenlis alius*. Marc 

punftis pallidis afperfa, nafo albo, pol- gra-ve Brajil. 227. 

licepalmarumbreviffimo, natibus teftis. White Nofes. Purchas's Pilg. ii. 95 J. 

Lin.fyji. Lev. Mus. 

Mwith a black flat face : the end of the nofe of a fnowy 
• whitenefs : irides yellow : hair on the head and body 
fmooth, mottled with black and yellow : belly white : hands 
black : tail very long ; upper fide black, lower white. 


u6. White 

Xot M O N K I E S. 

Inhabits Guinea and Angola : is when tamed, after being taken 
young, very fportive and diverting : in a wild ftate avoids man- 
kind : is very crafty, and has a very bad fmell. 

The ape defcribed by Mr. Schreber, p. 126. tab. xix. B. agrees 
with this in the whitenefs of the nofe, but has a large white 
beard, which that which I faw wanted. He calls it, Le Blanc 
Nez; and Simia Petauri/la. 

117. Talapoi*, Le Talapoin. Be Buff on, xiv. 287. tab. xl. Sch'tber, 124. tab. xvii. Lev. Mus. 

~Vk IT with a (harp nofe, round head, large black naked ears : 
"* eyes, and end of the nofe, flefh-colored: hair on the 

cheeks very long, and reflected towards the ears : on the chin a 
fmall beard : the color of the whole upper part of the body, a 
mixture of dufky yellow and green : outfide of the limbs black; 
infide vvhitim : the lower part white ringed with yellow : the tail 
very long and flender; above, of an olive and dufky color; be- 
neath, cinereous : the paws black : length, about one foot ; of 
the tail, one foot five inches. 
Inhabits India. 

118. NfCRO. Middle-fized black monkey. Edw. 311. Zchreber, 131. tab. xxli. B. Lev. Mus. 

TV/T with a round head : nofe a little fharp : face, of a tawny 
•*• * flefh-color, with a few black hairs : irides, a reddifh ha- 
zel : hair above the eyes long, uniting with the eye-brows; that 


M O N K I E S„ 207 

on the temples partly covering the ears : breaft and belly of a 
fwarthy fiefh-color, almoft naked : hair on the body, limbs, and 
tail, black, and pretty long : paws covered with a black foft fkin r 
fize of a large cat. 

Inhabits Guinea: active, lively, entertaining, good-natured. In 
Siasa is a large fpecies of black monkey, probably different from 

S. aygula. S. caudata fubfmberbis grifea, l?r- ri9'» EoRET, 

cminentia pilofa verticis reverfa longi- L' Aigrette. Di Buffo>i,x\v. icjo.te^.xxi. 
tudinali. Lin. j'yji, 39. OJlecA's <voy. i. Scbreber, 129. tab, xxii. 

TV /T" with a long face, and an upright fharp-pointed tuft of hair 
-*■*-*•• on the top of the head : hair on the forehead black: the 
color of the upper part of the body olivaceous ; of the lower 
cinereous : eye-brows large : beard very fmall : fize of a fmall 

Inhabit Java : fawn on men, on their own fpecies, and em- 
brace each other j play with dogs, if they have none of their own 
fpecies with them : if they fee a monkey of another kind, greet 
him with a thoufand grimaces: when a number of them fleep, 
they put their heads together : make a continual noife during 

"TV T with a high, upright, rufty tuft on the crown : limbs and 120. Mokea. 
-!-*-*-• body ferruginous, mixed with duiky: belly, and infide of 
the legs, whitifh. 

This fpecies is called by the Malay es, Monea, from which is 
derived the Englifi name Monkey. 

2o8 M O N K I E S. 

izi. Red. Le Patas a bandeau noir. De Bujfb'n, xiv. 208. tab. xxv. 

Le Singe rouge. Schreber, 12c. tab. xvi. 

"J\/T with a long nofe: eyes funk in the head: ears furnifhed 
*>»■*■• with pretty long hairs : hairs on each fide of the face long : 
chin bearded : body ilender : over each eye, from ear to ear, ex- 
tends a black line: the upper part of the body of a moft beau- 
tiful and bright bay, almoft red, fo vivid as to appear painted: 
the lower parts afh-color, tinged with yellow : tail not fo long as 
the body, whofe length is about one foot fix inches. 

M. de Buffon gives a variety of this fpecies, tab. xxvi, with a 
white band crofs the face, which he calls Le Patas a bandeau 

Inhabits Senegal: is lefs active than the other kinds: very in- 
quifitive : when boats are on their pafTage on the river, will come 
in crowds to the extremities of the branches, and feem to admire 
them with vaft attention : at length, will become fo familiar, as 
to throw pieces of flicks at the crew: if (hot at, will raife hi- 
deous cries •, fome will throw fiones, others void their excrements 
in their hands, and fling them among the palTengers *. 

Barbotf mentions another fort of red monkey, called in Gui- 
nea, Pea/ants, becaufe of their ugly red hair and figure, and their 
natural ftink and naftinefs. 

• De Brue, as quoted by M. de Bufon. f Defer. Guinea, 212. 



M N K I E S. 


Riliow Knox's Cy.'tv, aft. , 23 , Chinese. 

Le Bonnet-Chinois. De Bi'Jin, xiv. 190. tab. xxx, Br. Muf. Scbrekr, Z32. tai. 
xxiii. Lev. Mus. 

■JV/T with a long fmooth nofe, of a dufky color: hair on the 
J - yA- crown of the head long, lying flat, and parted like that of 
a man : color, a pale cinereous brown, mixed with yellow : belly 

In the Leverian Museum is a variety of a ferruginous color, 
with a dufky face, and naked hands. 

Inhabit Ceylon: keep in great troops: rob the gardens of fruit 
and fields of the corn : the natives are obliged to watch the whole 
day; yet thefe monkies are fo bold, that, when drove from one 
end of the field, they will immediately enter at the other, and cany 
off with them as much as their mouth and arms can hold. Bof- 
rnan *, fpeaking of the thefts of the monkies of Guinea, fays, that 
they will take in each paw one or two fialks of millet, as many 
under their arms, and two or three in their mouth ; and thus la- 
den, hop away on their hind legs ; but if purfued, fling away all, 
except what is in their mouths, that it may not impede their 
flight. They are very nice in their choice of the millet, examine 
every ftalk, and if they do not like it, fling it away ; fo this de- 
licacy does more harm to the fields than their thievery. Of late 
years a RuJJian tanner has difcovered that the fkins might be drefled 
and made into fhoes. 

• Voj. Guinta, 243. 

Vol. I. E e M. with 


M O N K I E S. 

>»3. Bonneted. t»/t with a duiky face: on the crown a circular bonnet, con- 
•*•»■*■• fjfii n g f upright black hairs: on the fides of the cheeks 
the hairs are long : thofe and the body brown : legs and arms 

Size of a fmall cat. Lev. Mus. 

124. Varied. KhS©-? AriJI.hifi. An. Cercopithecuspilis ex nigro et rufovari- 

Monne? Leo Afr. 342. egatis veftibus, pedibus nigris, cauda 

Monichus. Profp. Alp. Aigypt.u 242. cinerea. Le finge varie. Brijfon quad. 

LaMone. Ds Buffon, xiv.2$S. tab. xxxvi. 141. Lev. Mus. 
Schrder, 119. tab. xv. 


with a fhort, black, thick nofe : orbits and mouth of a dirty 
'■• flelh-color: hair on the fides of the face, and under the 
throat, long, of a whitifh color, tinged with yellow : on the fore- 
head, grey: above the eyes, from ear to ear, a black line: the 
upper part of the body dufky and tawny : the breaft, belly, and 
infide of the limbs white : outfide of the thighs, and arms, 
black: hands and feet black and naked: the tail of a cinereous 
brown : length, about a foot and a half; the tail above two. 

Inhabits Barbary, Aithiopia, and other parts of Africa: is the 
kind which gives the name of Monkey to the whole tribe, from 
the African word Monne; or rather its corruption, Monichus. M. 
dc Bnffon fuppofes it to be the KnEo? of Ariftotle ; but the Philo- 
ibpher fays no more, than that the Cebi are apes furnifhed with 

Of this kind is the Cercopithecas Guineenjis alius of Marcgrave 


M O N K I E S. 2II 

Brafil. 228. Bri[fan quad. 139. which the firft defcribes as being 
of the color of the back of a hare. 

Le Douc. de Buffon, xiv. 298. tab. xli. caftaneo purpurafcente. Le grand finge 125. Cochin- 

Cercop thecu^ cineeus, genislongis pilis de la Cochin-chine. Brijfon quad. 146. China. 

ex albo flavicantibus obfitis, torque ex Scbreber, 137. tab. xxiv. 

TY/T with a fhort flattifh face, bounded on each fide by long 
■*- VA " hairs of a yellowifh color: on the neck a collar of pur- 
plllh brown : the lower part of the arms, and tail, are white : the 
upper part of the arms, and thighs, black : legs and knees of a 
chcfnut color: the back, belly, and fides, grey, tinged with yel- 
low : above the root of the tail is a fpot of white, which extends 
ben-rath as far as the lower part of the belly and part of the 
thighs: the feet black: the buttocks* covered with hair: is a 
very large fpecies, about four feet long, from the nofe to the 
tail ; but the tail not fo long. 

Inhabits Cochin-China and Madagafcar -f : lives on beans: often 
walks on its hind feet. 

Tl ,,T with a face a little produced: that and the ears flefli-co- i 2 6. Tawny. 
■*■*-■•• lored : nole flattifh : long canine teeth in the lower jaw: 
hair on the upper part of the body pale tawny, cinereous at the 

• A11 the fpecies of apes o§Afia and Africa, except this and No. 64, 70, and 87, 
kave their buttocks naked. 

f Where it is called Si/at, Flacourt hift. Madag. 153. 

E e 2 roots : 

2i2 M O N K I E S. 

roots : hind part of the back orange : legs cinereous : belly white : 
fize of a cat : tail fhorter than the body. 

Inhabits India. From one in Mr. Brookes** exhibition. Very ill- 

M. Pailloti communicated to me a variety of this fpecies, with 
a black face, and long black hairs on the cheeks : body of a dull 
pale green : limbs grey: taildufky. 

127. Goat. TV/T vvitn a blue naked face ribbed obliquely : a long beard, 
•**-*• like that of a goat: whole body and limbs of a deep 
brown color : tail long. Defcribed from a drawing in the Bri~ 
tijh Mufeum, by Kikius, an excellent painter of animals. 

128. Full-bot- "n/r with a fliort, black, and naked face: fmall head ; that and 
■*■'-■'• the flioulders covered with long, coarfe, flowing hairs, 
like a full-bottomed perriwig 5 of a dirty yellowifh color, mixed 
with black : body, arms, and legs, of a fine glofly blacknefs, 
covered with fliort hairs. 

Hands naked, furnifhed with only four fingers: on each foot 
five very long flender toes. 

Tail very long; of a fnowy whitenefs ; with very long hairs at 
the end, forming a tuft: body and limbs very flender: length 
above three feet. 

Inhabits the forefts of Sierra Leone, in Guinea; is called there, 
Bey or King Monkey: the negroes hold its ikin in high eftima- 
tion, and ufe it for pouches, and for coverings to their guns. 

M. with 


■if 2. 

PManflA faty 

/„// /,>//„ 

.. / 

_. KlZf. 

M O N K I E S. 213 

TV/I" with a black crown: back of a deep bay color: outfide ug. Bay. 

of the limbs black : cheeks, under part of the body, and 
legs, of a very bright bay. 

Only four fingers on the hands ; on the feet five long toes. 

Tail very long, flender, and black. 

Body and limbs very flender and meagre. 

Inhabits Sierra Leone, and brought over by Mr. Smeathman, who 
prefented this and the former to the Leverian Museum. 

Simla apella. Lin.JyJl. 42. Scbrebtr, tab. xxviii. ,, 0> Annulat- 


"\lt with a flat face : long hairs on the forehead and cheeks : 
A~X« U pp er p art f t h e body and limbs of a tawny brown; 
belly cinereous: tail fhorter than the body, annulated with a darker 
and lighter brown : hands naked and black. From a drawing in 
the Britifi Mufeum, 

Cercopithecus LuKonicus minimus, Ma- Simia fyrichta. S. caudata imberbis T31. Philippine 
gu vel Root Indorum, Pet. Gaz. 21. ore ciliifque vibriffatis. Lin. fyji. 44. 

ta&.xui. Schrtber, 152. tab. xxxi. 

T*/T with its mouth and eye-brows befet with long hairs: an 
*y*-* obfcure fpecies, mentioned only by Pettier', faid to 
come from the Philippine ifles. 

8 B. Monkies 

2i 4 M O N K I E S. 

B. Monkies of the new world, or the continent of America, 
having neither pouches in their jaws, nor naked buttocks. 

Tails of many prehenfile, and naked on the under fide, for a 
certain fpace next their end. 

a. With prehenfile tails *. 

132. Preacher. Guariba. Marrgravt Brafil, 226. Ra'i nigra, cauda prehenfili extremopedi- 

fyn. quad. 153 bufque fufcis. Lin./yfl. 37. 

Aquiqui. De Laet, 486. CrciuU Mu- Cercopithecusniger.pedibus fufcis. Brif- 

Jeum, II. fan quad. 137. 

Howling Baboons, Guareba. Bancroft's L'Ouarine. Scbreber, 137. de Buffon,xv. 

Guiara, 133- 5 * 

Simia Beelzebub. S. caudata barbata 

Ti/T with black mining eyes: fhort round ears: a round beard 
J-»X« under the chin and throat: hairs on the body of a 
mining black; long, yet lie fo clofe on each other that the animal 
appears quite fmooth: the feet and end of the tail brown; tail 
very long, and always tv*ifled at the end: fize of a fox. 

Inhabits the woods of B'-aJil and Gu'uina in vaft numbers; and 
makes a mod dreadful howling : fometimes one mounts on a 
higher branch, the reft feat themtelves beneath: the firft begins 
as if it was to harangue, and fets up fo loud and (harp a howl as 
may be heard a vaft w iy; a perfon at a diflance would think that 
a hundred joined in the cry; after a certain fpace, he gives a fig- 
rral with his hand, when the whole aflembly joins in chorus; but 

• Thefe M. de Bujon calls Sapajout. 



on another fignal, is filent, and the orator finifhes his addrefs*: 
their clamor is the moft difagreeable and tremendous that can be 
conceived, owing to a hollow and hard bone placed in the throat, 
which the Englijh call the throttle-bone f . Thefe monkies are 
very fierce, untameable, and bite dreadfully. 

a. Royal. Cercopithecus barbatus max- Simia fenkulus. S. caudata barbatarufa, 

iraus,ferruginofu',ltertorofus.^/W//^, caudaprehenfili. Lin.fyft. 37. 

finge rouge. Barre'e, France jEquin. Arabzu. Gumil/aOrenoque, ii. 8. Bancroft 

15 Guiana, 135. 

Cercopithecus barbatus faturate rufus. L'Allouatte, de Buffoti, xv. 5. Scbreber, 

Brijfbn quad. 14.7. ] 38. 

A variety of a ferruginous or reddifh bay color, which the Indi- 
ans\ call the king of ttie monkies: is large, and as noify as the 
former. The natives eat this fpecies, and feveral other forts of 
monkies, but are particularly fond of this; Europeans will alfo eat 
it, efpecially in thofe parts of America where food is fcarce : when 
it is fcalded, in order to get off the hair, it looks very white, and 
has a refemblance (hocking to humanity, that of a child of 
two or three years old, when crying ||. 

* A lingular account, yet related by Marcgra-ve and feveral other writers. 
Marcgrave is a writer of the firft authority, and a moft able naturalift, long refident 
in the Prafih, and fpeaks from his own knowledge. 

f Greta's Rarities, II. 

% De Laet. 486. 

|| Villa's voy. i. 113. Des Marchais, iii. 3 1 1, fays, they are excellent eating, and 
1 thata>«^ aux finges will be found as good as any other, as foon as you have con- 
quered the averfion to the Bouilli of their heads, which look very like thofe of little 



2 *5 

• i$ U N K I E S, 

133, Four-fin- Cercopitheeus major niger, faciemhuma- Simla Panifcus. S.cauchtaimberbisatrn, 

cered. nam referens. Quouata. Barvcre Fruit e cauda prehenlili, ad apicem i'ubmsnu- 

jEjuw.i^q. da. Lii.fift. 37. 

Q»ato. Bancroft Guiana, 131. Le Coaita, <& Buffon, xv. 16. Sckreber, 

Cercopithecus in pedibus anterioribus 140. tab. xxvi. 

pollice carens cauda inferius apicem Spider IWonkey Ectuo. Cleanings, iii. 222. 

verfus pilis dertituta. Le Belzebut. Br. MuJ. Lev. Mus. 
Briffjn quad. 1 50. 


TV/T with a long flat face, of a fwarthy flem-color: eyes funk 
■*-*-■-• in the head: ears like the human: limbs of a great 
length, and uncommonly flender: hair black, long, and rough: 
only four fingers on the hands, being quite deftitute of a thumb: 
five toes on the feet : nails flat: tail long, and naked below near 
the end: body flender: about a foot and a half long: tail near 
two feet, fo prehenfile as to ferve every purpofe of a hand. 

Inhabits the neighborhood of Carthagena, Guiana, Brajll, 
and * Peru: aflbciate in vaft herds: fcarce ever are feen on the 
ground. Dampiev\ defcribes their gambols in a lively manner: 

* There was,' fays he, ' a great company, dancing from tree to 

* tree over my head, chattering and making a terrible noife, 
c and a great many grim faces and antic geftures ; fomc broke 

* down dry flicks and flung at me, others fcattered their urine 

* and dung about my ears « at laft one, bigger than the reft, came 
' to a fmall limb juft over my head, and leaping direftly at me, 
' made me leap back, but the monkey caught hold of the bough 
' with the tip of his tail, and there continued fwinging to and 

* fro, making mouths at me. The females with their young ones 

• De Buffon, xv. 21. t V«y> "• 60. 

■ are 

M O N K I E S. 2 , 7 

* are much troubled to leap after the males, for they have com- 
' monly two, one ftie carries under her arm, the other fits on her 
' back, and claps its two fore paws about her neck. Are very 

* fullen when taken ; and very hard to be got when fhot, for 
' they will cling with their tail or feet to a bough, as long as 
' any life remains; when I have (hot at one, and broke a leg 
' or arm, I have pitied the poor creature, to fee it look and handle 
' the broken limb, and turn it from fide to fide.' 

They are the moft active of monkies, and quite enliven the 
forefts of America: in order to pafs from top to top of lofty trees, 
whofe branches are too diftant for a leap, they will form a chain, 
by hanging down, linked to each other by their tails, and fwing- 
ing in that manner till the loweft catches hold of a bough of the 
next tree, and draws up the reft*, and fometimes they pa'fs-f 
rivers by the fame expedient. 

Are fometimes brought to Europe: are very tender, and fel- 
dom live long in our climate: Mr. Brookes had one or two, 
which, as long as they continued in health, were fo active, and 
played fuch tricks, as to confirm the account of voyagers. 

Simla trepida. S. caudata imberbis, Bufh-tailed Monkey, EJ-w. 312. p 

capillitio arrefto, manibus pedibuf- Simiolus Ceylonicus. Seb. Mu/.' "' EARFUL « 

que creruleis, cauda prehenfili vil- 48. Br. Muf. 

lofa. Lin./r/i. 39. Le Sajou. de Buffon, xv. 37. tab. iv. v. 

Singe, &c. Schreber, 147. tab. xxvii. 

TV /T with a round head ; and fhort flefh-colored face, with a lit— 
-L^A« t j e down on it : hair on the forehead more or lefs high 
and erect in different fubjects : top of the head black or dufky, 

* Wafer' 's <vty. in Damfier, iii. 330. f XJlloa, i. 1 1 3. 

Vol. I. Ff hair 

2l8 M O N K I E S. 

hair on it pretty long: hind part of the neck, and middle of the 
back, covered with long dufky hairs; reft of the back and the 
limbs of a reddifh brown : hair on the bread and belly very thin: 
hands and feet covered with a black fkin : on the toes flat nails : 
tail longer than the head and body, and often carried over the 
Ihoulders-, the hair on it very long, of a deep brown color, and 
appears very bufhy from beginning to end. 

Inhabits Guiana, not Ceylon, as Seba afferts: is a lively fpecies ; 
but capricious in its affections in a ftate of captivity, having a 
great fondnefs for fomc perfons, and as great a hatred to others. 

j3J.Capucin. Simia capucina. S. caudata imberbis fyfi. 42. Muf. Ad. Fred. tab. ii. 

fufca, cauda prehenfili hirfuta, pileo Le fai. Schreber, 147. tab. xxix. de B:if- 
artubufque nigris, natibus tedtis. Lin. fon, xv. 51. tab. viii. Lev. Mos, 

T\ /T with a round head : face flat and flefli-colored, encircled 
1tX» w ith upright whitifli hairs: breaft covered with long 
fhaggy pale yellow hair: head black; body and tail of a deep 
brown, or dufky: tail very long, and thickly cloathed : on the 
toes are crooked claws, not flat nails as on thofe of the former. 
1 confefs my inattention to that circumftance in my former 
edition, which made me confound this and the laft fpecies. 
Inhabits South America, 5 


M O N K I E S. 


Cercopithecus Brajilit«fu fecundas Clufii Le Sai — Le Sai a gorge blanc, de Buf. ,,5^ Weeper. 

exot. 372. fon, XV. 51. tab. viii. ix. J 

Cay? Z>' £«/. 486. Raii Jyv. quad. Schreber, 147. tab. xxviii. 

15?. Simia apella. Lin. fyjl. 42. Muf. Ad. 
Cercopithecus totus niger. Brijfon quad, Fred. tab. i. 


T\ It with a round and flat face, of a reddifh brown color, very 
■*•"•■■• deformed: the hair on the head, and upper part of the 
body, black, tinged with brown; beneath, and on the limbs, 
tinged with red : tail black, and much longer than the head and 
body : the young exceffively deformed ; their hair very long, and 
thinly difperfed : on each toe a flat nail. In the BritiJJ} Mufeum 
are fpecimens of old and young. M. de Buffon has a variety with 
a white throat. 

Inhabits Surinam and Brqfil: appear as if they were always 
weeping*: of a melancholy difpofition ; but very full of imitat- 
ing what they fee done. Thefe probably are the monkies Dam- 
pier faw in the Bay of All Saints, which he fays are very ugly, and 
fmell ftrongly ofmufk-p: keep in large companies; and make a 
great chattering, efpecially in ftormy weather: refide much on a 
fpecies of tree, which bears a podded fruit, which they feed on J. 

The figure in Muf. Ad. Fred, has much too cheerful a counte- 

* Frogtr't voy, 116. f Vamphrs < 53. % De Laet,^6. 

p f 2 Caitaia, 

2co M O N K. I E S. 

137. Orange. Caitaia. Marcgrave Brafd. 227. Raii jaune. Barren France jEqtdn. ij». 

jyn. quad. 17;. Simia fciurea. S. caudata imberbis, oc* 
Cercopithecus pilis ex fufco, flavefcente, cipite promirmlo, unguibus quatuor 

et candicante variegatis veftitus, pe- plantarum fubulatis, natibus tettist 

dibus ex flavo rufefcentibus. Bnjfon Lin./yfi. 4.3. 

quad. 14.0. Le Saimiri. dtBvffon, y.v. 
Cercopithecus ex albo flavefcens mof- Muf. 

chum reddens. Btijfon, 139. Scbreber, 148. tab. xxx. Lev. Mus. 
Cercopithecus minor luteus ; Le Sapajou 

T\/T w ' tri a round head: nofe a little pointed: tip of the nofe, 
■*■*■*-• and fpace round the mouth, marked with black, of a 
circular form : orbits flelh-colored : ears hairy: hair on the body 
ihort, woolly, and fine, of a yellow and brown color; but in its 
native country, when in perfection, of a brilliant gold* color: 
the feet orange: nails of the hands flat: of the feet, like claws x 
tail very long ; lefs ufeful for prehenfile purpofes than that of the 
reft : body of the fize of a. fquirrel. 

Inhabits Brajtl and Guiana : when provoked, fcreams : is a 
very tender animal : feldom brought here alive : fmells of mufk -f\ 
The Simia Morta of Linnarus, 43 ; and Cercopithecus cauda murina. 
of Brijjbn, 143; engraved in Seba, tab. .48. under the name of 
Simiolus Ceylonicus, is only the foetus of fome monkey : probably, 
as Linnaus conjectures, of this fpecies. 

* Frcger's voj. 116. 

+ Some of the African monkies have alfo a ftrong fraell of mufk. A Bezoar 
is fometimes found in certain fpecies. 


M O N K I E S. 


Cercopithecus ex et fufco variega- nu, Bri£hn quad. 138. o ., 

tus, fafciculis duobus pilorum capitis Simia Fatuellus. Lin. fyjl. 42. Lev. * " B * 

corniculoruma:mulis. Le Sapajoucor- Mus. 


with two black tufts of hair like horns on the top of the 
head: eyes bright; of a dufky color: ears like the hu- 
man : face, fides, belly, and fore legs, reddifh brown : upper part 
of the arms, neck, and upper part of the back, yellowifh : top 
of the head, lower part of the back, hind legs, and all the feet, 
black : tail prehenfile, covered with fhort bright hair : body four- 
teen inches long, tail fifteen. 

Inhabits America. A molt deformed fpecies. 

TV/T with a fhort nofe: black face: hair on each fide long': 139. Antigua. 
«*-"-■-• back and fides orange and black, intimately mixed: 
belly white : outfide of the legs black ; infide afh-colored : tail of 
a dufky afh: its length twenty inches; that of the body eighteen. 
In pofTeffion of the late Richard Morris, Efq; of the Navy- 
Office: brought from Antigua : but its native place uncertain: 
very good-natured, lively, and full of tricks: frequently hung 
by its tail. 

b. with 

222 M O N K I E S. 

b. with ftrait tails, not prehenfile *. . 

140. Fox-tail- Cagui major. MarcgBrafJ.zi.-j, lere nigro apice albo, Cauda nigra vil- 

ED, Cercopithecus pilis nigris, apice albido, lofiffima. Lm.JyJl. qx>. 

veftitus, cauda pilis longifiimis nigris Le Saki. DeBuffou, xv. 88. tab. xii. Scbre- 

obfita. B'ijjo'i quad. 138. C. pilis cine- btr, I 53. tab. xxxii. 

refcentibus nigro mixtis, cauda rufa. Saccawinkee. Bancroft Guiana, 135. Br. 

Briffon, 141. Muf. Mus.Lev. 
Simia Pithecia. S. caudata imberbis, vel- 


with a fwarthy face, covered with fhort white down : fore- 
■• head and fides of the face with whkifh, and pretty long 
hair: body with long dufky brown hairs, white or yellowifh at 
their tips : hair on the tail very long and bufhy ; fometimes 
black, fometimes reddifh: belly and lower part of the limbs a 
reddifh white: length from nofe to tail near a foot and a half: 
tail longer, and like that of a fox: hands and feet black, with 
claws inftead of nails. 
Inhabits Guiana. 

* Diftinguiihed from thofe with prehenfile tails, by M. de Buffon, by the name 
of Sagouins ; which, as well as Sapajous, are American names for certain kinds of 


M O N K I E S. 


Cercopithecus minimus niger Leontoce- lin.fyfl.^z. I .,_ Great 

phalus, auribus elephantinis. Barren Le Tamarin. De Buffon, xv. 92. tab. xiii. eared 

France JEquin. 151. Schreber, 160. tab. xxxvii. 

Simia midas. S. caudata imberbis, labio Little black monkey, Ediv. 196. Br.Muf, 
fuperiore fiflb, auribus quadratis nudis, Lev. Mus. 
unguibus fubulatis, pedibus croceis. 

*|%/r with a round head, fwarthy, flefh-colored, naked face: 
■*■"-!•• upper lip a little divided : ears very large, erecT:, naked, 
and almoft fquare : hair on the forehead upright and long; on the 
body foft, but fhaggy : the head, whole bod} r , and upper part of 
the limbs, black, except the lower part of the back, which was 
tinged with yellow : hands and feet covered with orange-colored 
hairs, very fine and fmooth: nails long and crooked: tail black, 
and twice the length of the body: teeth very white. 

Size of a fquirrel. 

Inhabits the hotter parts of South America, and the ifle of Gor- Place; 
gona, fouth of Panama, in the South Sea. There are, fays Dam- 
pier, a great many little black monkies : at low water, they come 
to the fea-fide to take mufcles and perriwinkles, which they dig 
out of the fhells with their claws *. 

* Voy. i. 173. 



M O N K I E 3. 

142. Striated. Ca?ni minor. Marcgra-ve Bralil, Cerco- 

pithecus BrafJianus tertius Sagouin. 

Cl.'Ji-i Exot. 372. Gifier quad. 869. 

Raii/yn, quad 1 54. Klein quai. 87. lab. 

ill. Ludolfb. Com. JEtbiop. 58. 

Cercopithecus taeniis tranfverfis alterna- 

tim fufcis et e cinereo albis variegatus, 

auriculis pilis albis circumdatis. Brif- 

fon quai. 14.3. 

Simia lacchus. S. caudata auribus villofis 

patulis, cauda hirfuttfihna curvata, un- 

guibus fubulatis ; pollicum rotundatis. 

Lin.fyfl. 40. 
L'Ouiftiti. De Buffo*, xv. 96. tab xiv. 
Sanglin, or Cagui minor. Edw. ziB.Pb. 

Tr. abridg. 1751,/-. 14^. tab. vii. Br. 

Le Sagoin. Schreler, J54. tab. xxxiii. 

Mus. Lev. 

TV/T with a very round head : about the ears two very long full 
tufts of white hairs {landing out on each fide: hides red- 
difli : face of a fwarthy flefh-color : ears like the human: head 
black: body afh-colored, reddifh, and dufky ; the laft forms ftri- 
ated bars crofs the body: tail full of hair, annulated with afh- 
color and black: body feven inches long: tail near eleven: hands 
and feet covered with (hort hairs: fingers like thofe of a fquirrel: 
nails, or rather claws, fharp. 

Inhabits Brajil: feeds on vegetables; will alfo eat fifiv* : makes 
a weak noife : very reftlefs : often brought over to Europe. 

* Edw. Gleanings, p. 17. 




Ss//y ( fir >//£/■// . /'//.; 

" /f, 

M O N K I E S. 


Cercopithecus minor dilute olivaceus, pite pilofo, faciei circumferentia pe- 143. Silky. 

parvo capite, Acarima a Cayenne. dibufque rubris, unguibus fabulatis. 

rere, France JEquin. I C I . Lin.fyji. 41. 
•Cercopithecus ex albo Havicans, faciei Le Marikina. De Buffon, xv. 108. tab. 

circumferentia, faturate rufa. De pe- xvi. Scbrcber, 158. tab. xxxv. Lev. 

tit {inge Lion. Briffbn quad. 142. Mus. 
Simia Rofalia. S. caudata imberbis, ca— 

"]% /T with a flat face, of a dull purple color : ears round and 
-*•"-*-• naked: on the fides of the face the hairs very long, turn- 
ing backwards, of a bright bay color; fometimes yellow, and the 
former only in patches: the hair on the body long, very fine, 
filky, gloffy. and of a light but bright yellow : hands and feet 
naked, and of a dull purple color: claws, inftead of nails, to each 
finger: length of the head and body ten inches : tail thirteen and 
a half; a little bufhy at the end. 

Inhabits Guiana; is very gentle, and lively. 

Pinche. Condamine's <wj>. 83. gra et nuda, vertice Iongis pills ob- 143.. Red-tailed. 

Simia CEdipus. S. caudata imberbis, ca- fita. BriJJbn quad. 1 50. 

pillo dependente, cauda rubra, ungui- Le Pinche. De Buffon, xv. 114. tab. 

bus fubulatis. l.vufyft. 41. xvii. Schreb'T, 156. tab. xxxiv. 

Cercopithecus pilis ex fufco et rufo vef- Little Lion Monkey. Edw. 195. 

thus, facie ultra auriculas ufque ni- 

"71 If with a round head and black pointed face: ears round and 
■*■'•*•• dufky: hair on the head white, long, and fpreading over 
the fhoulders: fhoulders and back covered with long and loofe 
brown hairs: rump and half the tail deep orange-colored, almoft 
red; the remaining part black: throat black: bread, belly, and 
legs, white; inlides of the hands and feet black: claws crooked 
Vol. I. G g and 

22 6 M O N K I E S. 

and fharp: length of the head and body eight inches; tail above 
twice as long. 

Inhabits Guiana, Brajil, and the banks of the river of Amazons, 
whofe woods fvvarm with numberlefs fpecies: is agile and lively, 
and has a foft whiffling note. Often marches with its tail over 
its back, appearing like a little lion. 

14c. Fair. A Sagoin, &c. Condamlne 's <voy '. 83. fin quad. 142. 

Cercopithecus ex cinereo albus argen- Le Mico. De Buffon, xv. 121. tab. xviii. 
teus, facie auriculifque rubris fplen- Schreber, 159. tab. xxxvi. 

dentibus, cauda caftanei coloris. BriJ- 

*|\/T with a fmall round head: face and ears of the moft lively 
■*- vermilion color: body covered with moll beautiful long 

hairs, of a bright and filvery whitenefs, of matchlefs elegance: 
tail of a mining dark chefnut: head and body eight inches long; 
tail twelve. 

Inhabits the banks of the Amazons, difcovered by M. de Con* 





tSeuc //Ai - rteu&azuco ,_ 1'/^;' 



.';„,//,/.', . //, 




Six cutting teeth, and two canine teeth in each jaw. XVI MAU- 

Sharp-pointed fox-like vifage. CAUCO. 

Feet formed like hands, like the apes. 

Animal elegantiifimum Rcbinfoiii. Raii Lemur tardigradus. L. ecaudatus. Lin. 146. Tail -less. 

f)n. quad. 161. Jyft. 44. S/jatu, Spec. Lin. v. 

Cercopithecus Ceylonicus, feu Tardigra- Simia unguibus indicis pedum pofleri- 

dus diftus, major. Seb. Muf. tab. xlvii. orum longis, incurvis, et acutis. Brif- 

Klein quad. 86. ftn quad. 134. Lev. Mus. 

"]\/T with a fmall head; fharp-pointed nofe: orbits furrounded 
XVI.* w ith a black circle, fpace between them white: from the 
top of the head along the middle of the back, to the rump, a 
dark ferruginous line, which on the forehead is bifurcated : ears 
fmall: body covered with fhort, foft, and filky afh colored and 
reddifli fur: toes naked: nails flat: thofe of the inner toe on 
each hind foot long, crooked, and (harp: length from the nofe to 
the rump fixteen inches. , 

Inhabits Ceylon and Bengal; lives in the woods, and feeds on 
fruits: is fond of eggs, and will greedily devour fmall birds : has 
the inactivity of the Sloth *, creeps flowly along the ground-)- : is 
very tenacious of its hold, and makes a plaintive noife. 

The inhabitants of Bengal call this animal Chlrmundl Bllll, or 
Bajljful Billy. It fleeps, as I have feen one do in London in this 
year, holding faft the wires of the cage with its claws. It mikes 
a plaintive noife, Ai, At. Its tongue is rough. 

* Vidt that article : this animal, notwithftanding its manners, cannot be rank- 
ed with the Sloth, having both cutting and canine teeth. 

f I doubt not bnt the candor of Mr. Scbreber will induce him to reftify his 

mifreprefentations of this paflage. 

G g 2 Sonnerat 

22 8 M A U C A U C O. 

147. In put. Sonncrat voy. II. 143. tab. I.rxvii. 

M with a produced dog-like vifage: fhort ears, briefly tufted : 
' hair filky and thick : face and lower parts greyifh : rump 
white: whole upper part of the neck and body black: nails flat,, 
but pointed, at the ends : no tail. 
Manners. The largeft of the genus being three feet and a half high its 

note is that like a child's crying. Is a very gentle animal: when 
taken young,, it is trained for the chace as dogs are. Inhabits 
Madagafcar, where it is called Indrt, or Man of the Wood. 

ij.8 Loris. Ar.imalculum cynocephalum, ceilonicum, Le Loris. Be Biffin, xiii. 210. tab. 
Tardigradum diftum, fimii fpecies. xxx. Schreber, 162. tab. xxxviii; 

Stb.Miif.i. 55. tab. xxxv. Lev. M vs. 


with a produced dog-like vifage : forehead high above the 

nofe: ears large, thin, and rounded: body flender and 

weak: limbs very long and flender: thumb on each foot more 

diltincT, and feparate from the toes; on that, and the three out- 

moft toes, are flat nails : on the interior toe of every foot a 

crooked claw : no tail : the hair on the body univerfally Ihorr, 

and delicately foft : the color on the upper part tawny; beneath 

whitilh : fpace round the eyes dufky: on the head is a dart- 

fhaped fpor, with the end pointing to the interval between the eyes. 

Manners. Length from the tip of the nofe to the anus only eight inches. 

It differs totally in form and in nature from the preceding. 

Notwithstanding the epithet of Sloth given in Seba, it is very 


M A U C A U C O; 229 

a&ive, afcends trees mod nimbly; has the actions of an ape. If 
we credit Seba, the male climbs the trees, and taftes the fruits 
before it prefents them to its mate- 

Macaflar fox. Kieubofvty. 361. Chi- facie nigra, pedibus fulvis. Brljfiit H9- Woolly. 

tote, Bartot. 560. quad. I 5^, 157. 

Vary (i)- Flacourt, bifi R'adag. 153. Lemur Mongooz. L. caudatM f ilfeus 

Simia-fciurus lanuginofus fufcus. Ft- cauda unicolore. Lin.Jyft. 44. 

ti-v.Gaz. tab. xvii. Le Mongooz, De Bujfon, xiii. 1 74. tab. 

The Mongooz. Edw. 216. xxvi. Scbreber, 166. tab. xxxix. Lev. 

Prolimia fufca. Pr. fufca.nafo pedibuf- lAvs. 

que albis. Pr. fufca> rufo admixte. 


with orange- colored hides: fhort rounded ears: end cf 
L* the nofe black : eyes lodged in a circle of black : the 
fpace between them of the fame color : reft of the nofe and lower 
fides of the cheeks white: when in full health, the whole upper 
part of the body covered with long, foft, and thick fur, a little 
curled or waved, of a deep brownifh afh-color: tail very long, 
covered with the fame fort of hair,, and of- the fame color : breaft 
and belly white : hands and feet naked, and dufky : nails flat, 
except that of the inner toe of the hind feet : fize of a cat : va- 
ries, fometimes with white or yellow paws, and with a face wholly 


Inhabits Madagafcar, and the adjacent ides : fleeps on trees r 
turns its tail over its head to protect it from rain * : lives on 
fruits:, is very fportive and good-natured: very tender: found 
as far as Celebes or Macaffar. This is the fpecies M. Sonnerat calls 

* Caucbtsioj- MadagafiaTx 53. _ . 

. Magim 


M A U C A U C O. 

Maquis a bourns, vol. ii. p. 143 ; but his figure is not by any means 
accurate. Linnaus confounds this with Mr. Edwards's black mau- 
cauco, our 151ft. 

150. Ring-tail. Vari. Tlacourt, UJI.Madag. 153. 
Mocawk. Grrfe's icy. 41. 
Maucauco. Edtm. 197.. 
Profuniacincrea, cauda cinfta annulis al- 

ternatim albis et nigris. Brijfon quad. 

157. Sba<w, Spec. Lin. vi. 

Lemur Catta. L. caudatus. cauda alboni- 
groque annulata. Lin.fyji. 45.'s 
•voy. ii. 168. 

Le Mococo. De Bvffo-, xiii. 173. tab. 
xauScbreber, Lev. Mus. 

T\/T with the end of the nofe black: ears erect: white face: 
J-'-*-« black circles round the orbits: hair on the top of the 
head and hind part, deep afh-color : back and fides reddiih afh- 
color: outfides of the limbs paler: belly and infide of the limbs 
white : all its hair very fofr, clofe, and fine, eredl like the pile of 
velvet: tail twice the length of the body; is marked with numbers 
of regular rings of black and white; and when fitting, is twifted 
round the body, and brought over its head : nails flat, particu- 
larly thofe of the thumbs of the hind feet : infide of the hands 
and feet black : fize of a cat. 

Inhabits Madagafcar and the neighboring ifles : is very good- 
natured, has all the life of a monkey, without its mifchievous 
difpofition : is very cleanly: its cry weak: in a wild ftate, goes 
in troops of thirty or forty: is eafily tamed when taken young: 
according to Flacourt, fometimes found white ; Cauche in his 
voyage to Madagafcar* alfo fpeaks of a white kind, which he 
fays grunts like fwine, and is called there Amboimenes. 

* P. «. 




Vari, ou Varicofli. Flaco:trt,hi(i.Madag, ScbnBer, 171. tab. xl. IJI. Ruffed. 

153. Caucbe, •vy. 53. Lemur caudatus niger, collari barbato 

Black Maucauco. Edzv. 217. Lin./yfi. 44. 
Le Vari. De Bujfin, xiii. 174. /«£. xvii. 

"J\yr with orange-colored irides: long hair round the fides of 
•^ -*■• the head, (landing out like a ruff: tail long: the color 
of the whole animal black, but not always, being fometimes 
white, fpotted with black; but the feet black: rather larger 
than the Lift. 

Inhabits Madagajcar : very fierce in a wild ftate ; and makes 
fo violent a noife in the woods, that it is eafy to miftake the noife 
of two for that of a hundred : when tamed are very gentle and 
good natured. The hind thighs and legs of thefe three fpecies 
are very long, which makes their pace fideling, and bounding. 

Le Tarfier. deBuffon, xiii. 87. tab. ix. Lev. Mus. 

T\ ir with a pointed vifage ; ilender nofe, bilobated at the end : 
±tA» e y es j ar g e anc i prominent: ears erect, broad, naked, femi- 
tranfparent ; an inch and a half long: between them, on the 
top of the head, is a tuft of long hairs : on each fide of the nofe, 
and on the upper eye-brow, are long hairs. 

In each jaw are two cutting and two canine teeth ; which form 
an exception in this genus. 

Four long flender toes, and a diftinct thumb, on each foot : 
the lower part of each tuberous : the claws fharp-pointed ; but 
(except on the two interior toes of the hind feet) are attached to 


ijz. Tarsier. 

2 3 2 M A U C A U C O. 

the fkin: the thumbs of the hind feet are broad, and greatly di- 
lated at their ends: hairs on the legs and feet fhort, white, and 
thin; tail almoft naked: the greater part round and fcaly, like 
that of a rat ; but grows hairy towards the end, which is tufted. 

The penis pendulous ; fcrotum and tefticles of a vaft fize, in 
proportion to the animal: hair foft, but not curled: of an afh- 
color, mixed with tawny. 

'Length from nofe to tail near fix inches ; to the hind toes 
eleven and a half, the hind legs, like thofe of the jerboa, being 
of a great length : the tail nine inches and a half long. Defcribed 
from two fine fpecimens in the cabinet of Doctor Hunter. 

Inhabits the remoteft iflands of India, efpecially Ambolna. Is 
called by the Macajfars, Todje *. 

153. Bicolor. Miller's plates, tab. xiii. Lemur bicolor, Cm, Lm. 44. 

with a large white heart-fhaped fpot between the ears, 


"• pointing downwards : face, nofe, back, and fides, almoft 
as low as the belly, black : bread, fhoulders, legs, reft of the 
fides, and belly, white : tail much longer than the body, thickest at 
the end, black: limbs ftrong : toes long and {lender: nails long, 
ftrait, and very {lender: feet an exception to the genus. Inhabits 
South America. 

154. Murine. MilLSs plates, xxxii. fig. ii. Lemur murinus. Cm. Lin. 44. 

with head and body of an elegant light grey: inlide of the 
"• ears white : orbits rufous : tail far exceeds the body in 

» Pallas. 

length : 


M A U C A U C O. 233 

length; bufhy at the end, and of a bright ruft color : nails flat and 
rounded : fize about twice that of a moufe. 

Inhabits Madagafcar, very nearly allied to the next: may only Place. 
differ in fex. 

Ertnxiii Illuftr. of Zoology, 10S. tab. xllv. 155. Little, 

T\ yf" with a rounded head, (harp nofe, long whifkers ; two ca- 
"^ ' nine teeth in each jaw; four cutting teeth in the upper 
jaw; fix in the lower: feven grinders on each fide; the neareft 
fharp, the more diftant lobated : the ears large, roundifh, naked, 
and membranaceous : eyes very large and full. 

The toes long, of unequal lengths ; the ends round : nails 
round, and very fhort ; that of the firft toe ftrait, fharp, and long ; 
tail hairy, of the length of the body, and is prehenfile. 

Color of the upper part cinereous ; of the lower white ; fpace 
round the eyes dark. 

Rather lefs than the black rat. 

Defcribed from the living animal, in pofiefllon of Mar ma- 
duke Tunstal, Efq. 

This feems to be the fame animal, which M. de Buffon calls Le 
Rat de Madagafcar*. It is fuppofed to live in the palm-trees, 
and feed on fruits. It eats, holding its food in its fore feet, like 
fquirrels ; is lively, and has a weak cry ; when it fleeps, rolls it* 
felf up. 

• Supplon* iii. 149. tab. xx. 
Vol. I. H h Vefpenilio 



156. Flying. Vefpertilioadmirabilis. BotaiusJa'va,b%. ambiente volitans. Lin.JyJI.^.Scbre- 

Felis volans Ternatana. Seb. Muf.'i. tab. ber, 17;. tab. xliii. Lev. Mus. 

Iviii. Galcopithecus Aft. Jcad. Pelrop. 1780. 

Lemur volans. L. caudatus, membrana p. 208. tab. vii. 

T\/T with a long head: fmall mouth: fmall ears, round and 
■*• ■*■• membranous. No fore teeth in the upper jaw: fix in the 
lower; fhort, broad, and elegantly pectinated, and diftant from each 
other. From the neck to the hands, thence to the hind feet, ex- 
tends a broad fkin, like that of a flying fquirrelj the fame is alfo 
continued from the hind feet to the tip of the tail, which is in- 
cluded in it : the body and outfide of this fkin is covered with foft 
hairs, hoary or black, and afh-color; in adults the back is hoary, 
croffed tranfverfely with black lines. The inner fide of theextended 
fkin appears membranous, with little veins and fibres difperfed thro' 
it: the legs are cloathed with a foft yellow down : five toes on each 
foot : the claws thin, broad, very fharp, and crooked, by which it 
flrongly adheres to whatfoever it faftens on : the whole length of 
this fpecies is near three feet; the breadth of the fame : the tail 
ilender; a fpan long. 

Inhabits the country about Guzarat, the Molucca ifles, and the 
Philippines: feeds on the fruits. Inhabits trees entirely. In defend- 
ing from the top to a lower part it fpreads its membranes, and 
balances itfelf to the place it aims at in a gentle manner ; but in 
afcending ufes a leaping pace. It has two young, which adhere 
to its breads by its mouth and claws. 

It is called by the Indians, Caguang, Colugo, and Gigua. 



^///"Z ■ fuzucetuco — • i./s''. 

DOG. v. ; ; 

DIV. II. Sect. II. Digitated Quadrupeds. 

Willi large canine teeth, feparated from the cutting 

Six, or more cutting teeth, in each jaw. 
Rapacious : carnivorous. 

Six cutting teeth, and two canine, in each jaw. XVII. DOG. 

Five toes before; four behind*. 
Long vifage. 

Dwith its tail bending towards the left: a character com- i J7 . Faithful. 
• mon to the whole fpecies ; firffc obferved by Linnaus. 

Several beautiful varieties in the Leverian Museum. 

The predominant paffion of the whole race towards an attach- 
ment to mankind, prevents thefe animals from feparating them- 
felves from us till deferted, or by fome accident left in places 
where there was no poffibility of re-union : it feems beyond the 
power of ill ufage to fubdue the faithful and conftant qualities in- 
herent in them. Found in great numbers wild, or rather without 
matters, in Congo, Lower ^Ethiopia, and towards the Cape of Good 
Hope-f: are red-haired : have flender bodies, and turned-up tails, 

* Invariable in the wild fpecies, fuch as wolf, &c. ; in the common dogs, oft- 
times five toes on each foot. 
•fr Churchill's coll. <vqy. v. 486. Kolbeti's hlft. Caps,\i, 106, 107. 

H h 2 like 

236 DOG. 

like grehounds; others refemble hounds: they are of various 
colors, have erefl ears, and are of the fize of a large fox-hound. 
Deftroy cattle, and hunt down antelopes as our dogs do the 
flag *, and are very deftrudtive to the animals of chace : they 
run very fwiftly; have no certain refidence; are very feldoni 
killed ; being fo crafty as to fhun all traps : and of fo fagacious 
nofes as to avoid every thing that has been touched by man. 
Their whelps are fometimes taken ; but grow fo exceffively fierce 
when they grow old, that they never can be domefticated. 

They go in great packs: attack lions, tigers, and elephants, but 
are often killed by them: the fight of thefedogs pleafing to travel- 
lers, who fuppofe they have conquered the wild beads, and fe- 
cured their journey, by driving them away. Attack the fheep of 
the Hottentots, and commit great ravages among them. 

Multitudes wild in South America: derived from the European 
race. Breed in holes, like rabbet-holes -f-: when found young, in- 
ftantly attach themfelves J to mankind; nor will they ever join 
themfelves to the wild dogs; or defert their matters: thefe have 
not forgot to bark ||, as Linnaus fays : look like a grehound § : 
have erect ears: are very vigilant : excellent in the chace. 

The dog unknown in America before it was introduced there 

• Majbn, in Pb. Trattf. lxvi. 278. 

+ Narrative of the diftrefies of lfaac Morris, Sec. belonging to the Wager llore- 
fiiip, belonging to Commodore Anfaris fquadron, p. 27. 

X The fame, /. 28. 

|| The fame, /. 37. 

§ As appears from a drawing communicated to me by Mr. Greenwood, pain- 
ter, who took it from one that followed an Indian to Surinam from the inland 
part of the country. 

5 by 


by the Europeans: the Alco of the Peruvians, a little animal, 
which they were fo fond or, and kept as a lap-dog, is too flightly 
mentioned by A- Cojla for us to determine what it was: and the 
figure given by Hernandez* too rude to form any judgment of: 
the other animal defcribed by Hernandez is a large fpecies, he calls it 
Xoloitzicuintli, the fame name that is given by the firft to the Mexi- 
can wolf-f, as it is certain that the dog of N. America, or rather 
its fubftitute, on its firft difcovery by the EngliJIi, was derived 
from the J wolf, tamed and domefticated ; fo it is reafonable to 
imagine that of S. America had the fame origin. Thefe fubftitutes 
cannot bark, but betray their favage defcent by a fort of howl: 
want the fagacity of a true dog; ferve only to drive the deer into 
corners : the wolfifh breed to this day detefted || by European 
dogs, who worry them on all occafions, retaining that diflike 
which it is well known all dogs have to the wolf. Thefe reclamed 
breed are commonly white : have fharp nofes, and upright ears. 

The dog fubjeft to more variety than any other animal ; each 
will mix with the other, and produce varieties ftill more unlike 
the original ftock. That of the old world is with great reafon 
fuppofed to be the Schakal, to which article the reader is referred. 
From the tamed offspring, again cafually crofted with the Wolf,' 
the Fox, and even the Hyana, has arifen the numberlefs forms and 
fizes of the canine race §. M. de Biiffon, who with great inge- 
nuity has given a genealogical table of all the known dogs, makes 
the Chien de Berger, the fhepherd's dog, or what is fometimes 

* Hernandez, 4.66. + Hernandez, 479. % Smith's blft. Virginia, 27. 

|| Catejby Carolina, ii. Apf. xxvi. § Pallas obf.fur la formation des Mon- 

tagnes, &c. 15. 



2*8 DOG. 

called Le Chun hup, or the wolf dog, the origin of all, becaufe it 
is naturally the moft fenfiblej becomes, without difcipline, almoft 
inftantly the guardian of the flocks ; keeps them within bounds, 
reduces the ftragglers to their proper limits, and defends them 
from the attacks of the wolves. We have this variety in Eng- 
land; but it is fmall and weak. Thofe of France and the Alps 
are very large and ftrong; fharp-nofed, erect, and fharp-eared; 
very hairy, efpecially about the neck, and have their tails turned 
up or curled ; and, by accident, their faces often fhew the marks 
of their combats with the wolf. 

I (hall follow M. de Bujfon, in the catalogue of dogs ; but add 
fome few remarks, with the fynonyms of a few other writers, to 
each variety. 

I. Shepherd's Dog, LeChien de Berger. DeBuffbn*,v. 201. 
tab, xxviii. Canis domeflicus. Rail Jyn. quad. Lin.fyjl. $j. 


* The Englifi reader will find all the varieties well defcribed and engraven in 
vol. iv. of Mr. Smdlies tranflation of this author. 

Notwithftanding M. de Buffou denies thejun&ion of the wolf and bitch, yet 
there has been an inftance to the contrary. Mr. Brook, animal-merchant, in Hoi. 
lorn, turned a wolf to a Pomeranian bitch in heat: the congrefs was immediate, 
and as ufual between dog and bitch: (he produced ten puppies. I have feen one 
of them, at Gordon Caftle, that had very much therefemblance of a wolf, and much 
of its nature; being flipped at a weak deer, it inftantly caught at the animal's throat 
and killed it. I could not learn whether this mongrel continued its fpecies : but 
another of the fame kind did; and flocked the neighborhood of Fochabers, in the 
county of Murray (where it was kept) with a multitude of curs of a moft wolfifh 



Its varieties, or nearefl allies, are, 

k, Pomeranian Dog, Le Chien Loup. De Buffon, tab. xxix. 

(3. Siberian Dog, Le Chien de Siberie, tab. xxx. which is a va- 
riety of the former, and very common in Rujfia. The other 
varieties, in the inland parts of the Empire and Siberia, are 
chiefly from the fhepherd's dog : and there is a high-limbed 
taper-bodied kind, the common dog of the Calmuc and inde- 
pendent Tartars, excellent for the chace, and all ufes. 

II. Hound, or dog with long, fmooth, and pendulous ears. 
Le Chien courant, p. 205, tab. xxxii. Canis venaticus fagax. 
Raii fyn. quad. 177. Canis fagax. Lin. Jyji. 57. This is the fame 
with the blood-hound. Br. Zool. i. 51. and is the head of the other 
kinds wiih fmooth and hanging ears. 

There was lately living a mongrel offspring of this kind. It greatly refembled 
its wolf parent. It was firft the property of Sir Wolftan Dixey: afterwards of Sir 
Willughby Afion. During day it was very tame ; but at night fometimes relapfed 
into ferocity. It never barked; but rather howled : when it came into fields where 
fheep were, it would feign lamenefs, but if no one was prefent, would inftantly attack 
them. It had been feen in copulation with a bitch, which afterwards pupped : the 
breed was imagined to refemble in many refpe&s the fuppofed fire. It died be- 
tween the age of five and fix. 

The bitch will alfo breed with the fox. The woodman of the manor of Monge- 
ivell, in Oxfordjhire, has a bitch, which confhntly follows him, the offspring of a 
tame dog fox by a Ihepherd's cur : and fhe again has had puppies by a dog. Since 
there are fuch authentic proofs of the further continuance of the breed, we may 
furely add the wolf and fox to other fuppofed flocks of thefe faithful domeftics. 

» Harrier. 



D O G. 
* Harrier. Le Braque, tab. xxxiii. 

|3 Dalmatian *. Le Braque de Bengal, tab. xxxiv. a beautiful 
(potted kind, vulgarly called the Danijh dog. 

y Turnspit. Le Baffet a jambes torfes — a jambes droites, 
tab. xxxv. 

S WATER-dog, great and fmall. Le grand and le petit Barbet, 
tab. xxxvii. xxxviii. Canis aviarius aquaticus. Raii Jyn. quad. 
177. Lin.fyfl.s7- 

From N° II. branches out another race of dogs, with pendent 
ears, covered with long hairs, and lefs in fize, which form 

III. Spaniel. Canis aviarius, five Hifpanicus campeftris, Rait 
jyn. quad. 177. Canis avicularius ? Lin. fyjl. 57. Thefe vary in 
fize, from the fetting-dog to the fpringing fpaniels, and fome of 
the little lap-dogs, fuch as 

u. King Charles's +. Le Gredin, tab. xxxix.fg. 1. 

* I have been informed, that Dalmatia is the country of this elegant dog. 
As for thofe of India, they are generally fmall and very ugly; or, if the Eur»- 
fcan dogs are brought there, they immediately degenerate. 

f Charles II. never went out, except attended by numbers of this kind. 

P Pyramu, 


(3 Pyrame. Lc Pyrame, tab. xxxlx.fig. 2. There is no Englifib 
name for this kind: they are black, marked on the legs with 
red : and above each eye is a fpot of the fame color. 

y. Shock. Le Chien de Malte ou Bichon, tab. xl. fig. 8c Lc 
Chien Lion, fig. 2. Catulus melitaus canis getidus, feu Iflan- 
dicus. Rail Jyn. quad. 177. Lin. Jyfi '. 57 ■. 

IV. Dogs with fhort pendent ears: long legs and bodies: of 
which kind is the 

a. Irish Gre-Hound. A variety once very frequent in Ireland, 
and ufed in the chace of the wolf: now very fcarce: a dog of 
great fize and ftrength. Le Matin*. De Buffon, tab. xxv. 
Canis graius Hibernicus. Rail Jyn. quad. 176. 

0. Common Gre-Hound. Le Levrier. De Buffon, xxvii. Sclreber, 
Ixxxvii. Canis venations graius. Rati Jyn. quad. 176. Canis 
graius. Lin.fyjl. 57. Its varieties are, 1. Italian Gre-Hound, 
fmall, and fmooth : 2. Oriental, tall, flender, with very pendu- 
lous ears, and very long hairs on the tail, hanging down a 
great length. 

y. Danish Dog. Le grand Danois. De Buffon, xxvi. of a ftronget 
make than a gre-hound: the largeft of dogs : perhaps of this 
kind were the dogs of Epirus, mentioned by Arijiotle, lib. iii. 
c. 21; or thofe of Albania, the modern Scbirzvan, or Eaji 
Georgia, fo beautifully defcribed by Pliny, Lib. viii. c. 40. 

• Not the maftiff", as commonly tranfhted. 
Vol. I. I i UMam 


ti DOG. 

If-cliam petenti Alexandra magno, rex Albaria dono dederat inufitatx mngni- 
tudinis unum ; [fell. Car.em~\ cujus fpecie delegatus, juffit urfos, mox apros, et 
deinde damas emit;i contemptu immobili jacente. Eaque fegnitie tanti corporis 
offenfus Imperator generofi fpiritus, eum interimi juffit. Nuntiavit hoc Fama 
Regi. Itaque alterum mittens addidit mandata, ne in parvis experiri vellet, fed 
in leone, elephantove. Duos fibi fuiffe : hoc interempto, prseterea nullum fore. 
Nee diftulit Alexander, leonemque fraiTtum protinus vidit. Poftea elephantum 
juffit induci, haud alio magis fpeftaculo lstatus. Horrentibus quippe per totum 
corpus villis, ingenti piimum latratu intonuit. Mox ingruit alTultans, con- 
traque belluam exurgens hinc & illinc, artifki dimicatione, qua maxime opus 
effet, infertans atque evitans, donee affidua rotarum vertigine afflixit, ad cafum 
ejus tellure concufla. 

Perhaps to this head may be referred the vaft dogs of Thibet, 
laid by Marco Polo to be as big as alles, and ufed in that coun- 
try to take wild beads, and efpecially the wild oxen called 
Bey ami ni *. 

S. Mastiff. Very ftrong and thick made : the head large : the 
lips great, and hanging down on each fide: a fine and noble 
countenance: grows to a great fize: a Brltijh kind. For a fur- 
ther account of this and other Brltijh dogs, vide Br. Zool. i. 49.- 
Le Dogue de forte race. De Buffbn, tab, xlv. Maftivus. Rail 
Jyn. quad. 176. Canis moloffus. Lin. fyft. 57. 

V. Dogs with fhort pendent ears: fhort compact bodies: fhort 
nofes: and generally fhort legs. 

*. Btll-Dog: with a fhort nofe, and under jaw longer than the 
upper: a cruel and very fierce kind, often biting before it 
barks : peculiar to England: the breed fcarcer than it has been, 

* Purcbas, iii. go. 

4 fince 


fince die barbarous cuftom of bull-baiting has declined. Le 
Dogue. De Biffin, tab. xliii. 

p. Pug Dog. A fmall fpecies: an innocent refemblance of the 
laft. Le Doguin. De Buffon, tab. xliv. 

.5/. Bastard Pug. Le Roquet. Be Biffin, xll.Jig. 2. 

■9. Naked. Le chien Turc. Ik- Biffin, xlii. a degenerate fpecies, 
with naked bodies ; having loft its hair by the heat of climate. 

Dogs (brought originally from New Guinea)*, are found in Docs of the S. 
the Society IJlands, New Zeland, and the Low IJlands: there are alfo £ea IslaNds - 
a few in New Holland. Of thefe are two varieties. 

1. Refembling the fharp-nofed pricked-ear fhepherd's cur. Thofc 
of Nezv Zeland are of the largeft fort. In the Society IJlands 
they are the common food, and are fattened with vegetables, 
which the natives cram down their threats, as we ferve turkies, 
when they will voluntarily eat no more. They are killed by Eat ex- tner*,' 
ftrangling, and the extravafated blood is preferved in Cob- 
nut fliells, and baked for the table. They grow very far, and 
are allowed, even by Europeans who have got over their pre- 
judices, to be very fweet and palatable. 

But the tafte for the fiefh of thefe animals was not confined to 
the iflanders of the Pacific Ocean. The antients reckoned a young 
and fat dog excellent food, efpecially if it had been caltrated f : 
Hippocrates placed it on a footing with mutton and pork f : 
and in another place fays, that the flefh of a grown dog is 
wholefome and ftrengthening; of puppies (if I take him right) 

* See this edition under title Hog. f Golm, lib. iii. de Alkn. facuh. c. n, 

' % De intern, nffect. Sea. v. 

1 i 1 relaxins;. 


Flesh of doo> 
eaten hy thi 

244 DOG. 

relaxing*. The Romans admired fucking puppies : they fa- 
crificed them alfo to their divinities, and thought them a 
fupper in which the Gods themfelves delighted f. 

2. The Barbel, whofe hair being long and filky, is greatly valued 
by the New Zelanders for trimming their ornamental drefs. 
This variety is not eaten. The iflanders never ufe their dogs 
for any purpofes but what we mention ; and take fuch care of 
them as not to fuffer them even to wet their feet. They are 
exceffively ftupid, have a very bad nofe for fmelling, and fel- 
dom or never bark, only now and then howl. The New Ze- 
landers feed their dogs entirely with fifli. 

The Marquesas, Friendly I/lands, New Hebrides, New Caledonia , 
and Eajler IJle, have not yet received thofe animals. 

X The moft faithful of animals: is the companion of man- 
kind : fawns at the approach of its matter : will not fuffer any 
one to ftrike him: runs before him in a journey; often patting 
backward and forward over the fame ground : on coming tocrofs- 
ways, flops and looks back : very docile : will find out what is 
dropt : watchful by night: announces the coming of ftrangers: 
guards any goods committed to its charge: drives cattle home 
from the field: keeps herds and flocks within bounds : protects 
them from wild beads: points out to the fportfman the game, 
by virtue of its acute fenfe of fmelling : brings the birds that are 
(hot to its matter : will turn a fpit : at Bruffels and in Holland 
draws little carts to the herb-market: in Siberia draws a 
fledge with its matter in it, or loaden with provifions : fits up 

• De Dixt. et facult. lib. ii. 
+ Pliti. hijl. lib. xx'ix. c. iv. 
L ' % This part is almoft entirely tranflated from Linneem. 



and begs*: when it has committed a theft, /links away with its 
tail between its legs: eats envioufly, with oblique eyes: is mafter 
among its fellows: enemy to beggars: attacks (bangers without 
provocation f: fond of licking wounds: cures the gout and can- 
cers : 


* The French Academicians record a marvellous tale of a dog that could f[ea\, 
and call for tea, coffee, and chocolate. 

•f This part of the nature of dogs is {o elegantly expreffed by Thtccrilui, that 
the reader will not be difpleafed with the reference, and the tranflation by the 
Rev. Mr. Fawfas, giving an account of the initindt of the old herdfman's dogs 
at the approach of Hercules. 

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Nt'» ^e i^uy.Aov te «m a r " r : E>E5 7Eie6' at1w?. 

H Ja' xa( ipc-vpivw; t&cli t«z;?uov (Cop iopIe?. /A7. A'\'V. 1'. 68 

The watchful dogs, as near the flails thev went, 
Perceiv'd their convng by their tread and fcent, 
With open mouths from every part they .run, 
And bay'd inceffant great Amfbi:rjt>i's fon ; 


t^6 DOG. 

cers : howls at certain notes in mufic, and often urines on hear- 
ing them: bites at a ftone flung at it: is fick at the approach of 
bad weather : gives itfelf a vomit by eating grafs : is afflicted 
with tape-worms: fpreads its madnefs : grows blind with age: 
fape gonorrhoea infeklus: driven as unclean from the houfes of the 
Mahometans ; yet the fame people eftablilh hofpitals for them, and 
allow them a daily dole of food : eats flefh, carrion, farinaceous 
vegetables, not greens : fond of rolling in carrion : dungs on a 
flone; its dung the greateft of feptics: drinks by lapping: 
makes water fide-ways, with its, leg held up; very apt to repeat 
it where another dog has done the fame: odor at anum alterius: 
tnenftruans catulil cum varus ', nwrdet ilia illasi coharet copula junc- 
tits. Goes 63 days with young; brings from four to ten; the 
males like the dog, females like the bitch: its fcent exquifite: 
goes obliquely: foams when hot, and hangs out its tongue: 
Icarce fweats : about to lie down, often goes round the fpot : its 
jkep attended with a quick fenfe of hearing : dreams. 

But round the fwain they wagg'd their tails and play'd, 
And gently whining, fecret joy betray'd ; 
Loofe in the ground the ftones that read}.- lay 
Eager he fnatch'd, and drove the dogs away ; 
With his rough voice he terrify'd them all, 
Though pleas'd to find them guardians of his flail. 
' Ye Gods ! (the good old herdfman thus began) 
* What ufeful animals are dogs to man ! 
' Had Heav'n but fent intelligence to know 
« On whom to rage, the friendly or the foe, 
' No creature then could challenge honour more ; 
' But now too furious and too fierce they roar.' 
He fpoke, the growling maftives ceas'd to bay. 
And Hole obfequious to their flails away. 


DOG. 247 

StoddaWs Bot. Buy, iy^. White 1 ;, 280. 158. New 


Dwith fhort erect fharp-pointed ears: a fox like head; color of 
• the upper part of the body pale brown; grows lighter 
towards the belly; hind part of the fore legs, and fore part of " 
the hind legs, white: feet of both of the fame color: tail very 
bufhy : length about two feet and a half: of the tail not a 
third of that of the body: height about two feet. 

Inhabits New Holland, and feems the unreclamed dog of the Place. 
country. Two have been brought alive to England; are exceffively 
fierce, and do not fhew any marks of being brought to a date of 
domefticity. It laps like other dogs; but neither barks or manners. 
growls, when provoked; but erects its hair like bridles, 
and feems quite furious. Is eager after its prey; and is fond 
of rabbets and fowls, but will not touch dreffed meat : is very 
agile : It once feized on a fine French Dog by the loins, and 
would have foon deftroyed it had not help been at hand. It 
leaped with great eafe on the back of an afs, and would have 
worried it to death had not the afs been relieved, for it could 
not difengage itfelf from the affailant. It was known to run down 
deer and fheep. 


248 D O G. 

159. Wolf. Lupus. Ge/ncr quad. 634. Raii fyn. fyfl. 58. 

yatfij'. 17?. Warg, Ulf. Faun./uec. No. 6. 

Wolf. Klein quad 69. Ktam. AuJ}. 313. Lc Loup. .Dd Euffon, vii. 39. /ai. 1. 

Canis ex griieo flavcfcens. BriJJbn quad. Wolf. Br. Zoo/. 1. 62. tab. j. Scbreler, 

170. lxxxviii. Lev. Mus. 
Canis Lupus. C. cauda incurvata. Lin. 


with a long head: pointed nofe: ears erect and fharp: 
tail bufhy, bending down; the tip black: long leg'd : 
hair pretty long: teeth large: head and neck cinereous: body 
generally pale-brown, tinged with yellow; fometimes found 
white*: taller than a large grehound. In Canada fometimes 
black: and called by Linnaus, Canis Lycaon. 
Place. Inhabits the continents of Europe, Afia, and America; Kamt- 

fchatka, and even as high as the ArEiic circle. Is unknown in 
Africa, notwithftanding M. Adanfonf fpeaks of it familiarly. 
The French and other naturalifts miftake the Hyana for this ani- 
mal. Has been long extirpated in Great Britain \. The laft 
wolf which was known in this ifland, was killed in Scotland in 
1680, by the famous Sir Ewen Cameron, according to the tradition 
of the country. I have travelled into almoft eveiy corner of that 
country; but could not learn that there remained even the memory 
of thofe animals among the oldeft people. In Ireland they continued 
longer; for one was killed in that ifland in 1710, when the laft pre- 

• Such are found near the Jenefea, and fold to the Ruffians on the fpot for 
twenty (hillings a (kin. A'uller R>/Jf. Samlung. iii. 527, 529. 

f P. 209. 

% M. deBuffm mult have been greatly mifinformed on this point. Arglois pre- 
tendent en avoir purge leur ijle, cependant an m'a rjfure qu'i/jen wvoit en Ecofle, vii. 50. 

5 fentment 



fentment for killing of wolves was made in the county of Cork*. 
In 1 28 1, I find that they infefted feveral of the Englijh counties + ; 
but after that period, our records make no mention of them. The 
vaft forefts on the continent of Europe will always preferve them. Europe. 

The wolves of N. America the fmalleft; when reclamed, are America. 
the do°;s of the natives. 

Are cruel, but cowardly animals: fly from man, except preffed Manners. 
by hunger, when they prowl by night in vaft droves thro' vil- 
lages, and deftroy any perfons they meet: fuch as once get the 
tafte of human blood, give it the preference: fuch were the 
wolves of the Gevaudan, of which fo many ftrange tales were 
told: the French peafants call this Loup-garou, and fuppofe it to 
be pofl'efled with fome evil fpirit: fuch was the Were Wulf of the 
old Saxon X. The wolf preys on all kinds of animals j but in 
cafe of neceflity will feed on carrion: in hard weather afTemble in 
vaft troops, and join in dreadful howlings: horfes generally de- 
fend themfelves againft their attacks; but all weaker animals fall 
a prey to them: throughout France the peafants are obliged 
nightly to houfe their flocks. Wolves are mod fufpicious animals ; 
fally forth with great caution: have a fine fcent; hunt by nofe : 
are capable of bearing long abftinence : to allay their hunger will 
fill their bellies with mud: a mutual enmity fubfifts between dogs 
and them : are in heat in winter ; followed by feveral males, 
which occafions great combats : goes with young ten weeks : 
near her time, prepares a foft bed of mofs, in fome retired place: 
brings from five to nine at a birth: the young born blind: teeth 

• Smith's lift. Cork, ii. 226. t Rymr's Fad. ii. 168. 

% Verjlegan's Antiq. 236. 

Vol. I. K k of 

250 DOG. 

of the wolf large and fharp : its bite terrible, as its flrength is 
great : the hunters therefore clothe their dogs, and guard their 
necks with fpiked collars. Wolves are profcribed animals : de- 
ftroyed by pit-falls, traps, or poifon : a peafant in France, who 
kills a wolf, carries its head thro' the villages, and colle&s fome 
fmall reward from the inhabitants : the Kirghis-Kbaijficks take 
the wolves by the help of a large fort of hawk called Berhit t 
which is trained for the diverfion, and will fallen on them and 
tear out their eyes*. 

160. Mexican. Mexican Wolf. Xoloitzcuintli. Her- orfum hinc inde deductis. BriJJbn quad. 

nandez Mex. 479. I72. 

Cuetlatchtli, feu lupus Indicus. Hernandez. Canis Mexicanus. C. cauda defiexa laevi, 

Jn Nov Hifp.7. corporeci iereo, fafciisfulcis, maculif- 

Canis cinereus, maculi fulvis variegatus, que fulvis variegato. Lin.fift. 60. 

txniis fubnigris a dorfo ad latera de- Le Loup de Mexique. Dt Buffen, xv. 149. 

Dwith a very large' head : great jaws : vaft teeth : on the 
• upper lips very ftrong briftles, reflefted backwards, not 
unlike the fofter fpines of a porcupine ; and of a grey and white 
color : large, erect, cineieous ears; the fpace between marked 
with broad tawny fpots: the head afh- colored, flriped tranf- 
verfely with bending dulky lines : neck fat and thick, covered 
•with a loofe fkin, marked with a long tawny ftroke : on the 
bread is another of the fame kind; body afh-colored, fpotted 
with black-, and the fides flriped, from the back downwards, with- 
the fame color: belly cinereous: taU long, of the color of the 

• RitihkoffTopog. Qrenb. i. 282. 


D O G. 251 

"belly, tinged in the middle with tawny : legs and feet ftriped 
with black and afh-color : fometimes this variety (for Hernandez,, 
who has defcribed the animals of Mexico, thinks it no other) is 
found white. 

Inhabits the hot parts of Mexico, or New Spain: agrees with 
the European wolf in its manners : attacks cattle, and fome- 
times men. No wolves found farther fouth, on the new conti- 

Vulpes. Gefner quad.q66. Rail fyn. quad. Raef. Faun. fuec. No. 7. 161, Fox. 

177. Canis fulvus, pilis cinereis intermixtis. 
Fuchs. Klein quad. 73. Meyer's An. i. tab. Brjfon quad. 173. 

36. Le Renard. De Buffbn, vii. 75. tab. vi. 

Canis vulpes. C. cauda refta apice albo. Fox. Br. Zool. i. 58. Lev. Mi/s. 
Lin.fift. 59. HaJJelquift, it in. 191. 

Dwith a fliarp nofe : lively hazel eyes : lharp erecl: ears : 
• body tawny red, mixed with a(h-color: fore part of the 
legs black : tail long, ftrait, bufhy, tipt with white : fubject to 
much variety in color. 

k. Fox: with the tip of the tail black. Canis alopex, vulpes 
campeftris. Lin.fyjl. 59. 

p. Cross Fox: with a black mark, pafling tranfverfely from 
fhoulder to fhoulder ; and another along the back, to the tail. 
Vulpes crucigera. Gefner quad. 90. Jonfton quad. i. 93. Schaffer 
Lapl. 1 $5. Hiji. Kamtfchatka. 95. Klein quad. 71. 

Le Renard croife. Brijfon quad. 173. De Buffon, xiii. 276. 

Korfraef. Faun. fuec. p. 4. 

K k 2 Inhabits 

25a DOG. 

Inhabits the coldeft parts of Europe, Afia, and North America: 
a valuable fur; thicker and fofter than the common fort: great 
numbers of the fkins imported from Canada. Not a variety of 
the Ifatis or ArElic fox. 

y. Black Fox. The moft cunning of any: and its fkin the 
moft valuable; a lining of it efteemed in RuJJia preferable to 
that of the fineft fables : a fingle fkin will fell for 400 rubles. In- 
habits the northern parts of Afia, and N. America: the laft of 
inferior goodnefs. 

S. Brant Fox. That defcribed by Gefier* and Lmnaus-f is 
of a fiery rednefs ; and called by the firft Brand-ftifchs , by the laft 
Brandraef: one that was the property of Mr. Brook, was fcarcely 
half the fize of the common fox : the nofe black, and much 
(harper: fpace round the ears ferruginous: forehead, back, 
fhoulders, fides, and thighs, black, mixed with red, afli-color, 
and black ; the afh-color predominated, which gave it a hoary 
look : the belly yellowifh : tail black above, red beneath : cine- 
reous on its fide. This Mr. Brook received from Penfylvania, 
under the name of Brant fox. 
t. Karacan. Allied to this is the Karagan, a fmall fpecies very common in 

all parts of the Kitghifian deferts and Great Tartary. 

Head yellowifh above, reddifh above the eyes : behind the 
whifkers is a black fpot: ears black without; white within ; ex- 
terior edge and bafe red •, and near the bafe of that edge is a white 

* Gefner quad. 967, who likewife fays, it is lefs than the common kind. 
f Faux.fuec. No. 7. 

8 fpot : 


fpot: the color of the back and fides like a wolf; and the hair 
coarfe in the fame degree : between the moulders is a dark fpot, 
from which, along the back to the tail, extends a reddifh or yel- 
lowifh track : a deep grey or blackifh fpace, mixed with white, 
covers the throat, and is continued over the breaft and part of 
the belly; the reft of which is whitifh. 

A fmall kind, defcribed to me by Doctor Pallas from th,e 

f. Corsak Fox. Canis corfac. C. cauda fulva bafi »piceque nigra. Lin.fyft.m. 

ZZ$. Scbreber, xci. B. 

Dwith upright ears: foft downy hair: tail bufhy, the length 
• ot the body: throat white: irides yellowifh green: color 
in fummer pale tawny ; in winter grey : hair coarfer than that of 
the common fox : bafe and tip of the tail black ; the reft ci- 
nereous is a fmall fpecies. 

Inhabits the deferts beyond the Taik; and from the Don to 
the Amur: lives in holes, and burrows deep: howls and barks: 
never found in woody places: caught by the Kirghis-KhaiffackSy 
with falcons ard gre-hounds : 40 or 50,000 are taken annually,, 
and fold to the Ruffians, at the rate of 40 Kopeiks, or 20 pence 
each. The former ufe their fkins inftead of money. Great num- 
bers are lent into Turky *. 

M. de Buffon confounds this with the Ifatis, or Arftic Fox -J-.. 

• RitchkoffTopogr. Orenb. i. 296. 
t Suppl. iii. p. 113. tab. xvii. 




X) O G. 

•Common Fox inhabits all Europe, the cold and .te parts 

of Afia, Barbery, but not the hotter parts ofyi >ounds in 

N, America; and alfo found in S. America* : in ; countries. they 
have the fame cunning difpofition; the fame vgernefs after 
prey; and commit the fame ravages among game, birds, poul- 
try, and the lefler quadrupeds: are verv fond of honey; attack 
the wild bees and neils of wafps, for the fake of the maggots: will 
eat any fort of infects: devour fruit; and are very deftrudlive in 
vineyards: bury what they cannot eat: fond of balking in the fun. 
Lodge under ground; generally making ufe of a badger's 
hole, which they enlarge, adding feveral chambers, and never 
neglecting to form another hole to the furface to efcape at, in 
cafes of extremity: prey by night: females in heat in winter; 
bring five or fix at a time ; if the young are difturbed, will re- 
move them one by one to a more fecure place: their voice a 
yelp, not a bark: their bite, like that of the wolf, is very hard 
and dangerous: their fcent exceffively ftrong; the chace on that 
account more keen, more animating: when chafed, firft attempt 
to recover their hole, but finding that ftopt, generally fly the 

Thefe animals are extremely common in the Holy Land f. 
From the earlieft to the prefent time, they were particularly 
noxious to the vineyards; " Take us the foxes, the little foxes 
" that fpoil the vines; for our vines have tender grapes J." 
Whether they were the fpecies of which Sampfon made ufe, to 

* GarcilaJJb dt la Vega fays, fhat the foxes of Peru are much lefs than thofe of 
Spain, and are called Atoc. P. 331. 

f HaJftlquiJ}, Original 191. Tranfl. 184. 

X Song of Solomon, ii. 15. 




//r//r , y *,>,*• , /. /(j2. 

D O G. 


deftroy the corn of the Pbilijlines, is undecided. Since Schakals 
are found to this day in great abundance about Gaza *, it is 
much more probable, from their gregarious nature, that he could 
catch three hundred of them, than of the folitary quadruped the 

Vulpes alba. Jonfton quad. 93. Fial racka. Faunjuee.'No.S. 162. Arctic 

Fox. Morten's Spitzberg. 1 o. Egede Canis hieme alia, xllate ex cinereo 

Greenl. 62. Crantz Greenl. i. 7 1. casrulefcens. BriJ/bi. quad 174.. Scbti- 

Afhen-colored Fox. Scbttjjfer Lapland, ber, xciii. 

13J. Ifatis Nov. Com. Petrop v. 358. De 

Canis Lagopus. C. caudata redla, apice B~ffon, xiii. 371. AJh.Muj, Lev. 

concolore. Lin.JyJi. 59. Mus. 

Dwith a fharp nofe: ftiort rounded ears, almoft hid in the 
• fur: long and foft hair, fomewhat woolly, and of a 
white color; fometimes pale cinereous: fhortlegs; toes covered 
on all parts, like thofe o£ a hare, with fur : tail fhorter than 
that of a common fox, and more bufhy : hair much longer in 
winter than fummer, as ufual with animals of cold climates. 

Inhabits the countries bordering on the frozen fea, as far as Placs.. 
the land is deftitute of woods, which is generally from 70 to 68 
degrees latitude. The fpecies extends to Kamtfchatka, and in 
Bering's and Copper IJlands, but in none of the other lflands be- 
tween Kamtfchatka and the oppofite parts of America, lifco^ered 
in Captain Bering's expedition, 1741 ; is again found in Green- 
land, Iceland, Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla, and Lapland: burrows 

* Jia£elquijl, 


256 DOG. 

underground; forms holes many feet in length ; ftrevvs the bot- 
tom with mofs; in Greenland and Spitsbergen, lives in the cliffs 
of rocks, not being able to burrow, by reafon of the froft: two 
or three pair inhabit the fame hole: are in heat about Lady-Day ; 
during that time continue in the open air-, afterwards take to 
their holes: go with young nine weeks: like dogs, continue 
united in copulation: bark like that animal; for which reafons the 
RuJJians call them Pefzti or dogs: have all the cunning of the 
common fox : prey on the young of geefe, ducks, and other 
water-fowl before they can fly-, on groufe of the country, and 
hares; on the eggs of birds; and in Greenland (through neceffity) 
on berries., fhell-fifh, or any thing the fea flings up : but their 
principal food in the North of Afia, and in Lapland, is the Leming: 
thofe of the countries laft mentioned are very migratory, pur- 
fuing the Leming, a very wandering animal : fometimes thefe 
foxes will defert the country for three or four years, piobably 
in purfuit of their prey; for it is well known that the migra- 
tions of the Leming are very inconitant, appearing in ■ certain 
countries only once in feveral years : the people ot Jenefea fufpect 
they go to the banks of the Oby Are taken in trap=: oft-times 
the Glutton and Great owl deftroy them, before the hunter can 
take them out: the fkins of imall value. The great rendezvous 
of thefe animals is on the banks of the frozen fea, and the rivers 
that flow into it, being found there in great troops. Molina found 
this fpecies in Chili *. 

* P. 253. 

D O G. 

2 57 

Jra. Zool. i. p. 90. ,6 3 . Sooty. 

With a dufky fur on every part; in fize and habit refembling 
the former. 

A diftinct fpecies. Inhabits Iceland in great numbers. Com- 
municated to me by John Thomas Stanley, Efq. 

Ara. ZmL i. 91. l6 + .G*EEtfLAX». 

Above of a footy brown: ears rounded, white within: a white 
bed extends from each to the lower part of the throat, which, with 
the whole underfide, and infide of the haunches, is white: tail white 
below, brown above; in one fpecimen the one half of the tail 
wholly white: beneath each eye a white fpot: feet furred beneath. 
A very fmall fpecies. 

Inhabits Greenland. Bought by Mr. Stanley at Copenhagen. 

Coyotl feu vulpes Indica. Hernandex. An'm. Mix. 4. ,6r Antarctic. 

Loup-renard. Wolf fox. Bougainville '1 way \ tranjl. 58. 

"pv with fhort pointed ears; their infides lined with white hairs: 
hides hazel : head and body cinereous brown: hair more 
woolly than that of the common fox, refembling much that of 
the arEl'ic: legs dafhed with ruft-color: tail dufky, tipped with 
white; fhorter and more bufhy than that of the common fox, to 
which it is about one-third fuperior in fize. It has much the ha- 
bit of the wolf, in ears, tail, and ftrength of limbs. The French 
therefore call it Loup-renard, or Wolf- fox. It may be a wolf 
Vol. I. L 1 degenerated 

2 5 8 DOG. 

degenerated by climate. The largeft are thofe of Europe: thofe of 
North America are ftill fmaller. The Mexican wolves, which I 
apprehend to be this fpecies, are again lefs ; and this, which in- 
habits the Falkland ifles, near the extremity of South America, is 
dwindled to the fize defcribed. 

It is the only land animal of thofe diftant ifles : lives near the 
fhores: kennels like a fox ; and forms regular paths from bay to 
bay, probably for the conveniency of furprizing the water- fowl, 
on which it lives. It is at times very meager, for want of prey : 
is very tame; fetid, and barks like a dog. 

The iflands were probably flocked with thofe animals by 
means of iflands of ice broken from the continent, and carried by 
the currents. 

This defcription was taken from one brought to England when 
we poflefled thofe antarclic fpots. The following feems only a 
variety of this fpecies. 

166. A.Culpeu. £anis culpsus, Molina Chili, 274; 


with a ftrait tail, covered with fhort hair, like the domeftic 
'• dog : color deep brown. In all refpects of form refem- 
bles the fox, but is larger: length to the tail two feet and a 

Inhabits the open countries of Chili, in which it forms its 
boroughs. Its voice is feeble, but has fome refemblance of bark- 
Manners. ing. If it fees a man at a diftance, will march ftrait towards him; 
flop at a diftance, and regard him attentively. If the man makes 
no movement, will remain long in the fame fituation, but with- 

DOG. %59 

out doing him the left harm, and then retires the fame way it came. 
This Molina often had occafion to remark : for it never failed 
doing the fame thing. This fubjects it to the (hot of the fportf- 
men: the Chilians call it Culpeu from Citlpem, which fignirks 

This is certainly the fame as the foregoing. Mr. Byron * found 
them in great numbers on Falkland ifles. They conftantly came 
running up to the men, which was miftaken for a defign to attack 
them ; which it does not appear thefe animals ever did. 

Canis cinereo-argenteus, Erxlcb. 567. Schreler, tab. xcli. 4. 167. Schre- 


"p\ with its neck and fides tawny; ears tawny within, tipt 
• with black: crown and back mixed with grey, black, and 
white : throat, breaft, and belly, white: lefs than the common fox. 
Inhabits North America. Poffibly the young of the preceding. 

Grey fox. Smith's wy. Virginia, 27. ii. 78. i g # Grsy. 

JoJJilyns <voy. 81. Rarities, 21. Law- Canis ex cinereo argenteus. BriJJbn quad. 
Jon's Carolina, 125. Catejly Carolina, 1 74. Scbreber, XQl.xciu 

"pv with a fliarp nofe: fharp, long, upright ears:" legs long: 
•*~^* color grey, except a little rednefs about the ears. 

Inhabits Carolina, and the warmer parts of N. America : differs 
from the arftic fox in form ; and in the nature of its dwelling: agrees 
with the common fox in the firft, varies from it in the laft : never 
burrows; lives in hollow trees: gives no diverfion to the fportf- 
man, for after a mile's chace takes to its retreat : has no ftrong 

* Voyage in Hawhfwsrtb's coll. i. 49, 50, 

L 1 2 I'm ell: 

160 DOG. 

fmell: feeds on poultry, birds, &c. : eafily made tame: their fkrns, 
when in feafon, made ufe of for muffs. 


169. Silvery. Le Renard argente. Charlevoix Nou'v. France, v. 196. Du Pratz, Leuijian. ii. 64. 

"N form refembling rhe common fox: abound in the wooded 
eminences in Louifiana, which are every where pierced with 
their holes: their coat very beautiful: the fhort hairs of a deep 
brown j over them fpring long filvery hairs, which give the ani- 
mal a very elegant appearance: they live in forefts abounding 
in game, and never attempt the poultry which run at large. 

170. Bencal. *P> of a light brown color: face cinereous, with a black flripe 
■*—'• down the middle, and a white fpace round the eyes and. 
middle of the jaws; with fulvous legs: tail tipt with black: a 
fpecies fcarcely half the fize of the European tox. 

Inhabits Bengal: feeds chiefly on roots and berries. The En- 
glijh, at a vaft expence, import into India hounds for the purpofa 
ofthechacei which quickly degenerate. 

171. Barbary. Le Chacal. De Buffbn, Supplem. vi. 112, tab. xvi. 

T"N with a long and flender nofe, fharp upright ears, long 
bufhy tail : color a very pale brown : fpace above and be- 
low the eyes black: from behind each eai is a black line, which 
foon divides into two, which extend to the lower part of the 
neck: the tail furrounded with three broad rings: fize of the com- 
mon fox, but the limbs fhorter, and the nofe more flender. 

I had 

D O G. 261 

I had a drawing made from the fkin of this animal, badly pre- 
ferved, fome years ago, in the AJlmolean Mufeum, Oxford, which I 
fent to M. de Buffbti. He caufed it to be engraven; and informs 
us that Mr. Bruce told him it was common in Barbary, where it 
was called Tbalcb. Mr. Bruce mould have given it a more dif- 
tinguifhing name ; for Thaleb *, or Taalebf, is no more than the 
Arabic name for the common fox, which is alfo frequent in that 

Adil, Squilachi, Grac . modern. Belon,obf. 255. Zimmerman, 361. Scbreber, xciv. iy a . ScHAKAfc*. 

163. 472. Lev. Mus. 

Lupus Aureus. Kam[fer Aman.exot. 413. Schakali. Hift- Gueldenjlaedt , in Now 

Rati fyn. quad. 174. Klein quad. 70. Com. Petrop. xx. 449. tab. xi. 

Canis aureus. Lin.Jyft. 59. Vaui, e« Benat el Vaui. Niebubr defer; 

Canis flavus Lriff n. quad, i 7 1.- Arab. 146. Lev. Mus. 
Le Chacal & L'Adive. De Buffon, xiii. 

T> with yellowifh brown irides; ears erect, formed like thofe 
■*"-*• of a fox, but fhorter and lefs pointed: hairy and white 
within ; brown without, tinged with dulky : head fhorter than 
that of a fox, and nofe blunter: lips black, and fomewhat loofe: 
neck and body very much refembling thofe of that animal, but 
the body more compreffed : the legs have the fame refemblance, 
but are longer : tail thickeft in the middle, tapering to the point : 
five toes on the fore feet; the inner toe very fhort, and placed 
high : four toes on the hind feet j all are covered with hair even 
to the claws. 

The hairs much differ than thofe of a fox, but fcarcely fo flif£ 

• Sbaw't travels, 249, -f FcrJkaPtebf. p. XII. 

8 a& 

262 DOG. 

as thofe of a wolf; fhort about the nofe ; on the back three 
inches long; on the belly fhorter. Thole at the end of the tail 
four inches long. 
Color. , Color of the upper part of the body a dirty tawny ; on the back 

mixed with black: lower part of the body of a yellowifh white: 
tail tipt with black ; the reft of the fame color with the back : the 
legs of an unmixed tawny brown; the fore legs marked (but not 
always) with a black fpot on the knees ; but on no part are thofe 
vivid colors which could merit the title of golden, bellowed on it 
by Kampfer. 

I avoid in general the mention of the internal ftrudture of ani- 
mals, from a confcioufnefs of my deficiency in that branch of 
fcience : but muft here remark from Profeffor Gueldenstaedt, 
the able defcriber of this long-loft animal, that the cacum entirely 
agrees in form with that of a dog, and differs from that of the 
wolf and fox. I may add, that there is the fame agreement in 
the teeth with thofe of a dog ; and the fame variation in them 
from thofe of the two other animals. I mention this, as it is an 
opinion with fome writers, that the dogs of the old world did 
derive their origin from one or other of them. 
Size; The length of the Schakal, from the nofe to the root of the 

tail, is little more than twenty-nine inches Englifk: the tail, to the 
ends cf the hairs, ten three quarters, the tip reaching to the top 
of the hind legs: the height, from the fpace between the moul- 
ders to the ground, rather more than eighteen inches and a half; 
the hind parts a little higher. 
Place. Inhabits all the hot and temperate parts of Afia, India, Perjia, 

Arabia, Great Tartary, and about Mount Caucajus, Syria, and the 
Holy-land. In moft parts of Africa, from Barbary to the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

They . 

D O G. g6 3 

They have To much the nature of dogs, as to give reafonable caufe Manners. 
to imagine that theyare (at left) the chief ftock from which is fpruno- 
the various races of thofe domeftic animals, When taken young, 
grow inftantly tame-, attach themfelves to mankind; wag their 
tails; love to be ftroked ; diftinguilh their mailers from others: 
will come on being called by the name given to them ; will leap 
on the table, being encouraged to it: drink lapping: make wa- 
ter fideways, with their leg held up. Their dung hard : odorat 
anum alterius, cabaret copula junftus. When they fee dogs, inftead 
of flying, feek them, and play with them*: will eat bread eager- 
ly; notwithftanding it is in a wild ftate carnivorous: has a great 
refemblance to fome of the Calmuc dogs, which perhaps were but a 
few defcents removed from the wild kinds. Our dogs are probably 
derived from thofe reclamed in the firft ages of the world ; al- 
tered by numberlefs accidents into the many varieties which now 
appear among us. The wild Schakah go in packs of forty, fifty, and 
even two hundred, and hunt like hounds in full cry from evening 
to morning -f-. They deftroy flocks and poultry, but in a lefs degree 
than the wolf or fox : ravage the ftreets of villages, and gardens 
near towns, and will even deftroy children;}; if left unprotected. 
They will enter ftables and outhoufes, and devour fkins, or any 
thing made of that material: are bold thieves; will familiarly en- 
ter a tent, and fteal whatfoever they can find from the fleeping 
traveller. In default of living prey, they will feed on roots and 
fruits ; and even on the raoft infected carrion : will greedily dif- 

* Nov. Com. Petrop. XX. 459. Pallas, Sp. Zool.fafe. xi. It 
f Belon obf. 163. \ Dellon's <voy. 81, 


2 6 4 t> O G. 

inter the dead*, and devour the putrid carcafes; for which rea- 
fon, in many countries, the graves are made of a great depth. 
They attend caravans, and follow armies, in hopes that death will 
provide them a banquet. 
Voice. Their voice naturally is a howl. Barking is latently inherent; 

and in their ftate of nature feldom exerted: but its different mo- 
difications are adventitious, and expreffive of the new paffions and 
affections gained by a domeftic ftate. Their howlings and cla- 
mours in the night are dreadful, and fo loud that people can 
fcarcely hear one another fpeak. Dellon fays, their voice is like 
•the cries of a great many children of different ages mixed toge- 
ther : when one begins to howl, the whole pack join in the cry. 
Kampfer fays, that every now and then a fort of bark is inter- 
mixed; which confirms what I above affert. Dellon agrees in the 
account of their being tamed, and entertained as domeftic ani- 
mals. During day they are filent. 

They dig burrows in the earth, in which they lie all day, and 
come out at night to range for prey : they hunt by the nofe, and 
are very quick of fcent*. 

The females breed only once a year ; and go with young only 
four weeks: they bring from fix to eight at a time-f\ 

Both Mr. Gueldenfiaedt and Mr. Bell contradict the opinion of 
their being very fierce animals. 

This animal is vulgarly called the Lion's Provider, from an 
opinion that it rouzes the prey for that bad-nofed quadruped. 
The fact is, every creature in the foreft is fet in motion by the 

* Bell's trav. I. 54. 55. 

t Gmelin, jun. as quoted by Mr. Zimmerman, p. 473. 


DOG. 265 

fearful cries of the Jackals; the Lion, and other beads of rapine, 
by a fort of inftincl, attend to the chace> and feize fuch timid ani- 
mals as betake themfelves to flight at the noife of this nightly 
pack. Defcribed by Qppian* under the name of Auk©- 1 H»9o{, or 
yellow wolf; who mentions its horrible howl. 

May, as M. de Bnffon conjedures, be the ©a; of Arijlottc-f, 
who mentions it with the wolf, and fays that it has the fame (I 
fuppofe partial) internal ftructure as the wolf, which is common 
with congenerous animals. The Tboes of Pliny may alio be a va- 
riety of the lame animal; for his account of it agrees with the 
modern hiftory of the Schakal, exoept in the laft article J. 

Capifche Schacall. Schreber Germ. ii. tab. xcv. p. 370, 8c Canis Mefomelas. 173 Cafesch. 
The fame. T-enlie or Kenlie of the Hottentots. 

~T~\ with erect yellowifh brown ears, mixed with a few fcattered 
***• black hairs : head of a yellowifh brown, mixed with black 
and white, growing darker towards the hind part : fides of a 
light brown, varied with dulky hairs : of the body, and alfo the 
back part of the legs, of a yellowifh brown, lighteft on the 
body: throat, breaft, and belly, white. 

On the neck, (boulders, and back, is a bed of black ; broad on 
the fhoulders, and growing narrower to the tail, where the hairs 

• Cyneg. iii. 296. 

f Hijl. An, lib. ii. c. 17. lib. ix. c. 44. 

% Tbois, Luporum id genus eft procerius longitudine, brevitate cruxum diffi- 
jnile, velox faltu, venatu vivens, iuncaium homiui. Lib. viii. c • 34. 

Vol. I. Mm arc 

,66 DOG. 

are fmooth. The part on the neck feems barred with white : that 
on the moulders with white conoid marks, one within the other, 
the end pointing to the back : when the hairs are ruffled, thefe 
marks vanim, or grow lefs diftinct, and a hoarinefs appears in 
their ftead. 

The tail is bufhy, of a yellowifh brown : marked on die upper 
part with a longitudinal ftripe of black, and towards the end en- 
circled with two rings of black, and is tipt with white. 
Size. Lengthtwo feet three quarters, to the origin of the tail: the 

tail one foot. 
Place. Inhabits the countries about the Cape of Good Hope, and pro- 

bably is found as high as the Line. 

174. Ceyloness. Chien fauvage de Ceylan. Vofmaer. 


with a long thick nofe, blunt at the end.: ears eredl at their 
• bottom, pointing forward at their ends : the legs ftrong : 
the claws more like thofe of a cat than a dog : the color cine- 
reous yellow : belly afti-colored : the legs almoft entirely brown : 
the hair clofe-fet, and foft. 
SlzEt The length of the body twenty-two inches and a half, of the tail 

fixteen. The tail tapers to a point. 
Place. This animal is a native of Ceylon : its hiftory quite unknown. 




i " 

L1II . 



raa ._ . /. tp6. 

D G ? i6y 

Canis Thous. C. Cauda deflexa Ixvl, corpore fubgrifeo fubtus albo. Liu. fyjl. Go. 17;. Surinam. 

TP\ with upright ears : little warts on the cheeks, above the 
■*-'• eyes, and under the throat: the tongue fringed on the 
fides: fize of a large cat: color of the upper part of the body 
greyifh ; the lower white : tail bending downwards, and fmooth : 
five toes before, four behind. 

According to Linnaeus, inhabits Surinam: mentioned by no 
other Naturalift. 

Stock. Wsttjk. Handl. If]"],}. 265, tab. vi. 176. Zerda. 

"p\ with a very pointed vifage: long whifkers : large bright 
•*—'• black eyes : very large ears, of a bright rofe-color; inter- 
nally lined with long hairs : the orifice fo fmall as not to be vi- 
fible, probably covered with a valve or membrane : legs and feet 
like thofe of a dog : tail taper. 

Color between a ftraw and pale brown. Color. 

Length, from nofe to tail, ten inches: ears three inches and a Size. 

half long : tail fix : height not five. 

Inhabits the vaft defert of Saara, which extends beyond Place. 

Mount Atlas: is called by the Moors, Zerda: burrows in the 
fandy ground, which fhews the ufe of the valves to the ears : 
is fo excefiively fwift, that it is very rarely taken alive : feeds on 
infe&s, efpecially locufts: fits on its rump: is very vigilant: 

M m 2 barks 


D- O G> 

barks like a dog, but much thriller, and that chiefly in the night : 
never is obll-rved to be fponive. Doctor Sparman fufpe&s that he 
law it during his travels in Caffraria * 

We are indebted to Mr. Eric Skioldebrand, the late Svoedijh Con- 
ful at Algiers, for our knowledge of this lingular animal. He ne- 
ver could procure but one alive, which efcaped before he exa- 
mined its teeth : the genus is very uncertain : the form of its head 
and legs, and fome of its manners, determined us to place it here* 
That which was in pofieflion of Mr. Skioldebrand fed freely from' 
the hand, and would eat bread or boiled meat. Mr i~ Skioldebrand 
had a drawing made of the animal, and we are informed that he 
communicated a copy of it to Mr. Bruce, at that time the Britijh 
conful at Algiers. This is a fecret betrayed by Doctor Sparman, 
which brings on him the wrath of Mr. Bruce, expreffed in terms 
1 cannot repeat -j-. Mr. Bruce clames the honor of the drawings, 
and afterts, that Mr. Skioldebrand acquired the copy by unfai 
means ; that he corrupted his fervant, and gained his end. This 
never would have been known, but by the lucky accident of a 
death-bed repentance: the poor lad fell ill; nor could he de* 
part in peace till he had difcharged his confeience by a full con- 
feffionofhis grievous crime. The woild will probably, think, 

Nee Deus interjit, nifi digitus vindice nodus 

M. de Buffon\ has given a figure of this animal, communicated 
to him by Mr. Bruce; but from his authority afcribes to it a different 
place, and different manners. He fays that it is found to the 

• Vol. ii. p. 186. f Mr. Bruce's Travtls , v. 129, 

J Supplrm. iii. 48. lab. xix. 




fouth of the Pulus Tritonides, in Libya; that it has Cometh ing of the 
nature of the hare, and fomething of the fquirrel; and that it lives 
on the palm-trees, and feeds on the fruits. 

When Mr. Bruce favored the public with his fplendid work, 
he gives at p. 128 of his fifth volume a different account. From 
a hare or a fquirrel, it is converted into a vveefel ; and the place 
of its habitation is changed from the Palus Tritonides to Bifcara, 
afoutbern province of Mauritania Ctefarienfis, many hundred miles 
from the firft pofition. 

I will not dare to fix any genus to this curious- and feemingly 
anomalous animal. To judge by Mr. Bruce's, or Mr. Skiolde- 
brand's figure (I will not attempt to decide the property), it 
has all the appearance of the vulpine: its face ftrongly fhews the 
alliance-, and the length and ftrength of limbs are other proofs, 
very fatisfactory proofs, of its being no more able, with limbs fo 
formed, to climb a tree, than a dog. All the weefel tribe have 
very fhort legs : they can climb ; they do creep. Our great Ray 
makes the laft the character of the clafs, and for that reafon ftyles 
them vermineum genus, the vermes, or worm-like clafs. Had the 
figure received that form of limb, J wou'd have affented to the 
genus, nor even have troubled the public or myfelf, with my. 
difference of opinion with the great traveller. 



2 7 o H Y JE N A. 

XVIII. HYjENA. Six cutting teeth, and two canine, in each jaw-. 

Four to' - ; on each foot. 
Short tail j a tranfverfe orifice between it and the anus. 

177. Striped. "Earns. Ariji. hift. an. lib. vi. c. 32. Op- Hysna. RuJJel 's Aleppo, 59. 

pian Cyirg. iii. 263. Canis Hyina. C. Cauda refta annulata, 

Hyaena. Plinii lib.vm. c. "-.o. pilis cervicis ereftis, auriculis nudis, 

Lupus marinus. Belonaquat. 33. G*/«<t palmis tetradaftylis. Lm.fyji. ;8. 

jiW. L'Hya:ne. Z>? Bujjon, ix. 268 ta^. xxv. 

Taxus porcinus, five Hyaena veterum. 'BriJJon quad. 1O9. Scbreber, xcvi. 

Kafioa*. Kampfer Aman. exot. 41 1. 
Dubha. thaws travels, 246. 

Hwith long (harp-pointed naked ears: upright mane: 
• high fhoulders: fore legs longer than the hind legs: 
hair on the body coarfe, rough, and pretty long: of an afh- 
color, marked with long black ftripes from the back downwards: 
others crofs the legs : tail very full of hair, fometimes plain, 
fometimes barred with black: fize of a large dog, but very flrongly 

Inhabits the mountains of Cauca/us and the Altaic Chain, Afiatic 
Turky, Syria, Pcrfta, Barbary, and Senegal, and even as low as the 
Cape *. Is by Adanfon and others frequently mifnamed, the 
wolf, which is not even found in Africa; like the jackal, violates the 
•repofitories of the dead, and greedily devours the putrid contents 
of the grave; preys by night on the herds and flocks; yet, for 
want of other food, will eat the roots of plants -f, and the tender 
flioots of the palms ; but, contrary to the nature of the former, is 

* Forfter. -J- Sba-w 1 } Travels, 246, 

3 an 

H Y M N A. 

an unfociable animal; is folitary, and inhabits the chafms of the 
rocks: will venture near towns; and, as Mr. Niebuhr affures us, 
will, about Gambron, in the feafon when the inhabitants fleep in 
the open air, (hatch away children from the fides of their pa- 
rents*. The fuperftuious Arabs, when they kill one, carefully 
bury the head-}', leaft it fhould be applied to magical purpofes; 
as the neck was of old by the Tbejfalian forcerefs. 

Vifcera non Lynch, non dlra nodus Hyaenas 
Defitit X- 

Nor entrails of the fpotted Lynx fhe lacks, 
Nor bony joints from fell Hyena's backs. 


The antients were wild in their opinion of the Hyana: they 
believed that it changed its fex ; imitated the human voice ; that 
it had the power of charming the ftiepherds, and as it were rivet- 
ing them to the place they flood on : no wonder that an ignorant 
Arab fhould attribute to its remains preternatural powers. 

They ufually are cruel, fierce, and untameable animals, with a 
moft malevolent afpeft : have a fort of obftinate courage, which 
will make them face ftronger quadrupeds than themfelves; Kamp- 
fer relates that he faw one which had put two lions to flight. 
Their voice is hoarfe, a diiagreeable mixture of growling and 

* Defer. Arabic, 147. 
■f Sbavfi Travels, 246. 

% Lucan, lib. vi. 673. The antients believed that the neck of the Uyana con- 
fined of one bone without any joint. 

f I recollect 


Z72 H Y JE N A. 

I recollect an in fiance, an exception to the notion of their un- 
tameable nature ; having feen one at Mr. Brook's as tame as a. dog. 
M. de Buffon mentions another: it is probable that if they are 
taken very young, they may be reclamed by good ufage ; but 
they are commonly kept in a perpetual ftate of ill humor by the 
provocations of their matter. 1 faw this year ( 1 792) in the Tower 
two young ones not above half a year old. They were quite tame 
and inoffenfive : but I was informed that, as they advanced in 
life, their favage nature would appear. 

178. Spotted. Jackal, or Wild Dog. B of man's Guinea, Hysena, or Crocuta? Ludolpb. Ethiopia, 

293- 57- 

Quumbengo. ChurchilVscoll.'voy. v. 486. Cani-apro-lupo-vulpes? Dejlandes Hrf. 

Tiger Wolf. Kolben's Cape, ii. 108. de I Acad, torn, xxviii. Jo. oclavo ed, 

Hwith a large and flat head : above each eye fome long hairs : 
• on each fide of the nofe very long whifkers : fhort black 
mane: hair on the body (hort and fmooth : ears fhort, and a little 
pointed; their outfide black, cinereous: face, and upper 
part of the head, black : body and limbs reddifh brown, marked 
with diftincl: round black fpots ; the hind legs with tranfverfe 
black bars : tail fhort, black, and full of hair. This defcription 
was taken from one fhewn fome years ago in London. It was fu- 
perior in fize to the former. 

Inhabits Guinea, JEthiopia, and the Cape: lives in holes in the 
earth, or clefts of rocks : preys by night : howls horribly : breaks 
into the folds, and kills two or three fheep : devours as much as 
it can, and carries away one for a future repaft : will attack man- 
kind ; fcrape open graves, and devour the dead. It has very great 




)'/„ ,//,,/ ,//y„„r, - \fyg 

H Y M N A. 27$ 

ftrength. One has been known to feize a female Negro, fling her 
over its back, and holding her by one leg, run away with her till 
(he was fortunately refcued *. M. de Buffon, milled by Bofnian's 
name of this animal, makes it fynonymous with the common 
jackal. Has, till the prefent time, been undiftinguiftied by na- 

M. de Buffon had an account from Mr. Bruce, of an Hy<ena 
which that gentleman obferved in the hie of Meroe, in ^Ethiopia. 
He fays that it was greatly fuperior in fize to the common kind; 
had a head more like that of a dog, and a very wide mouth; without 
a mane on the neck; perhaps it was not obferved, on account of 
its fhortnefs. He adds this proof of its ftrength, that it would 
lay hold of a man, lift him up with the greateft eafe, and run a 
league or two with him, without once putting him on the 
ground +. Can there be any doubt but that the traveller meant 
the fame animal with this? 

* Bo/man, 295. f Dt Bujfin, Suppkm. ill. 235. 

Vol. I. N n Six 



XIX. CAT. Six cutting teeth, and two canine, in each jaw. 

Five toes before ; four behind. 

Sharp hooked claws, lodged in a fheath, that may be ex- 
erted or drawn in at pleafure. 
Round head, and fhort vifage: rough tongue. 


With lona: tails. 


i -o. Lion. Leo. Plinil lib. viii. c. 16. Gefmr quad. Felis Leo. F. cauda elongata, corpore 

572. Raiijyn. quad. 162. helvulo. Lin.fyf}. 60. 

Lowe. Khin quad. 81. Le Lion. De Biiffbn, ix. I. tab. i. ii. 
Felis cauda in floccum definente. Brif- Lev. Mws. 

/on quad. 194. Scbnber, xcvii. A. B. 

Cwith a large head : fhort rounded ears : face covered with 
• fhort hairs; upper part of the head, chin, whole neck, and 
fhoulders, with long fhaggy hairs, like a mane: hair on the body 
and limbs fhort and fmooth; along the bottom of the belly long: 
limbs of vaft ftrength : tail long, with a tuft of long hairs at the 
end : color tawny, but on the belly inclines to white: length of 
the largeft lion, from nofe to tail, above eight feet: the tail four 
feet long; tufted with long black hairs: the lionefs or female is 
lefs, and wants the mane. 

An inhabitant of moft parts of Africa ; and rarely of the hot 
parts of AJia, fnch as India* and Perfiaf; and a few are ftill met 

* Fryers voy. 1 89. Bemier's voy. Kacbemir, 48. 

\ In Gilan and Cardijlan. See the new defcription of Perjia in Harris's Coll. 
ii. 884. 

k with 

CAT. 2 ?£ 

with in the deferts between Bagdat and Bafforah *, on the banks 
of the Euphrates. Mr. Niebuhr alfo places them among the ani- 
mals of Arabia f; but their proper country is Africa, where their 
fize is the largeft, their numbers greateft, and their rage more 
tremendous, being inflamed by the influence of a burning fun, on 
a moft arid foil. Doctor Fryer fays, that thofe of India are feeble 
and cowardly. In the interior parts J, amidft the fcoiched and 
defolate deferts of Zaara, or Bilcdulgerid, they reign fole mailers; 
they lord it over every beaft, and their courage never meets with 
a check, where the climate keeps mankind at a difcance : the 
nearer they approach the inhabitants of the human race, the lefs 
their rage, or rather the greater is their timidity [| : they have 
often experienced the unequal combat, and, finding that there 
exifts a being fuperior to them, commit their ravages with more 
caution : a cooler climate again has the fame effect ; but in the 
burning deferts, where rivers and fountains are denied, they live 
in a perpetual fever, a fort of madnefs fatal to every animal they 
meet with. The author of the Oeconomy of Nature gives a won- 
derful proof of the inftincl: of thefe animals in thofe unwaterd 
tracts. There the Pelican makes her neft ; and in order to cool 
her young ones, and accuftom them to an element they muft af- 
terwards be converfant in, brings from afar, in their great gular 
pouch, fufficient water to fill the neft; the lion, and other wild 
beafts, approach and quench their third, yet never inju die 
unfledged § birds, as if confcious that their deitru.tion ,o\ld 

* Voyages etc Boullaye Le Goux, 320. f D,fcr. A a it, 142. 

J Leo Afr. 342. || Punkas' s Pilg. ii. 809, § Amcen. Acad, ii ■ ,. 

N 11 2 immediately 

a 7 6 CAT. 

immediately put a flop to thofe grateful fupplies. It is to be 
obferved, that whenever a lion can get at water, it drinks much. 

The courage of the lion is tempered with mercy *, and has been 
known to fpare the weaker animals, as if beneath his attention : 
there are many inltances of its gratitude; relations fo ftrange, 
that the reader is referred to them in the notes -j- to the autho- 
rities themfelves. Lions are capable of being tamed : the mo- 
narch of Perjia, full of favage Rate, had, on days of audience'];, 
two great ones chained on each fide of the paifages to the room 
of ftate, led there by keepers, in chains of gold. As they have 
been fo far fubdued, why may we not credit the flory of their 
being harneffed for the triumphal car of the conqueror Bacchus? 

The lion preys on all kinds of animals : as his fcent is bad, 
his peculiar and tremendous roar ftrikcs terror into every bead 
of the defert, and fets them in motion, in open view; he then 
{elects his object, and takes it not fo much by purfuit, as by a 
vaft bound, ftriking it with his talons, and tearing it to pieces. 
In inhabited countries he invades the folds, leaps over the fences 
with his prey; and fuch is his ftrength, that he can carry off a 
middling ox with the utmoft eafe || : in many places it takes its 
prey by furprize, lurking in the thickets, and fpringing on it: 
oft-times mankind fall a victim to his hunger, but then it is ra- 
ther thro' neceffity than choice. The Arabs have a notion of his 
fparing the tender fex; but Doctor Shaw informs us § that they 

* Leoni tantum ex /iris dementia in /upplices : prof a/is prrcil : et ubi favit, in 
•viros prius, quam in f aminos /remit, in in/antes non ni/i magna fame. Plinii lib. 
viii. c. 16. Miflbn, vol. iii. 292, confirms the laft. 

t A. Gellius. jElian. Pliny. % BeiFs travels, i. 102. (j La Caille, 294. 

5 Travels, 244. 



make no diftinction in thefe days : die fame writer acquaints us, 
that the flefh of the lion is often eaten in Barbary, and it refembles 
veal in tafte. 

Formerly found in Europe, between the rivers Abelous and 
Nejfus*; none in America; the animal called Pimaf, which is 
mii.tak.en for the lion, is our 160th fpecies. 

Tigris. Plinii lib. viii. c. 18. Btnlii 180. Tiger. 

Java, 53. Ge/ner quad. 936. Rati Felis ftava, maculis longis nigris varie- 

fyn. quad. l6j. Kiein quad. 78. gata. Bnjfon quad. 194. 

Felis 1 igris. F. cauda elongata, cor- Le Hgre. De Bt:Jt»i, ix 129. tab. ix. 

pore maculis omnibus virgatis. Lin. hchrebtr, xcviii. Lev. Mus. 

Cwith a fmooth head and body; vaft ftrength in its limbs ; 
• of a pale yellow color, beautifully marked with long {tripes 
of black from the back, pointing to the belly, with others crofs 
the thighs: the tail fhorter by a third than the body; annulated 
with black: often fuperior in fize to a lion; that called the 
Royat'l Tiger is of a tremendous bulk. M. de Bvffon mentions one 
that was (tail included) fifteen feet long. Hyder Ally prefented 
the Nabob of Arcot with one of far greater dimenfions, it being 
eighteen feet in length. Du Halde, ii. 254, fays, that the Chinefe 
tiger, or Lou-chu, or Lau-hu, as it is called in that language, varies- 
in color, fome being white, ftriped with black and grey. 

• Arijlot. hifi. an. lib. vi. c. 31. 
f Garcilajfo de la -vega, 332. 
J Del Ion moy. 78. 



278 C A T. 

The tiger is peculiar to AJia*\ and is found as far north as 
China, and Chinefe Tartary ; and about lake Aral, and the Altaic 
mountains. By a mod common mifnomer, this animal is im- 
properly given to Africa and America. It inhabits mount Ararat, 
and Hyrcanla, of old famous for its wild beads ; but the greateft 
numbers, the largeft, and the moft cruel, are met with in India, 
and its iflands. In Sumatra the natives are fo infatuated that they 
feldom kill them, having a notion that they are animated by the 
fouls of their anceflorsi - . They are the fcourge of the country; 
they lurk among the buihes, on the fides of rivers, and almoft de- 
populate many places: they are infidious, blood-thinly, and ma- 
levolent; and feem to prefer preying on the human race preferable 
Manners. to any other animals : they do not purfue their prey, but bound 
on it from their ambufh, with an elafticity, and from a diftance that 
is fcarcely credible : if they mifs the object, they make off; but if 
they fucceed, be it man or be it beaft, even one as large as a Buf- 
falo\, they carry it off with Inch eaie, that it feems not the left im- 
pediment to their fight. It they are undifturbed, they plunge their 
head into the body ot the animal up to their very eyes, as if it 
were to fatiate themfelves with blood, which they exhauft the 
corpfe of before they tear it to pieces ||. There is a fort of cruelty 

* M. de Buffeiz fays they are found in the fouth of . "frica. I can meet with no 
authority for it; the animals fo called by Ludolphus and Kol'rn, being only Pan- 
thers, or Leopards, which are generally confounded with the Tiger by molt voy- 

t Mr. Miller's Account of Sumatra, Phil. Tranf. lxviii. 171. 

X Boniius, 53. birano. iib. xv. relates much the lame of the Tigers of the coun- 
try of the P.a/ii. 

|| Eontius, 53. 


CAT. 279 

in their devaftations, unknown to the generous lion ; as well as 
a poltronery in their hidden retreat on any difappointment. I 
was informed, by very good authority, that in the beginning of 
this century, fome gentlemen and ladies, being on a party of 
pleafure, under a fhade of trees, on the banks of a river in 
Bengal, obferved a tiger preparing for its fatal fpring; one of 
the ladies, with amazing prefence of mind, laid hold of an um- 
brella, and furled it full in the animal's face, which inftantly 
retired, and gave the company opportunity of removing from fo 
terrible a neighbor. 

Another party had not the fame good fortune : a tiger darted 
among them while they were at dinner, feized on one gen- 
tleman, and carried him off, and he never was more heard of. 
They attack all forts of animals, even the lion ; and it has been 
known that both have perifhed in their combats, There is in fome 
parts of India a popular notion *, that the rhinoceros and the 
tiger are in friendlhip, becaufe they are often found near each 
other : the fact is, the rhinoceros, like the hog, loves to wallow 
in the mire; and on that account frequents the banks of rivers; 
the tiger, to quench its raging thirft, is met with in places con- 
tiguous to them. 

Pliny has been frequently taken to tafk by the moderns, for Great swift- 
calling the tiger, animal tremenda velocitatis f ; they allow it great 
agility in its bounds, but deny it fwiftnefs in purfuit: two tra- 
vellers of authority, both eye-witneffes, confirm what Pliny fays ; 
the one indeed only mentions in general its vaft fleetnefs; the 

* Bontius, 53. t PUnii lib- viii. c. 18. 



2 8o CAT. 

other faw a tryal between one and a fwift horfe, whofe rider 
efcaped merely by getting in time amidft a circle of armed men. 
The chace of this animal was a favorite diverfion with the great 
Cam-hi, the Chinefe monarch, in whofe company our country- 
man, Mr. Bell, that faithful traveller, and the Pere Gerbillon, 
faw thefe proofs of the tiger's fpeed *. 

They are faid to roar like a lion ; but thofe I have feen in cap- 
tivity, emitted only a furly growl. 

181. Panther. Varia et Pardus? Plinii lib. viii. e. 17. Felis Pardus. F. cauda elongata, cor- 
n«;oV.i( fi«^w» ? Ofpian Cyneg. lib. iii. pore maculis fuperionbus orbicula- 

/ 65. tis; inferioribus virgatis. Lin.jyJI. 

Panthera, Pardus, Pardalis, Leopar- 61 f BriJJbn quad. 198. 

dus. Gt/rcr quad. 824. Raii /yn. quad. La Panthere. De Buffon,\x. iji. tab. 
a 66. Klein quad. 77. xi. xii. Schreber, xcix. 

Cwith fhort fmooth hair, of a bright tawny color: the back, 
• fides, and flanks, elegantly marked with black fpots, dif- 
pofed in circles, from four to five in each, with a fingle black 
fpet in the centre of each: on the face and legs fingle fpots only: 
on the top of the back is a row of oblong fpots; the longeft next 
the tail : the cheft and belly white ; the firft marked with tranf- 
verfe dufky ftripes: the belly and tail with large irregular black 
fpots : ears fhort and pointed : end of the note brown : limbs 
very ftrong: the fkin of one I meafured was, from the end of 
the nofe to the origin of the tail, fix feet ten inches; the tail near 

* Bell's Travels, ii. 91. Du Balde, ii. 343. 
f A defcription that does not luit any known animal of this genus. 

8 Inhabits. 

CAT. 281 

Inhabits Africa, from Barbary to the remoreft parts of Guinea *. 
This fpecies is next in fize to the tiger; next to it in cruelty, 
and in its general enmity to the animal creation : it is to Africa 
what the former is to AJia, with this alleviation, that it prefers 
the flefh of brutes to that of mankind; but when pre fled with 
hunger, attacks every living creature without diftinftion: its 
manner of taking its prey is the fame with that of the tiger, al- 
ways by furprize, either lurking in thickets, or creeping on its 
belly till it comes within reach : it will alfo climb up trees 
in purfuit of monkies, and lefler animals: fo that nothing is fe- 
cure from its attacks. It is an untameable fpecies; always retains 
its fierce, its malevolent afpect, and perpetual growl or murmur. 

The antients were well acquainted with thefe animals ; thefe 
and the leopards were the Varia and ParJi of the old writers : 
one fhould think that the Romans would have exhaufted the de- 
ferts of Africa, by the numbers they drew from thence for their 
public fhews : Scaurus exhibited at onetime 150 Panthers; Pom- 
fey the Great 410 ; Auguftus 420 fi probably they thinned the 
coafts of Mauritania of thefe animals, but they ftill fwarm in the 
fouthern parts of Guinea. This fpecies, the Leopard, and the Once, 
were obferved by Doclor Spar man &'. remote as the Cape of Good 

In my former edition I ufed fomc arguments in favor of thefe 
animals being alfo natives of South America. I had feen the fkins 
at the furriets (hops, which had been brought from the Brazils: 
but as that country has a great intercourfe with Congo and Angola 

* Shaw's Travels, 244. Des Marehais, i. 204. the laft mifl.ikenly calls them 

f Ptinii lib. viii. c. 17. J Travels, ii. 251. 

Vol. I, O o on 

282 CAT. 

on account of the Slave Trade, I have no doubt but that they 
were brought from thofe kingdoms, and re-exported to Europe. 
The largeft congenerous animal that South America has is the 
Brqfilian, hereafter to be tranfcribed. 

Oppian defcribes two fpecies of Panthers; a large fpecies and 
a fmall one ; the firft of which has a fhorter tail than the lefler, 
and may poffibly be this kind. 

182. Leopard. Uncia. Caii opufc. 42. Gefnir quad. 825. Le Leopard. De Buffon,\x. 15 xiv. 
Le Leopard. De Marchais -voy, i. 202. Scbreber, ci. Lev. Mus. 

Cwith hair of a lively yellow color; marked on the back and 
• fides with fmall fpots, difpofed in circles, and placed 
pretty clofely together : the face and legs marked with fingle 
fpots: the bread and belly covered with longer hairs than the 
reft of the body, of a whitifli color : the fpots on the tail large 
and oblong : the length of this fpecies, from nofe to tail, four 
feet; the tail two and a half. 

Inhabits Senegal and Guinea ; fpares neither man nor beaft : 
when beafts of chace fail, defcends from the internal parts of 
Africa in crowds, and makes great havock among the numerous 
herds that cover the rich meadows of the lower Guinea. It tears 
its prey to pieces with both claws and teeth; is always thin, tho* 
perpetually devouring. The Panther is its enemy, and deftroys 
numbers of them. The Negreffes make collars of their teeth, 
and attribute to them certain virtues. The Negroes take thefe 
animals in pit-falls, covered at the top with flight hurdles, on 




J>JI/lay£B Aui,-' 

. AMaCK '//■;//"/?/. 

C A T. 2S3 

which is placed fome flefh as a bait. The Negroes make a ban- 
quet of thefe animals, whofe flefh is faid to be as white as veal, 
and very well tatted. The fkins are often brought to Europe, and 
reckoned very valuable. 

In AJia it is found in the mountains of Caucafus, from Perfia to 
India ; and aifo in China, where it is called Poupi ; and by the 
Buchanan traders, who often bring their fkins to Ruffia, are ftyled 
Bars. It inhabits alfo Arabia, where it is called Nemr. We are 
informed by Mr. Forjld*, that in that country, as well as in 
Mgypt, it will do no harm to man unlefs provoked ; but will enter 
houfes by night, and deftroy the cats. 

In the Tower of London is a black variety, brought from Bengal Black Variety. 
by IVarren Hajlings, Efq. The color univerfally is a dufky 
black, fprinkled over with fpots of a gloffy black, difpofed in the 
fame forms as thofe of the Leopard : on turning afide the hair, be- 
neath appears a tinge of the natural color. 

This animal is engraven by M. De la Metherief. That gen- 
tleman mentions my quoting the Cougar noire of M. de Buffon as 
a fynonym. I beg leave to rectify his miftake. The black Tiger 
is a diftincl: fpecies, and from a different country, being a native 
of South America. I muft fay befides, that M. de Buffon was totally 
vinacquainted with the animal till I fent to him the drawing from 
which he made the engraving in vol. iii. of his fupplement, 
tab. xlii. notwithftanding he fupprefles the origin. 

• P. V. 

t Obfervations fur la Phyfique, &c. torn, xxxviii Ju'dkt. 1788. p. 4;. 

O o 2 C. with 

284 CAT. 

183. Lesser g^\ with the face fpotted with black : chin white: .1 great black 

Leopard. V^| fp t on each fide of the upper lip: breaft marked with fmall 

fpots: belly white, fpotted with black: back, fides, and rump, 
covered with hair of a bright yellow color: marked with circles 
of fpots, like the former; but the fpots much lefs: not half the 
bulk of the laft; but the tail fhorter in proportion, and tapering 
to a point, and the hair on it fhort. The tails of the two laft 
fpecies are of equal thicknefs from top to bottom. 

Inhabits the Eajl Indies? kept a few years ago in the Tower: 
feemed a good-natured animal. 

184. Hunting. Le Leopard. Voy. de Boullayt-k-goux, Le Gueparp. De Buffon, xiii. 249. 
2 <8. Le Jaguar, ou le Leopard. S;ifpl, 218. 

Felis jubata. Schreber, cv. tab. xxxviii. Lev. Mus. 

Cwith a fmall head : irides pale orange : end of the nofe 
• black : from each corner of the mouth to that of each eye, 
a dulky line: ears fhort, tawny, marked with a brown bar: face, 
chin, and throat, of a pale yellowilh brown : the face fiightly 
fpotted: body of a light tawny brown, marked with numbers of 
fmall round black fpots; not in circles, but each diftinct: the 
fpots on the rim and outfide of the legs were larger : the infide 
of the legs plain : hair on the top of the neck longer than the 
reft: that on the belly white, and very long: tail longer than 
the body; of a reddifh brown color; marked above with large 

black fpots; the hair on the under fide very long. 

3 Size 

IA I. 

.'. /. 

,//'/// /7S//V , 'tVt/tfr/Y/ l./if.f. 

CAT. 285 

Size of a large gre-hound : of a long make : cheft narrow : legs 
very long. 

Inhabits India: is tamed, and trained for the chace of ante- 
lopes: carried in a fmall kind of waggon, chained and hood- 
winked, till it approaches the herd: when firft unchained, does not 
immediately make its attempt, but winds along the ground, flop- 
ping and concealing itfelf till it gets a proper advantage, then 
darts on the animals with furprizing f.viftnefs: overtakes them by 
the rapidity of its bounds : but if it does not fucceed in its firft 
efforts, confifting of five or fix amazing leaps, it miffes its prey : 
lofino- its breath, and finding itfelf unequal in fpeed, ftanils ftili; 
gives up the point for that time*, and readily returns to its matter. 

This fpecies is called in India, Chit tab. It is ufed for the tak- 
ing of jackals, as well as other animals. 

TIa§Jz*i?. Oppian CjMg. Hi. I, 9*$. L'Once. De Buffcn, ix. 1 5 r. tab. xiii. 185. OnCE, 

Panthera? PtaU lib. v.ii c. 17. Schreber, c. 

Cwith a large head : fhort ears : long hair on the whole bo- 
• dv : color a whitilh alh, tinged with yellow ; on the bread 
and belly with a fmaller call of yellow: head marked with fmall 
round fpots: behind each ear a laige black fpot: the upper part 
of the neck varied with large fingle fpots: the fides of the back 
with longitudinal marks, confifting of feveral fpots, almoft touch- 
ing each o:her, leaving the ground color of the body in the mid- 
dle: the fpots beneath thefe irregular, large, and full: thofe on 
the legs fmall, and thinly difperftd: the tail full of hair; irregu- 

* Bern'urs travels, iv. 45. lavirnkrs travels, i. 147. Tbevenot, voy. v. 34. 


2 »6 C A T. 

larly marked with large black fpots. This fpecies is of a ft ong 
mike: long hacked: lliort legged: length, from the nofe to the 
tail, about three feet and a half: tail upwards of three feet. 

Inhabits Barbary*, Pcrfi.i, Hyrcaniaf, and Cbi;ia\; the Bucha- 
nan and Altaic chain, and to the weft of Lake Eaikil: is an ani- 
mal of a more gentle and mild nature than moft of the preced- 
ing; is, like the laft, ufed for the chace of antelopes, and even 
hares; but, inftead of being conveyed in a waggon, is carried on 
the crupper on horfeback: is under as much command as a fet- 
ting-dog; returns at the left call, and jumps up behind its 
matter ||. 

Is fuppofed to be the lefler Panther of Opplan, and the Pan- 
ther a of Pliny §. 

j86. Erasilian. Jagura. Ma^cgrave Brafil. 23 J. Pijb rofam referentibus variegata. BriJJin 

Brajsl. 203. quad. 196. 

Pardus aut Lynx Brajilienfis, Jaguara Felis onca. Felis cauda mediocri, cor- 

didta, Lvfitanis onza. Ran Jyn. quad. pore rlavefcente, ocellis nigris rotun- 

168. Klt'm quad. So. dato angulatis medio flavis. Lin. 

Le Tigre de la Guiane. Des Marcbais, Jyft. 91. 

■voy. iii. 299. Le Jaguar. De Bujfon, ix. 201. tab. 

Tigris Americana. Felis fiavefcens, xviii. Supfl. iii. 218. tab. xxxix. 

maculis nigris orbicularis quibufdam Schrebcr, cii. 


with hair of a bright tawny color: the top of the back tnark- 
• ed with long ftripes of black: the fides with rows of ir- 

* Where it is called Faadb. Shaw's trwv. 245. 
t CbarJin. 

X The fkins are brought from China into RuJJia, and fold for twenty (hillings 
a piece. Muller Samlunge rur Ruffifcben Ge/chicbt. iii. 549, 608. 
f| Olearius's travels into Pcrfia, 21 3. 
4 Pantheris in candido breves macularum ocidi, lib. viii. c. 1 7. 


LY11 . 


J J N\wilX 'iu&t> 

t /> J /■/■'.* 

//?/// •.//,?<■/•_ , /. /s6\ 

CAT. 2 g 7 

regular oblong fpots; open in the middle, which is of the ground- 
color of the hair : the thighs and legs marked with full fpots of 
black: the breaft and belly whitifh: the tail not fo long as the 
body; the upper part deep tawny, marked with large black fpots, 
irregularly; the lower part with fmaller fpots: grows to the fize 
of a wolf, and even larger. 

Inhabits the hotteft parts of S. America, from the ifthmus of 
Darien to Buenos Ayres : fierce and dc-ftruftive to man and beaft. 
Like the tiger, it plunges its head into the body of its prey, and 
fucks out the blood before it devours it: makes a great noife in 
the night, like the howling of a hungry dog: is a very cowardly 
animal: eafily put to flight; either by the fhepherds dogs, or 
by a lighted torch, being very fearful of fire: it lies in ambufh 
near the fides of rivers: there is fometimes feen a fingular com- 
bat between this animal and the crocodile ; when the Jaguar 
comes to drink, the crocodile, ready to furprize any animal that 
approaches, raifes its head out of the water, the former inftantly 
flrikes its claws into the eyes of this dreadful reptile, the only 
penetrable part, who immediately dives under the water, pulling 
his enemy along with it, where they commonly both perifh *. 

Tlacooielotl ; Tlalocelotl. Catul-par- Felis fylveftris, Americanus, Tigrinus. jg, Mexicaw 
dus Mexicanus. Hernandez Mex . 512. Seb. Muf. i. 47. tub. xxx.fg. z, Si 

L'Ocelot. De Buffon, xiii. 239. tab. 77. tab. xlviii.y%. 2. Schreler, ciik 

xxxv. xxxvi. Felis Pardalis. Lin.fyft. 

with its head, back, upper part of the rump, and tail, of a 
i* blight tawny : a black ftripe extends along the top of the 

* Cwdamine's woy. 81. 



back, from head to tail : from the noftrils to the corners of the 
eyes, a ftripe of black: forehead fpotted with black: the fides 
whitifli, marked lengthways with long ftripes of black, hollow 
and tawny in the middle; in which are fprinklcd fome fmall 
black fpots: from the neck towards the fhoulders, point others of 
the fame colors: the rump marked in the fame manner: legs 
whittfh, varied with fmall black fpots: tail fpotted with fmall 
fpots near its bafe-, with larger near the end, which is black: about 
four times the fize of a large cat. 
Place. Inhabits Mexico, the neighborhood of Qirthagena, and Brafil: 

lives in the mountains: is very voracious; but fearful of man- 
kind : preys on young calves*, and different forts of game: lurks 
amidft the leaves of trees; and fometimes will extend itfelf along 
the boughs, as if dead, 'till the monkies, tempted by their natu- 
ral curiofity, approaching to examine it, become its preyf . 

188. Cinereous. *-~<\ f a cinereous color, palefl on the legs and belly: irides ha- 
\-J* zel : tip of the nofe red : ears fliort, and rounded j black 
on the outfide, grey within : from the nofe to the eye, on each 
fide was a black line; above and beneath each eye a white one: 
fides of the mouth white, marked with four rows of fmall black 
fpots: from the hind part of the head, to the back and fhoulders, 
ran fome long, narrow, hollow ftripes : along the top of the back 
two rows of oval black fpots: the marks on the fides long, hol- 
low, and irregular, extending from fhoulders to thighs: thoul- 

* D ampier, "voy. ii. 62. 
f Hernandez, Mex. 514. 



. tucceccvn . ?W/- . I'v- 

C A T. 

ders both barred and fpotted : legs and belly only fpotted: tail 
not fo long as the body ; had large fpots above, fmall be- 

About the fize of the preceding. Inhabits Guinea. 


Cugacuarana. Marcgrave Brafil, 23 j. 

Raii Jyn. quad. 169. 
Cugacuara. Pi/o Brafil. 103. 
Panther. Laiufon Carolina, II 7. Catef- 

by Carolina dpp. 
Tigris fulvus. Barren Fraud ALjuin. 

166. Du Pratz, ii. 63. 

Tigris fulva. Felis ex flavo rufefcen?, 
memo et infimo ventre albicantibuc. 
BriJJbn quad. 197. 

Le Couguar. De Buffan, ix. 216. tab. 
xix. Supfl. iii. 222. 

Felis Concolor. Schreber, civ. Pagi. Mo- 
lina Chili. Z76. 

189. Puma. 

f~> with a very fmall head : ears a little pointed : eyes large : 
*~ / * chin white: back, neck, rump, fides, pale brownifh. red, 
mixed with duflcy hairs: bread, belly, and infide of the legs, 
cinereous, hair on the belly long: tail du/ky, and ferruginous; 
the tip black : the teeth of a vaft fize : claws white : the out- 
moft claw of the fore feet much larger than the others : is long 
bodied, and high on its legs: the length from nofe to tail five 
feet three inches; of the tail two feet eight. 

Inhabits the continent of America, from Canada to Brafil: in 
South America is called Puma *, and miftaken for the lion : is the 
fcourge of the colonies of the hotter parts of America; fierce and 
ravenous to the higheft degree: fwims over the broad rivers, and 
attacks the cattle, even in the inclofures ; and when prefled with 

• Hernandez, Mix. 51S. Cotidamine't -vij. 8 1, 

Vol. L P p 


290 CAT. 

hunger, fpares not even mankind. In N. America their fury 

feems to be fubdued by the rigor of the climate ; the fmalleft 

cur, in company with its matter, makes them feek for fecurity, 

by running up trees: but then they are equally deftrucYive to 

domcttic animals, and are the greateft nuifance the planter has: 

when they lay in wait for the Moofe, or other deer *, they lie 

clofe on the branch of fome tree, 'till the animal pafles beneath, 

when they drop on them, and foon deftroy them: they alfo 

make wolves their prey: that whofe fkin is in the Mufeum of 

the Royal Society, was killed juft as it had pulled down a wolf. 

Conceal fuch part of the prey which they cannot eat : purr like 

a cat: their fur foft, and of fome value among the Indians, who 

cover themfelves with it during winter: the flefh is alfo eaten, 

and faid to be as good and as white as veal-f. 

390. Jaguar. Jaguarete. Narcgrave Brafil. 235. Pi/o Le Congar noir. De Buffon, Suppl iii. 
BraJiU 103. Raii Jyn, quad. 169, 223. tab. xlii. 

Once. Det Marchais, iii. 300. 

*~* with the head, back, fides, fore part of the legs, and the 
^** rail, covered with Ihort and very glofly hairs, of a dufky- 

* Cbarhi-oix'voy. Nauv. France, v. 1S9, who, by miftake, calls it Carcajou. 

f Mr. Dupont once (hewed me, fome years ago, the tail of an animal from 
fouth America, three quarters of a yard long, covered with fhort, white, glofly 
hair : a piece of the (kin of the back was left to it, on which were black hairs 
near eight inches long. I mention it here, as belonging to fome plain-colored 
bead of this genus; perhaps the Tzoxyzlac feu quadrupes capillorum candentium, 
brcvibui cruribus, coUre afro, manibus pedibufque et corporis magniludine 'Tigris; 
ac prolixin cauda. Hernandez qur.d. nov. Hifp. 3. 



J i //. 

's/s//ur /■ en 

- AJU/rft ,y^^/v_- f./Ot 



color; fometimes fpotted* with black, but generally plain : up- 
per lips white: at the corner of the mouth a black fpotf; long 
hairs above each eye, and long whiikers on the upper lip : lower 
lip, throat, belly, and the infide of the legs, whitifh, or very 
pale afli-color : paws white : ears pointed. Grows to the fize of 
a heifer of a year old: has vaft ftrength in its limbs. 

Inhabits Brafil and Guiana: is a cruel and fierce bead; much 
dreaded by the Indians; but happily is a fcarce fpecies. 

f^ with fhort hair, of a bright ferruginous color: the face 191. Cape. 

^- > * marked with black ftripes, tending downwards: from the 

hind part of the head to the tail, the back is marked with oblong 

ftripes of black: the fides with very numerous fmall and round 

fpots of black: belly white: tail long, of a bright tawny-color, 

annulated with black: ears long, narrow, pointed, and very erect: 

length from the nofe to the tail near three feet. 

Defcribed from a fkin in a furrier's (hop in London. Inhabits 
the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope, and as high north as 
Coup. Inhabits the woods, and is very defiructive to lambs, 
young antelopes, and all the leffer animals: is well defcribed and 
figured by Doctor Forjler, in Phil. Tranf. lxxi. p. i. tab. i. The 

* For which reafon M. d; B-'Jix fufpefts it to be only a variety of No. 1 86 ; 
but fince M. des Marcbais, who defcribes it very exactly, makes no meniion of 
its being fpotted, nor had the two which we/e (hewn in London fome years ao-o 
any fpots on them ; it is very probable, then, that the Jaguarete, defcribed by 
Marcgra<ve, was a variety of this fpecies, and not of his Jaguara, as it agrees 
with it in the ground color, and in its fuperior f:ze. 

| On the chin of one of thofe above-mentioned was a round black foot. 

P p 2 fpecunen 




fpecimen he made his defcription from was only eighteen inches 
long. Mine might have been from a diftended fkin, or his from a 
young animal. Mr. Afiller, in his plates, tab. xxxix. alfo gives a. 
good figure of this animal. 

192. Catenne. Maraguao. Brofil. 233. 

Felis fera tigrina. Barren France JE- 

quin. 152. 
Tepe Maxlaton. Hernand. AW. Hi /p. 

9. <-. 28. 
Le Pichou, Cat-a-mount. Du Praia 
Lauijia/i. ii. 64. 

Felis fylveflris tigrina. F. ex grifeo 

flavefcens, maculis nigris variegata. 

BriJJcm quad. 193. 
Le Margay. De Eufion, xiii. 248. tab. 

xxxvii. Su/fkm. iii. 226. Scbreber,. 



with the upper part of the head, the neck, back, fides, 
• fhoulders, and thighs, of a bright tawny-color: the face 
ftriped downwards with black : the fhoulders and body marked 
with ftripes, and oblong large black fpots: the legs with fmall 
fpots: the breaft, and infide of the legs and thighs whitifh, fpot- 
ted with black : the tail very long, marked with black, tawny, 
and grey : fize of a common cat. 

Inhabits S. America, and perhaps Lotiifiana*; lives on the fea- 
thered game, and on poultry : is untameable : makes a noife 
like the common cat: lives much in trees: is very a&ive ; goes 
by bounds or leaps : brings forth in all feafons of the year, in 
hollow trees, and has two at a time. 

193. Bengal. f** V1 '^ a white whifkers: large ears; duiky, with a white fpot in 
^^* the middle of the outfide : between each eye and the 
nofe a white line, and beneath each eye another. 

Bo/fa's trav. i. 94. 359. 



2 93 

Color of the head, upper jaw, and fides of the neck, back, and 
fides, a beautiful pale yellowifh brown: the head and face ftriped 
downwards with black : along the back are three rows of fhort 
ftripes of the fame color, pointing towards the tail: behind each 
fhoulder, to the belly, is a black line : chin and throat white,, 
furrounded with a femicircle of black : breaft, belly, and infide 
of the limbs, white; the fpots on thofe parts, the legs, and rump,, 
round : tail long, full of hair, brown and annulated with black. 

Rather lefs than a common cat, and more elegantly made. 

Mr. Lee of Hammer/with, in whofe poffefllon the remains of Place. 
this animal are, allured me that it fwam on board a (hip at an- 
chor off the coaft of Bengal; that after it was brought to Eng- 
land, it coupled with the female cats, which twice produced 
young:. I faw one of the offspring, which was marked in the 
feme manner as the male parent ; but the ground-color was 
cinereous. It had as little fear of water as its fire; for it would Manners. 
plunge into a veffel of water near two feet deep, and bring up the 
bit of meat flung in by way of trial. It was a far better moufer 
than the tame cat; and in a little time cleared Mr. Lee's maga- 
zine of feeds of the fwarms of rats, which, in fpite of the do- 
meftic breed of cats, had for a long time made moft horrible ra- 
vages among his boxes. 

Thefe fmall fpotted fpecies are called by the general name of 
tiger cats: feveral kinds are found in the Eaji- Indies*, and in 
the woods near the Cape of Good Hope; but lb negligently, or fo 
unfcientifically mentioned, as to render it impoffible for a zoo- 
log-ift to form a defcription from them: yet a good hiftory of 

• Dillons toy, 77. 


294 CAT. 

thcfe animals being among the many defiderata of the naturalift; 
the following maim accounts may ferve to direcl: the enquiries of 
future voyagers. Kolben* mentions two kinds; one he calls 

The Wild red cat, which has aftreak of bright red running 
along the ridge of the back to the tail, and lofing itfelf in the 
grey and white on the fides: the fkins are faid to give eafe in the 
gout, and are much valued on that account at the Cape. The 
other he calls 

The Bush cat; of which he fays no more, than that it is the 
largefl: of wild cats in the Cape countries : perhaps my Cape cat. 

The Sac a is an obfcure fpecies of wild cat, mentioned by Fla- 
coiirt-f to be found in Madagajcar. He fays they are very beau- 
tiful, and that they couple with the tame cats. The tails of the 
domeftic kind in that ifland are for the mod part turned up. 

IQ4. Manul. Vt\\% Manul. Pallas Itin. iii. App. 692. 

f"** with a large head : color univerfally tawny, mixed with 
V-*« a few white and brown hairs; crown of the head fpeckled 
with black : the cheeks marked with two dufky lines, running 
obliquely from the eyes: the feet ftiiped obfcurely with dark 
lines : the tail longer than that of the domeftic cat, befet thickly 
with hair, and of an equal thicknefs in all parts; encircled with 
ten black rings, the three next to the tip almoft touching one 
another, the reft more remote. 

Size of a fox : the limbs very robuft; in that and color greatly 
refembles a lynx. 

• HiJI.Cape,\\. 126. t Hifi,MaJag. 15:. 


CAT, 295 

Inhabits all the middle part of northern Jfia, from the Tail; 
or Ural, as it is now called, to the very Amur. Loves open, 
woodlefs, and rocky countries, and preys on the lefTer quadru- 
peds. Is chiefly converfant about N, Lat. 52. : for want of other 
retreats, it will occupy the holes of the fox or of the Bobak, The 
Ruffians call it Stepnaja Kofchka, or the cat of the defert. 

(Wild Cat.) Catus fylveftris. Bourn- cauda annulis alternatim nigrisetex jnr. Common. 

riitter. Gefner quad. 3 2 j. fordide albo fiavicantibus cindta. 

Catus fylveftris, ferus vel feralis, eques Briffon quad, igz. 

arborum. Klein quad. 75. Kot Driki, Zbik. Rzaczinjit. Polon. 

Wilde Katze. Kram Aufir. 311. 217. Scbreber, cvii. A. cvii. B. 

Felis fylveftrL. F. pilis ex fufco, flavi- Le chat, fauvage. De Buffon, vi. I. tab. i. 

cante, et albido, variegads veftita, Br. Zoo/, i. 67. Lev. Mus. 

/"* with long foft hair, of a yellowifh white color, mixed with 
V>"« grey; the grey difpofed in ftreaks, pointing downwards, 
rifing from a dufky lift, that runs from the head to tail, along the 
middle of the back : tail marked with alternate bars of black 
and white, its tip black: hind part of the legs black: three times 
as large as the common cat; and very ftrongly made. 

Inhabits the woods of mod parts of Europe; but none are 
found in the vaft woods of RuJJla or Siberia: dwells with the 
common Lynx in all the wooded parts of the mountains of Can- 
cafus, and their neighborhood: mod deftruccive to lambs, kids, 
and fawns ; and to all forts of feathered game. The ftock, or ori- 
gin of the domestic cat *, which is fubjeift to many varieties. 

* Felis Catus. T. cauda ehngata fufco annulata, corf ore fafciis nigricantibits ; 
dorfalibus longitudinahhus tiilms; latcralibus fpiralibus. Lin. fyft. 62. Faun, 
fuec, N° 9. Br. Zrol. i. 69. De Euffon, vi. tab. ii. ErLTon quad. 191. 

c Doflor 

296 CAT. 

Dotftor Sparwan, p. 14^, informs us that he fhot a wild cat near 
the hot baths at the Cape, which was of a grey color, and three 
times the weight of the tame fort. Its length was twenty-one 
inches: of the tail thirteen. It was exactly the fame as the do- 
meftic kind ; poffibly of the fame extraction. 

&. Angora Cat. Sihreber, cvii. B. With long hair; of a fii- 
very whitenefs, and filky texture; very long, efpecially about 
the neck, where it forms a fine ruff: the hairs on the tail very 
long, and fpreading: is a large variety: found about Angora; 
the fame country which produces the fine-haired goat, p. 62. 
Degenerates after the firft generation, in our climate. A va- 
riety of this kind is found in China, with pendent ears, of 
which the Chinefe are very fond, and ornament their necks with 
JGlver collars. They are cruel enemies to rats. Perhaps the 
<lomeftic animals which the Chinefe call Snmxi *. 

fi Tortoise-shell Cat : black, white, and orange. Le chat 
d'Efpagne. De Buffon, vi. tab. iii. 

y Blue Cat. Le chat des chartreux. De Buffon, vi. tab. iv. 

This variety is properly of a dun color, or greyifh black. It 
is much cultivated in Siberia, on account of its fine fur ; but 
was brought there, as well as the other domeftic kinds, by the 

$ The long-headed cat with a fharp nofe, from New Spain, of 
' * De Buffon, Supplem. iii. 1 1 6. 


I. !\ . 


~~~~J 5 MK> f Trj«& 


. \°nj6 


the fize of a common cat: fhort legs: weak claws: round 
and flat ears, and of a reddifh yellow color; and of a tame 
nature — is another animal little known*. 

The cat, a ufeful, but deceitful domeftic : when pleafed, purrs, 
and moves its tail: when angry, fpits, hifles, ftrikes with its foot: 
in walking, draws in its claws: drinks little: is fond of fifh: the 
female very falacious; a piteous, jarring, fqualling lover : its urine 
corrofive: buries its dung: the natural enemy of mice; watches 
them with great gravity; does not always reject vegetables: 
waflies its face with its fore feet, Linnaws fays, at the approach of 
a ftorm ; fees by night: its eyes fhine in the dark: its hair emits 
fire, when rubbed in the dark: always lights on its feet: pro- 
verbially tenacious of life: very cleanly; hates wet: is fond of 
perfumes; marum, valerian, catmint. The unaccountable antipa- 
thy of multitudes ! beloved by the Mahometans: Martlet, who 
fays that the cats of JEgypt are very beautiful, adds, that the in- 
habitants build hofpitals for them-j-. 

Chat fauvage Indien. Vo/maer. . r t 

& * 196. Japan. 

f> with upright pointed ears: color of the face and lower part 
^** of the neck whitifh: breaft and lower belly a clear grey : 
body, part yellow and clear grey, mixed with black difpofed in 
tranfverfe rays. Along the back, quite to the tail, is a broad band 
of black : it alfo extends over the upper part of the tail ; the 
lower part femi-annulated with black and grey. 

• Set. Muf. i. 76. tab. xlvii. fig. i. t Voy. iTEgypt. 30. 

Vol. I. Q_q Size 


298 CAT. 

Size. Size of a common cat : tail ten inches and a half long: is faid 

to be of gentle manners. Its cry is the mewing of a great cat. 
By Mr. Vofmaer's epithet it feems a native of Japan. 

197. Biotchib. Blotched weefel. Bifi. quad. ed. i. N° 222. Viverra tigrina. Schreber, tab. cxv, 
Chat-Bizaim. Vafmatr. 


with a round head : fliort nofe : pointed ears : white whif- 
'• kers: yellowifh white nofe and cheeks; a round black fpot 
on each fide of the former: a dufky line down the middle of the 
forehead: back and outfide of the limbs a reddifh brown : fide3 
and thighs yellowifh white, blotched with deep brown : tail as long 
as the body; of a reddifh brown color; marked fpirally near the 
end with black. Size of a cat. 
Manners. On re-confideration of this animal, I am induced, not only by 

its form, but alfo its manners, to transfer it to this genus. It purrs 
and murmurs like a cat: its manners are alfo treacherous; but 
its appearance in general gentle. 
Place, It inhabits the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope, and is 

much fought after for its fkin. Kolben fays it fcents of mufk, and 
that it is called the Biguam cat. He gives a figure of it, which, 
like all his others, is very bad. It is of the fize of our tame 




Felis Guigna. Mtlina Chili. 275. l9 8. Guigna. 

/*"* of a tawny color, marked with round black fpots, five lines 
K ~ / * in diameter, extending along the back to the tail: fize of the 
common cat. 

Inhabits Chili, and inhabits the forefts. 

Felis Colorolla, Molina Chili. 27 c. ..„ ,-, 

/J 199. COLOROLO. 

/~** of a white color, marked with irregular fpots of black and 
^^' yellow: the tail encircled with black quite to the poinc. 

This, like the other, inhabits the forefts of Chili: lives on birds 
and mice; and fometimes infefts the poultry yards. A character of 
thefe two fpecies is the having the head and tail larger in propor- 
tion than the common cat. 

Le chat fauvage de la Nouvelle Efpagne. De Buffon, Supplem. iii. 227. 2 oo. Nsw Spain. 

tab. xliii. 

f^i with fmall eyes : tail the fliorteft, in proportion, of any of 

^— '* this divifion of the genus: color of a cinereous blue, mark- 
ed with very ftiort ftreaks of black: hairs ftrong enough to 
make pencils with firm points. 

Length four feetj height three. 

Inhabits Nezv Spain. Defcribed by M. de Buffon from a draw- 

CLq 2 ing. 

300 CAT. 

ing. He fuppofes it to be the fame with N° 202, the Serval; but it 
is nearly double the fize. The fpots in this are long, in the other 
round; and if we may credit the drawing, the legs in this are 
plain, in the Serval fpotted. 

The Tepe Maxtlaton of Hifpaniola, defcribed by Seba, i. 77. tab* 
xlviii. fig. 2. may be referred to this fpecies. 

** With fhort tails, 



toi; Mountain. Le Chat-pard. Memoires pour fervir a pore aiaculis fuperioribus virgatlj, 

Vhift. Nat. An. part. i. no. inferioribus orbicularis. Lin.fyjl, 62. 

Catus Pardus five Catus Montanus BriJ/bn quad. 199. 

Americanarum. The Cat a mountain. Chat fauvage de la Caroline. De Buf- 

Raii fyn. quad. 169. fon, Supplem. iii. 226. Lev. Mus. 

Felis Pardalis. F. Cauda elongata, cor- 

S~*t with upright pointed ears, marked with two brown tranf- 
^- >l * verfe bars: color of the head, and whole upper part of the 
body, reddifh brown, marked with long narrow ftripes on the 
back; and with numerous round fmall fpots on the legs and 
fides: the belly whitifh: the chin and throat of a pure white : the 
tail barred with black : the length of this animal two feet and a 
half; that of the tail eight inches. 

Inhabits North America: grows very fat: is a mild and gentle 
animal. The guaubpecotli* of Mexico agrees in nature with this: 
is of a brown or dufky color, darkeft about the back, and gloffy : 

• Hernandez An. Mex. 6. Seb. Muf. i. 68. tab. xki.Jig. 2. 


CAT. 3 oi 

feet black : on the belly the hair is long and white : difagrees 
with the former in the tail, which is thick and long. 

Le Serval. De Buffm, xiii, 233. tab. xxxiv. Scbreber, cviii. 202. Sbrval. 

TTNlFFERS from the preceding in thefe particulars : the or- 
"■-^ bits are white : the fpots on the body univerfally round : in 
its nature very fierce, and untameable : inhabits the woods in the 
mountanous parts of India: lives in trees, and fcarcely ever de- 
fcends on the ground, for it breeds in them : leaps with great 
agility from tree to tree: called by the natives of Malabar, the 
Marapute; by the Portuguefe, the Serval*. 

Chaus. Plinii lib. viii. c. 19. Lupus Lux. Kramer Aujir. 311, Ridingtr 2 o*. Lynx. 

cervarius, c. 22. Wilden There, 22. Klein There, 65. 

Afy|. jElian. lib. xiv. e. 6. Oppian &c. 

Cyneg iii. 84. Felis Lynx. F. cauda abbreviata; apice 
Lupus cervarius, Lynx, Chaus. Gefner atra, auriculis apice barbatis. Lin. 

quad. (ryy. 678. fyft. 62. 

Lynx five Leuncia. Caii opufc. 50. Fa- Warglo, Kattlo. Faztn.fuec. N° 10, 11. 

bri Exp. An. No-v. Hi/p. 517. Lynx. Felis auriculorum apicibus pilis 
Lynx, Catus cervarius, Axglice, the longiflimis praditis, cauda brevi. 

Ounce. Raii fyn. quad. 166. Tourne- Brffon quad. 200. Catus cervarius, 

fort's •voy. \to. i. 360. '99- 

Rys, Oflrowidz. Rzaczinjki Folon. 222. Le Lynx, ou Loup-Cervier. De Buffon, 

Srcheber, cix. ix. 231. tab. xxi. Lev. M us. 

/"> with a fhort tail, black at its end : eyes of a pale yellow : 
^- > * hair under the chin long and full: hair on the body long 
and foft, of a cinereous color, tinged with red, marked with 
dufky fpots, more or lefs diftincl: in different fubjedls; in fome 
fcarcely vifible: belly whitifh : ears erect, tufted with long black 
hairs, the character of the different fpecies of Lynxes: legs and 

• De Buffon. 

8 feet 

3<D2 CAT. 

feet very thick and ftrong: the length of the fkia 
lynx, from nofe to tail, was four feet fix inches ; the tail only fix: 
vary fometimes in their color: the Irbys, from lake ■*, 

or the Kattlo of the Swedes, is whitifn, fpotted wit! ck, and 
larger than the common kind; this large variety is c. by the 

Germans, Wolf- Lucks, and Kalb-Lucks, on account of its -i ?.e. In 
the British Museum are two moft beautiful fpecinu. faid to 
have been brought from Spain. 

Perhaps it was a variety of this which Doctor Pallas informed 
me was killed in the pine woods, on the banks of the Volga, be- 
low Cafan. It was of an uniform whitifh yellow above, and unfpot- 
ted; beneath white: the ears tipped with black. That might alfo 
be the variety feen by Doctor Forjler, in the Emprefs's menagery 
at Peter/burgh, brought from the kingdom of Tibet. With duflcy 
fpots on a yellowifh white ground ; and of a fierce and piercing 

Inhabits the vaft forefts of the north of Europe, Afia, and 
Americaf, not India, though poets have harnefled them to the 
chariot of Bacchus, in his conqueft of that country : brings two or 
three young at a time: is long-lived: climbs trees: lies in wait 
for the deer, which pafs under; falls on them, and feizing on the 
jugular vein, foon makes them its prey: will not attack man- 
kind; but is very deftructive to the reft of the animal creation. 
The furs of thefe animals are valuable for their foftnefs and 
warmth : numbers are annually imported from North America, 
and the north of Europe and Afia ; the farther North and Eafi they 

* Situated weft of the river Irtyfh. 
t WildCat. Laivfon Carolina, 118. Calejly App. xxv. Found as far fouth as 
Mixico, the Pinuum Dafypm oi NieremLrg, 153. 





6/J. «■ 

9,04 . 

CAT. 303 

are taken, the whiter they are, and the more diftinct the fpots ; 
of thefe the moft elegant kind is called Irbys, taken near lake 
Balckafi, whofe fkin fells on the fpot for one pound fierlmg*. 

The antients celebrated the great quicknefs of its fight; and 
feigned that its urine was converted into a precious ftone-f. 

Villa racemifcro Lyncas dedit In di a Bacclo: 
E quibus (ut memorant) quicquid <vefica remijit, 
Vertiturin Lapides, et corgelat Aire talio. Ovid. Met. xv. 413, 

India when conquer'd, on the conquering god, 

For planted vines, the fliarp-ey'd Lynx beftow'd, ^ 

Whofe urine, Ihed before it touches earth, 

Congeals in air, and gives to gems their birth* Dryden. 

/^ with a fhort tail; irides yellow: ears upright, and (harp- 204. Bay L. 

^* # pointed, tufted with long black hairs: color of the head, 

back, fides, and exterior parts of the legs, bright bay, obfcurely 

marked with dufky fpots: down the face marked with black 

ftripes, pointing to the nofe: each fide the upper lip three rows 

of minute black fpots, with long ftiff hairs iffuing out of them : 

orbits edged with white : from beneath each eye certain long 

black ftripes, of an incurvated form, mark the cheeks j which, 

with the upper and under lip, whole under fide of the body, 

and infides of the legs, are white: the upper part of the infide of 

the fore legs marked with two black bars: upper part of the tail 

barred with dufky ftrokes; and next the end, one of a deep black; 

* Ritcbhofs Qrenb. Topog. i. 296. f Flinii lib. viii. c. 38. xxviii. c. 8. 


304 C A T. 

its tip and under fide white. About twice the bignefs of a large 
cat : the hair fhorter and fmoother than that of the laft. 
Inhabits the inner parts of the province of New York. 

20C. Caspian L Cbaus animal feli affine. Nov. Com. Petiop. xx. 483. tab. xiv. 

with a round head, a little more oblong than that of the com- 
•*-'• mon cat: fhining reftlcfs eyes, with a moft brilliant golden 
pupil: nofe oblong: the upper lip bifid: whifkers fcarcely two 
inches long: ears erect, oval, and lined with white hairs ; their 
outfide reddifli; their fummits tufted with black. 

Hairs coarfer than thofe of the cat or common Lynx, but lefs 
fo than thofe of the wolf: fhorteft on the head; on the top of the 
back above two inches long: the color of the head and body a 
yellowifh brown, or dufky: the breaft and belly of a bright 
brown, nearly orange: in the infide of the legs, near the bend- 
ing of the knee, are two tranfverfe obfcure dulky bars: the feet 
like that of a cat, cloathed with hair, black below. 

The tail reaches only to the flexure of the leg, is thick and 
cylindric, of the fame color with the back, tipped with black, 
and thrice obfcurely annulated with black near the end. 

In general appearance it has the form of the domeftic cat: its 
length is two feet fix from the nofe to the bafe of the tail: its 
tail little more than eleven inches: its height before nineteen 
inches ; behind twenty. It is fometimes found larger, there be- 
ing inftances of its reaching the length of three feet from the 
nofe to the tail. 


l\. a: 







We are indebted to Mr. Gueldenjlaedt , who very ably fills one Place. 

of the profeffor's chairs in the academy at Pelerfburgh, for the dif- 
covery of this animal. It inhabits the reeds and woods in the 
marfhy parts that border on the weftern fides of the Cafpim fea, 
particularly about the caftle KiJIar, on the river Terek, and in the 
I'erfiun provinces of Ghilan and Mafenderan, and frequent about 
the mouth of the Kur, the antient Cyrus. 

In manners, voice, and food, it agrees with the wild cat. Con- Manners. 
ceals itfelf in the day, and wanders over the flooded tradls in 
fcarch of prey : feeds on rats, mice, and birds, but fcldom climbs 
trees : is exceffively fierce, and never frequents the haunts ot 
mankind: is fo impatient of captivity, that one which was taken 
in a trap, and had one leg broken, refufed for many days the food 
placed by it; but in its rage devoured the fractured limb, with, 
pieces of the (lake it was fatlened to ; and broke all its teeth in 
the phrenzy of its rage. 

Siyah-Ghufh, or Black-ear. CbarktonEx. xiv. 

21. tjb.-pag, 25. Rati fin. quad. 168. Le Caracal. DeBuJln,'\x.zGl.tu!>.r.ylw ,, 

Pb Traif. vol. li. part ii. 648. tab. $ebreber,at. Lev. Mrs. 2 ° 7 ' trt&stAt: ' 

f* with a lengthened face, and fmall head: very long;, flender, 
^-^ 9 black ears, terminated with a long tuft of black hairs: 
infide and bottom of the ears white: nofe white: eyes fmall: 
the upper part of the body is of a very pale reddifh brown: the 
tail rather darker: belly and breaft whitifli : limbs ftrong, and 
pretty long: the hind part of each marked with black: tail 
about half the length of the body. 

Inhabit Pcrjta, India, and Barbary* : are often brought up 

* Shaw's travels, 247. The mouth of the Earbary variety is black, and the 
fact fuller. 

Vol. I. R r tame, 



tame, and ofed in the chace of lefler quadrupeds, and the larger 
fort of birds, fuch as cranes, pelicans, peacocks, &c. which they 
iurprife with great addrefs: when they feize their prey, hold it 
faft with their mouth, and lie for a time motionlefs on it : are faid 
to attend the lion, and to feed on the remains of the prey which 
that animal leaves*: are fierce when provoked: Dr. Cbarleton 
fays, he faw one fall on a hound, which it killed and tore to 
pieces in a moment, notwithstanding the dog defended itfelf to 
the utmoft. 

The Arabian writers call it Anak el Ard: fay that it hunts like 
the panther; jumps up at cranes as they fly; and covers its fteps 
when hunting f. 

jS. Libyan. jO with fhort black tufts to the ears, which are white 

^~ J * within-, of a lively red without: tail white at the tip, 
annulated with four black rings, with the fame black marks be- 
hind the four legs. 

Greatly inferior in fize to the former; not larger than a com- 
mon cat. Inhabits both Libya and Barbary \ . 

* Voy. de Tbt-voiot, iii. 204. The Arabs, according to Tbevwot, call it 
Kura-Co'.Jac, or Black-ear. 

-}• Dr. Thomas Hyde, in TJlugb Beigb, tab. p. 36. The figure is from an origi- 
nal drawing by Mr. Edwards. 

\ DeBuffon, Supplem. iii. 232. from Mr. Bruce